Optimal heating options for a cottage and a private house


The Russian climate is such that the owners of country houses definitely need to take care of a reliable and efficient heating system, otherwise you won’t even have to talk about any comfort of living. In most situations, we are talking about the organization of an autonomous system, the ability to connect to a centralized highway outside the city limits is extremely rare. Consider various options for heating a private house, fortunately, there are a huge number of them on the market.

boiler in a private house

General rules

The experience of modern builders clearly indicates that when determining the optimal scheme, a number of points must be taken into account:

  • Availability of fuel in your particular region;
  • Financial possibilities of the family, how much are you really willing to spend on heating during the cold season;
  • The climate of the area, the approximate number of sunny and cloudy days, prevailing wind directions, average temperatures;
  • Structural features: orientation to the cardinal points, the number of rooms with direct windows to the sunny side, the quality of thermal insulation.

Professionals unequivocally recommend that you first take care of the energy efficiency of the building. Wall insulation with modern materials (stone wool or panels based on synthetic materials), careful sealing of joints, sealing cracks — all this will help reduce heat loss. Such preliminary preparation of the building ensures that the efficiency of the selected heating scheme will increase many times without unnecessary financial investments, the object will be able to maintain the internal temperature, regardless of what happens outside.

Heating scheme option

heating scheme

The most affordable fuel in Russia is gas, and therefore it is this type of heating that is used most often. If it is possible to connect the house to the highway, then other options may not be considered. However, even if there is no main pipeline nearby, but there are funds for equipping your own gas tank, it is worth dwelling on this method. If we combine the advantages of a gas heating system, the list looks like this:

  • Minimum operating costs, low cost per cubic meter of fuel.
  • The absence of harmful exhaust, the gas combustion process does not provoke the release of harmful elements and combustion products, due to which the ideal ecological situation is maintained on the site, the possibility of pollution of water bodies and soil is excluded.
  • Compactness. Even a small gas boiler is characterized by a power sufficient to heat a two-story cottage.
  • Safety. Despite the rather “explosive” reputation of gas, modern heating systems based on it are as safe as possible, since all operating parameters are controlled by numerous sensors and mechanisms. Of course, for greater confidence in this, it is worth entrusting the installation to a team of professionals.

Of the minuses of such heating for a private house, one can single out the high cost of installation (nevertheless, the initial investment will fully pay off during operation), as well as the need to obtain numerous permits from regulatory authorities.

classic oven

Unfortunately, in some regions, gas fuel is difficult to obtain. In this case, you can go the traditional way — purchase a classic oven. Please note that these devices will help not only in heating the home, but also in cooking. Other benefits are as follows:

  • Minimal costs in terms of both construction and operation;
  • Increasing the overall level of comfort at home;
  • Original addition to interior design.

However, this solution also has a lot of disadvantages. This should include a rather difficult operational process (the need to regularly heat and periodically clean chimneys), and an increased risk of fire, and bulkiness, the stove is unlikely to be built in a building of a small area.

solid fuel

Classic solid fuel stove

Solid fuel boilers for home heating involve the use of coal and firewood, the combustion of which helps to heat the coolant (water) to the desired temperature. In the future, this coolant enters the pipes and radiators of the system.

The most advanced modifications of these devices are gas generator models, but, by the way, classical analogues also demonstrate good performance. The use of devices is quite safe and effective, but, as in the case of stoves, it requires regular loading of new portions of fuel, cleaning the chamber from ash and other combustion products.

Liquid fuel systems

In most cases, this scheme involves the use of traditional diesel fuel, however, some models of boilers operate by burning kerosene. Before you purchase such equipment, you should pay attention to some of its features:

  • Liquid fuels can be quite expensive, depending on the region, making operation expensive;
  • It is difficult to deliver the required volumes of fuel, and you will also have to think about equipping a special tank or equipping a separate room for storing supplies in canisters;
  • A diesel boiler is not the best choice in terms of environmental safety, the volume of harmful atmospheric emissions is significant;
  • To guarantee the safety of use, you should entrust the installation to a team of professionals, as well as take care of the additional installation of protective automation.

Nevertheless, such a heating boiler is characterized by high efficiency, and therefore will satisfy even the needs of a large cottage. In practice, it was found that a model with a power of 10 kW is able to cope with the heating of an area of ​​100 squares, even with not the best thermal insulation.


electric oven

Electric boilers are versatile and functional, suitable for operation both as the main source of energy and as a reserve. However, experts believe that the backup function is the best option, since the cost of electricity is quite high. Among the advantages of the solution, it is worth noting the following:

  • Safety and environmental friendliness, there is no need to equip a separate room for a boiler room, it is assumed that the boiler can be placed directly in the living rooms;
  • Compactness and minimum weight;
  • Ease of installation, no need to obtain specialized permits, just make sure that home wiring can handle the increased load;
  • Easy and absolutely safe operation.

It is worth paying attention to the fact that electric boilers are very different from each other in price. The choice is based on personal requirements. An expensive model is not necessarily more powerful than a budget counterpart, in most cases, the difference determines the operational convenience, including the presence of various automated functions, automatic maintenance of the temperature chosen by the owners.

Alternative Methods

solar home heating

There are two alternative options for heating a country house:

  • Solar collector. A special panel that accumulates the heat of the sun, using it to further heat the coolant. Systems are extremely dependent on weather conditions, they are most effective in regions in which the number of sunny days is maximum. The cost of the panels is high, but it is worth remembering that they do not imply any costs during operation, which fully compensates for the initial investment. It is strongly recommended to entrust the installation to highly qualified specialists, as well as to take care of the preliminary improvement of the thermal insulation of the building.
  • Geothermal heat, the use of hot underground sources, the water from which rises to the pipes with the help of a productive heat pump. This scheme can not be implemented in all regions, it costs quite a lot of money, but pays off in full during operation. Firstly, underground heat does not cost any money, that is, the owners do not spend money on the operation of the system. Secondly, with proper installation, the system is not subjected to stress, it can serve, in fact, forever.


Overview of characteristics of stainless pipes


Stainless steel is a material that is particularly resistant to corrosion. Pipes made from it can last for decades even when exposed to an aggressive environment. In addition, stainless steel products have an attractive appearance. But in order to take full advantage of these advantages, you need to know the types of any stainless pipes, their main dimensions and characteristics.

Stainless steel profiles

Properties of stainless steel pipes

The main requirement for all steel grades in this category is a high content of chromium in it. The minimum content of this metal is regulated at 12%. It creates a special film on the surface of the product that protects the material from external influences. It also contributes to the fact that the medium pumped through the pipeline is also not subject to changes. This is especially important for drinking water and food mains.

Inexpensive steel grades are limited only by the presence of chromium. They differ in plasticity and resistance to deformations. To give special strength and resistance to corrosion, molybdenum, nickel, titanium and other alloying additives are added to the composition.

In addition to chromium, the presence of sulfur and its compounds in steel is also regulated. It is believed that their maximum content should not exceed 0.02%.

The surface of stainless steel profiles can be polished on special machines to a mirror state. This not only gives an attractive appearance, but also creates additional protection against sources of corrosion. Despite the increased price of polished products, they are in demand as a design element.

Classification of stainless steel pipes

According to the shape of the internal section, they distinguish:

  • round,
  • elliptical,
  • square and rectangular.
Possible forms of stainless steel profiles


Corrugated options are considered a separate class. They are characterized by special plasticity and the ability to undergo repeated cycles of compression and tension both in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

With various methods of manufacturing stainless steel, they may differ in the presence or absence of a seam on the finished product. According to this parameter, pipes are distinguished:

  • seamless,
  • straight seam,
  • spiral stitch.

Seamless technology

The production of solid profiles is carried out without the use of welding, by rolling on special blanks. Such products have increased tensile strength and are able to withstand significant loads. Therefore, they are used in pipelines with high pressure or where special reliability is required.

The method of manufacturing without seam formation leads to an increase in the cost of the output product. It is unprofitable to use these products in the domestic sphere.

Production and standard sizes of seamless stainless pipes are regulated by GOST 9940-81 and 9941-81.

Straight seam welding

The blanks for this technology are steel sheets. They are bent on special presses into a circle of the required diameter. The edges of the sheets at the junction are welded together to form a seam running along the entire length.

Stainless pipes with a straight seam

Welding methods can be different, but the main one is electric welding.

The parameters and requirements for the production of straight-seam stainless steel pipes are set out in GOST 11068-81.

Spiral stitch technology

The production is also based on the welding of bent steel sheet. But the joining of the edges does not go in a straight line, but in a spiral covering the entire length.

Spiral Welded Pipe

Such a seam is considered more durable, since it excludes the formation of longitudinal cracks. But its total length is greater than in the straight-line version. This also leads to higher welding costs.

The production of spiral pipes is regulated by GOST 8696-74.

Degree of heating


According to the methods of heat treatment in the manufacture of stainless products, there are:

  • cold worked method. Made without heat. If necessary, heat treatment of the finished product is carried out.
  • Thermally deformed. When forming a profile, the workpiece is subjected to slight heating.
  • Hot-formed. The pipe is formed from steel heated to a red-hot state.

The cold method is more complicated, but gives the finished products greater strength. Therefore, cold-formed pipes are produced with a smaller wall thickness than those made using hot technology.

The differences between the standards governing the production of seamless pipes are precisely in the temperature regime during manufacture. GOST 9940-81 is intended for the hot-worked method, and GOST 9941-81 is for cold and heat-worked production.

Wall thickness

In addition to this value itself, there is an indicator showing the ratio of diameter to wall thickness. The larger it is, the thinner the product is considered. This parameter is denoted SDR.

There are the following categories:

  • especially thin-walled — SDR > 40;
  • thin-walled — SDR = 13 — 40;
  • thick-walled — SDR = 6 — 13;
  • especially thick-walled – SDR < 6.
Thin-walled pipes



Depending on the additional surface treatment after manufacture, three types of pipes are distinguished:

  • Matte. Only bumps and burrs are removed.
  • Sanded. The material is only subjected to initial grinding using fine-grained abrasives.
  • Polished (mirror). Finishing the surface after grinding to the final gloss. There are methods of mechanical, chemical and electrolytic polishing.
Polished stainless surfaces

Applications of stainless pipes

The corrosion resistance of such products determines their use in pumping aggressive media and in particularly critical sections of conventional pipelines. And the lack of contact with the pumped substance allows them to be used in the food industry.

The beautiful appearance of the polished surface is used in the design of residential and industrial premises.

It is possible to create street structures from stainless profiles.

Pedestrian railing made of polished stainless steel

Determining the weight of a running meter


For large batches of pipe products, prices are indicated by weight — per ton. It is more convenient, since the assortment of pipes is reduced. The price of metal of the same quality does not depend on the diameter and wall thickness. Only in retail trade and for household purposes, the cost is calculated based on the length in meters.

To recalculate prices, you need to know the weight of 1 linear meter of pipe with the required characteristics. Required data for calculations:

  • material density,
  • diameter (and for rectangular sections — length and width)
  • wall thickness.

For plumbing products, the diameter is often indicated in inches. The correspondence is something like this:

  • 1/2 inch = 15mm
  • 3/4 = 20 mm
  • 1 inch = 25mm

The specific densities of the most common steel grades are shown in the table in the figure:

Density table

It turns out that the difference between the minimum and maximum values ​​does not exceed 3%. Therefore, an accurate density value is only required when calculating large batches. For normal calculations, it is enough to substitute the average number — 7850 kg / m3.

The weight of a linear meter of a stainless pipe of circular cross section is calculated by the formula Р= S*h*T, where:

  • S — surface area \u003d 3.142 * outer diameter of the pipe;
  • h is the wall thickness;
  • T is the specific gravity.

The weight of 1 meter of rectangular and square profiles is even easier to determine. The perimeter of the section (twice the sum of the width and height) is multiplied by the wall thickness and by the specific gravity.

Diameters and walls of stainless pipes size chart. Part 1.

D, mm Wall thickness, mm
1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 four 5 6 7 eight 9 ten
Weight of 1 linear meter, kg
fifteen 0.55 0.74 0.92 1.11
twenty 0.74 0.99 1.23 1.48 1.73 1.97
25 1.23 1.54 1.85 2.16 2.47 3.08 3.70
32 1.58 1.97 2.37 2.76 3.16 3.95 4.74
38 1.87 2.34 2.81 3.28 3.75 4.69 5.62 6.56 7.50 8.44 9.37
45 2.77 3.33 3.88 4.44 5.55 6.66 7.77 8.88 9.99 11.10
fifty 3.08 3.70 4.32 4.93 6.17 7.40 8.63 9.87 11.10 12.33
57 4.22 4.92 5.62 7.03 8.44 9.84 11.25 12.65 14.06
60 4.44 5.18 5.92 7.40 8.88 10.36 11.84 13.32 14.80
68 5.03 5.87 6.71 8.39 10.06 11.74 13.42 15.09 16.77
76 5.62 6.56 7.50 9.37 11.25 13.12 15.00 16.87 18.75
83 6.14 7.17 8.19 10.24 12.28 14.33 16.38 18.42 20.47
89 6.59 7.68 8.78 10.98 13.17 15.37 17.56 19.76 21.95

Table. Part 2


6 7 eight 9 ten eleven 12 fourteen 16 eighteen twenty 22
102 15.09 17.61 20.13 22.64 25.16 27.67 30.19 35.22 40.25 45.28
108 15.98 18.65 21.31 23.97 26.64 29.30 31.97 37.29 42.62 47.95
114 16.87 19.68 22.49 25.31 28.12 30.93 33.74 39.36 44.99 50.61 56.24 61.86
121 17.91 20.89 23.88 26.86 29.84 32.83 35.81 41.78 47.75 53.72 59.69 65.66
133 19.68 22.96 26.24 29.52 32.80 36.08 39.36 45.93 52.49 59.05 65.61 72.17
145 25.03 28.61 32.19 35.76 39.34 42.92 50.07 57.22 64.37 71.53 78.68
159 31.37 35.30 39.22 43.14 47.06 54.90 62.75 70.59 78.43 86.28
168 33.15 37.29 41.44 45.58 49.72 58.01 66.30 74.59 82.87 91.16
180 39.96 44.40 48.84 53.28 62.16 71.03 79.91 88.79 97.67
219 54.02 59.42 64.82 75.62 86.43 97.23 108.03 118.83
245 60.43 66.47 72.51 84.60 96.69 108.77 120.86 132.94
273 67.33 74.07 80.80 94.27 107.74 121.20 134.67 148.14
325 80.16 88.18 96.19 112.22 128.26 144.29 160.32 176.35

Price formation

The cost of a stainless pipe depends on many parameters: steel grade, the presence or absence of a seam, and the method of manufacture. For household pipes of small diameter, the quality of surface grinding also affects.

Therefore, it is worth considering only some differences in individual characteristics.

Prices per kilogram (ton) are weakly dependent on the diameters and walls of a particular pipe. The difference usually does not exceed 10-20%.

The grade of steel from which the pipe is made has a much stronger effect on the cost. With other identical characteristics, the price varies significantly. So, steel 12X13 costs 180 — 200 rubles / kg, and exactly the same pipe, but from the brand 08X18H10T 330 — 350 rubles / kg.

Comparison by production methods:

  • A seamless pipe made of steel grade 08X18H10T, manufactured by the cold-formed method, costs about 330 rubles / kg.
  • The price for hot-formed production will be 90 — 120 rubles / kg.


A detailed overview of automation for gas heating boilers


Each gas heating system in a private house or city apartment has individual technical characteristics and features. Gas boilers differ not only in functionality and principle of operation, but also in the control system. For safety reasons, all models of gas boilers are equipped with devices and devices for automatic adjustment of heating equipment. To get a more complete picture of autonomous heating in the house, you should understand how the gas boiler automation system works, and what types of such devices exist.

The heating gas boiler is a complex engineering product that requires constant attention during operation. Automatic control is able to provide the necessary control of the parameters of the boiler, making the heating system truly autonomous.

What is automation for a gas boiler. General view

Automation used for gas boilers are special devices that provide control over the operation of heating equipment after it is started. The main purpose of automatic control devices is to ensure the safety of operation of heating units and maintain the optimum temperature in the room.

By functionality, automation is divided into two main types:

  • volatile devices;
  • non-volatile control devices.

The first type is volatile automation, used in autonomous heating systems, has a simpler design and works according to the residual principle. The signal from the temperature sensor about temperature changes is sent to the solenoid valve, which closes or opens, shutting off the gas supply to the gas boiler. Almost all heating boilers are equipped with this type of control equipment.

An example of a non-volatile unit of an automatic security system for a gas boiler


The second type of automation non-volatile devices work on the basis of the physical properties of the substance inside the closed circuit of the device. When heated, the substance expands, creating increased pressure inside the device. Under the action of high pressure, a gas valve is actuated, shutting off the gas supply to the combustion chamber. The boiler is switched on in the reverse order. When the temperature decreases, the volume of the substance decreases, as a result of which the pressure in the device decreases. The valve returns to its normal position, allowing gas to enter the burner. Such automation devices are equipped with non-volatile gas boilers. Models of automation system blocks may differ only in the standard set of functions.

See also: Grounding a gas boiler: how to do it and why?

The principle of operation of automation. Main knots

Considering the internal structure of safety automation devices, we can make an unambiguous conclusion that the main structural elements are the safety and main valves that shut off the fuel supply to the working area or open gas access to the combustion chamber. All automation for gas heating boilers is built on this action. Differences can only be in the presence of additional functions for automatic adjustment devices and how to control them.

For example: You want to turn on the boiler. Ignition is carried out by supplying gas to the pilot burner. This process is controlled by a solenoid valve. The installed thermocouple, heated by the pilot burner, is capable of heating in a short period of time, only 2-3 s. give the necessary spark to ignite the gas on the main burner. Releasing the ignition button, you start the main valve, which supplies gas to the combustion chamber.

The device works due to the interaction of both valves.

Choosing the required air temperature for the heated room, set the regulator to the desired position. The whole process is clearly monitored by a thermostat, which is equipped with sensors that regulate the volume of gas entering the combustion chamber. Thanks to two valves, shut-off and modeling, installed in the thermostat, the gas flow is regulated, and therefore the heating intensity of the boiler. The layout of the main adjustment points on the devices approximately looks like this.

On a note: The heating intensity of boiler equipment can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the operating pressure at the fittings. A conventional membrane is able to regulate the working pressure of the household gas at the outlet. In another situation, the outlet gas pressure in the system can be adjusted by manipulating the gas supply screw.


It is necessary to dwell in more detail on what types of automation exist for domestic gaseous fuel boilers, on what principle the operation of automatic devices is based, and how this affects the safety and efficiency of an autonomous heating system.

Basic functions of automation

The main purpose of automation in heating systems is an instant response to a change in the situation. One of the main tasks of automatic control devices is to stop the gas supply to the working area. Situations in which it may be necessary to cut off the supply of domestic gas may be the following:

  • poor operation of the exhaust device, deterioration of traction, in which there is a high probability of harmful combustion products entering the interior;
  • sharp drops in operating pressure in the main gas pipeline;
  • unauthorized extinction of the flame on the main burner.

In these situations, it is thanks to the automation of the gas boiler that the supply of gas fuel is controlled, which ensures the safety of residents. It is for safety reasons, in accordance with existing regulations, that it is necessary to equip all old models of gas-heating equipment with automatic systems, the standard equipment of which did not provide for the equipping of these devices. As for the gas heating units of the latest releases, these are boilers with automatic equipment.

For reference: in some cases, it is cheaper to install a new boiler than to upgrade the old heating system by equipping the boiler with automation. The reason lies in the significant design differences between the old-style models and modern heating units.

Main article: do-it-yourself gas burner

Which automation is better — mechanical or electronic?


Devices that control the operation of heating equipment can be mechanical or electronic. In budget models of gas boilers, in most cases, a mechanical, manual control option is used. Despite the fact that the level of technological progress has reached unprecedented heights, mechanics remains a reliable and proven tool. Automatic safety of gas boilers, operating in manual control mode, is an order of magnitude cheaper. The principle of operation of most models of manual boilers is simple and understandable for domestic use.

The regulator of the intensity of the supply of coolant to the radiator of the water heating system

The automation unit of the mechanical principle of operation is easier to maintain and repair. Dismantling such a unit is quite within the power of a specialist — a heat engineer who carries out a routine inspection of boiler equipment in your home.

Manual, mechanical control of a gas boiler, regardless of the power supply — the owner of the home independently sets the temperature necessary for heating the living space, everything else depends on the laws of physics that underlie the operation of the mechanism.

For reference: the heat exchanger is equipped with a thermocouple — a mechanism based on a plate combined from two parts — steel and nickel. During heating, the plate lengthens, and when cooled, it decreases in length, acting on the valve, which opens or closes the gas supply to the working area. The draft regulator, which is equipped with gas boilers with an open combustion chamber, also works on the basis of the same principle. Bimetallic plate when the temperature rises to a critical point (more than 750C) bends, opening the circuit. When the flame decreases, the plate returns to its natural position. Everything is simple and clear.

A different principle of operation is laid down in automation with electronic filling, which uses not the physical properties of materials and media, but a fundamentally different way of transmitting a signal to equipment.

Electronic automatic control systems

The most common type of automation that is used in budget models of boilers is an electronic thermostat.

The device is installed indoors and controls heating based on signals from a remote temperature sensor located in the actual zone of the room. When the temperature drops below the set limit, the boiler is signaled to turn on. When the optimum temperature parameters are reached, the sensors transmit a shutdown signal to the system. Room thermostats have a cable connection with gas boilers.

In this case, the presence of a thermostat ensures the optimal heating temperature of the gas boiler and the economy of blue fuel consumption. To date, several types of thermostats are on sale, differing in functionality, technical characteristics and installation method. Programmable devices ensure that the optimal temperature regime is maintained inside the dwelling for a given period of time.

On a note: some models can automatically control the operation of a gas boiler during the day, other models of equipment are able to control the operating unit during the week. Wireless automatic control devices are also produced, allowing remote control of the operation of the boiler. The range of modern remote control systems, depending on the model chosen, is 25-100 m.


What is better, mechanical automation or electronic control devices, the consumer decides. A good gas boiler can work successfully both with manual control and with the use of electronic automatic devices.

Modern appliances, which are equipped with all models of gas boilers that exist today, are an integral part of the heating system. Without appropriately configured automation, not a single gas boiler will work correctly.


The choice of liquid for home heating, what to use?


The rather harsh climate of the middle lane forces us to use heating appliances for more than half of the calendar year. Such intense operation requires from the heating equipment not only high performance, but also reliability. The correct functioning of the heating system depends on the quality of its installation and the characteristics of the coolant used. One of the pressing questions of homeowners and design specialists is the choice of a heat carrier for heating a private house: which is better — anti-freeze or water?

It is worth remembering that any coolant has both advantages and disadvantages, that is, an option that is ideal from all sides simply does not exist. When choosing, consider the following criteria:

  • current operating conditions;
  • type of pumping units;
  • type of boiler equipment.

The main problem of thermal equipment in difficult climatic conditions is the freezing of the coolant during the onset of cold weather. For the uninterrupted operation of the installation at any time of the year, you should use a type of coolant that provides high-quality heating of all rooms and has the following properties:

  • indicator of aggressiveness to metals;
  • resistance to low temperatures;
  • no tendency to precipitate;
  • no aggressive effect on seal materials;
  • operational stability.

In the operating temperature ranges, any coolant for the heating system of a country house is able to operate smoothly for a long time, however, going beyond these limits is fraught with serious changes in their physical and qualitative characteristics. If we consider the coolant from the point of view of safety, then it must have such qualities as non-toxicity and a high vapor ignition temperature. An important criterion in the selection process is the cost of the liquid, which is why it should not be too expensive for the owner, and if the price is quite high, then the coolant should retain its properties and volume for as long as possible.

Water as a heat carrier

Of course, water belongs to the category of the cheapest heat carriers. In addition to cheapness, one can confidently declare its environmental safety and widespread availability. If a leak does occur, then it is not difficult to restore the required volume in the installation, you just need to add a few liters of liquid to a special tank. It is worth remembering that water always contains a lot of impurities: chlorine, iron, salts, which accumulate on the walls when they precipitate and form hard-to-remove scale, which affects the degree of heat transfer of pipes, leads to overheating of the equipment and disables it.

In addition, metal elements inevitably enter into an oxidative reaction with the liquid, which leads to corrosive changes.

Water tends to expand significantly when it freezes, so the lack of circulation in the cold season can disable the heating installation for a long time, breaking the pipes. In no case should a system filled with liquid be left unattended during the heating season in order to avoid freezing, just a few days — and expensive wiring can become unusable. The forced heating system is often powered by electricity, so when it is turned off or the pressure in the pipeline drops, the water can simply freeze in the pipes, and this is fraught with serious problems. Unlike antifreeze, water expands when cooled below +4°C and during heating, it must also be taken into account that it must be changed annually.

If you read the operating instructions for the heating boiler, then all manufacturers unanimously argue that distilled water should be the coolant, since it is completely free of all impurities. The main disadvantage of this approach is the cost, comparable to buying a good antifreeze.

Before filling the installation, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the pipes and heating devices with plain water. To improve the quality of heat transfer and extend the life of the boiler, it is recommended to add special additives to distilled water.

Antifreeze liquids as a heat carrier


The use of antifreeze in heating devices is more relevant for severe winters characteristic of the middle climatic zone. It has a much lower freezing point compared to plain water, which will reliably protect the heating installation from damage due to liquid freezing, even if electricity or gas is turned off for a long time. The unique properties of the fluid, as well as additional additives, protect pipes from scale and corrosion. In our climate, antifreeze is unconditionally the best option for refueling heating devices.

What is antifreeze? The main component here is propylene glycol or ethylene glycol, to which a significant amount of water has been added, as well as targeted additives.

The concentration of propylene glycol in the composition of antifreeze determines its frost resistance, the more it is, the lower should be the temperature at which the composition begins to crystallize. To reduce the corrosive effect of the coolant, special inhibitors are used — chemical compounds that slow down the process of the liquid entering into a reaction with metal and other substances. To prevent sludge formation, the composition includes a scale inhibitor, which prevents the formation of foam during circulation and reduces the risk of dissolution and swelling of the seals.

Antifreeze, as a heat carrier for heating, does not freeze within the operating temperature range, but if hardening does occur, it does not expand like water and does not provoke the destruction of the heating installation. Freezing, it becomes gel-like and does not change its volume; returning to a liquid state does not have any consequences for the coolant and equipment.

Today in specialized stores you can find antifreezes with a minimum temperature of -65 or -30 degrees. If necessary, the concentration of the composition can be changed by adding distilled water to it. The chemical composition of the fluid is designed to operate for 10 seasons or 5 years, after this time, all antifreeze in the system must be changed.

See also: Anti-freeze as a heating system for a private house

With the many advantages of antifreeze, do not forget about its shortcomings. If we compare the operating temperature of anti-freeze and water, it turns out that the heat capacity of anti-freeze is more than 15% lower, therefore, it accumulates heat worse and gives it off worse. Therefore, the consumer is forced to buy more powerful thermal equipment and spend more resources to maintain the desired temperature. Due to the increased viscosity of antifreeze, and it is 5 times higher than water, a powerful circulation pump will be required to maintain the required pressure. At the same time, electricity consumption will increase by 10%. Keeping in mind that antifreeze does not expand when freezing, it should be borne in mind that when heated, its thermal expansion is much greater than that of water, therefore, when using it, a larger expansion tank is needed. In addition, when overheated, antifreeze can permanently lose its properties.

Experts recommend determining the type of coolant even before installing the heating system, it is this approach that guarantees the long service life of all devices, spontaneous retraining can be fraught with serious troubles and lengthy repairs.

The chemical composition of anti-freeze is quite aggressive: it reacts with galvanized surfaces, causing irreparable damage to technical elements, at the same time, such a neighborhood changes the composition of the coolant and contributes to the formation of sediment, which can block the entire system. Rubber gaskets are also sensitive to this environment, so they will have to be changed much more often than when using water heating.


The environmental friendliness of antifreeze also creates many questions during use. In the process of moving through the pipes, the anti-freeze may foam, which can provoke difficulties in adjusting and balancing the system. The owner of a house heated with antifreeze should always have a canister of chemical in stock in order to quickly make up for the deficiency in the event of a leak.

Application of antifreeze

Before purchasing a boiler for heating your home, make sure that it allows the use of this type of antifreeze, otherwise you may void the factory warranty. Concentrated formulations may be mixed with distilled water. When installing the wiring, it is not necessary to use fittings and galvanized pipes, and the heating boiler must be designed to maintain a temperature not exceeding +70 degrees. A system based on anti-freeze will require a powerful pump and a volume tank that is more than twice as large as a water tank.

For the uninterrupted movement of antifreeze, pipes of a larger diameter and fairly voluminous radiators will be required. Automatic air vents will not work here — you will need to install Mayevsky manual taps. Only chemically resistant rubber can be used as a sealant.


How to make a pipe bender for a profile pipe with your own hands


Profile pipes of square or rectangular section are widely used in construction and repair. Arbors, sheds, greenhouses, frames for various structures, fences are made from them. To give the element a curved shape, use a special device — a pipe bender.

pipe bender

Complex spatial structures are produced by specialized workshops on high-precision powerful machines. At home, hand tools of industrial production or home-made are more often used. If you need to bend several elements, it is advisable to make a pipe bender for a profile pipe with your own hands. A simple reliable device will cope with the task no worse than the factory one, while it will cost several times cheaper.

The principle of operation of the pipe bender

The pipe bending machine is designed to bend pipes at an angle of up to 90°. Such processing of a rigid all-metal element makes it possible to avoid welding pipes and creating threaded connections.

When bending, the principle of mechanical cold deformation is used. The material is not adversely affected by high temperatures. Rolled metal is placed between the static rollers of the device, and the movable pressure roller creates a force that bends the profile at the desired angle.

The principle of operation of the roller pipe bender

To avoid deterioration of technical characteristics and destruction of the metal, the bending radius of the pipe is limited.

Its minimum value depends on the type of material — steel, copper, aluminum — and wall thickness. In this case, the thinning of the section does not exceed 20-25%. As a result of plastic deformation, the profile acquires a curved shape without loss of strength.

Table of minimum radii for steel profile bending


To obtain a section of the angular configuration, use the local impact tool. The force is applied pointwise. The bend is formed by extrusion.

A profile bender differs from a conventional round pipe bender in that it is designed to deform a profile that is more resistant to bending loads. For the manufacture of arcs or arches, the workpiece is drawn on a rolling machine with one or more rollers and a large bending radius.

Types of pipe benders and their design

The construction industry produces a wide range of roll forming machines. They are designed for processing rolled metal with various technical characteristics and solving specific problems.


Compact mobile devices are used for the manufacture of arc elements from profile pipes of small sizes. A hand tool works due to the muscular efforts of a person.

Varieties of manual pipe benders:

  • with a leading central shaft;
  • with movable edge roller;
  • turning.

The design of a manual pipe bender with a leading central shaft consists of a base, two support rollers and one movable one. The impact is regulated by a clamping screw collar inserted into the upper part of the mechanism.

Roller tube bender with clamping screw on the central shaft

The pipe is pulled through the shafts manually using a handle and a chain fixed on the roller axles. The pressure is increased by lowering the pressure bolt. The profile gradually bends and takes the form of an arc.

The manual profile bender can be equipped with a movable end roller. It is fixed to a part of the frame connected to the bed with powerful loops.

The height of the lift is changed with a jack, raising the edge of the table. The handle for pulling metal products is attached to the central fixed roller.

Pipe bender with a moving part of the bed

For the manufacture of steeply curved sections from a pipe 20×20, 30×20 and 40×20 mm with a wall thickness of up to 1.5 mm, rotary manual pipe benders are used. They allow you to bend the profile at an angle of up to 360 °.

Rotary pipe bender


The device is fixed on a frame or table horizontally, a metal structure is inserted into the groove of the desired size. By turning the long handle, the profile is pressed around the template and a bend is formed.


In such pipe benders, the force is pumped by a hydraulic motor. Hydraulic cylinders transmit pressure up to 12 tons to the pipe section, which makes it possible to bend even large workpieces.

Hydraulic pipe benders are produced by the industry in two versions:

  • Manual. The pipe is inserted into a replaceable template of a suitable size — a support shoe that securely fixes the product during bending. The hydraulic cylinder is actuated by a handle, returned to its original position by means of a check valve. The tool is portable, used for processing profiles up to 50 mm in size.
Hand hydraulic tool
  • With electric drive. More powerful devices allow you to bend a pipe with a cross section of up to 150 mm and a wall thickness of up to 3 mm. Electric motors are equipped with two-stage telescopic hydraulic cylinders. Due to this, a large force is developed at the end of the working stroke.
Electric Hydraulic Pipe Bender

Hydraulic pipe benders have high productivity and process structures with high precision. To give the workpiece a given bending angle, a graduated scale is located on the device body.



Electric roller professional profile bending machine is a technological equipment for the manufacture of curved thin- and thick-walled metal structures. Allows you to automate the execution of large volumes of work.

Electromechanical pipe benders can be manual or stationary. The former are used for bending pipes with a diameter of up to 50 mm in conditions where power is available. The second are large-sized machines with powerful engines installed in industrial workshops. They are controlled by CNC operators.

CNC electromechanical machine

Profile bending is formed by one or more shafts. According to the bending method, pipe benders are distinguished:

  • winding — the element bends when rotating around a fixed pulley;
  • rolling — the curvature of the part is given by a movable roller, which presses it against the template during the passage;
  • rolling — the profile is pulled through three rolls, two of which are stationary, and the third moves relative to the others;
  • extruding — works like a crossbow, bends the workpiece with a retractable punch with a nozzle made for a pipe of a certain size.

The steel profile is most often bent by rolling machines, where the force is distributed more evenly.

In roller pipe benders, rolled products of square or rectangular section experience less deformation, at which the stability of the walls is maintained.

Do-it-yourself manual pipe bender for profile pipes


To bend a profile pipe with small cross-sectional dimensions without a pipe bender, craftsmen use templates of the desired curvature made of metal or wood. The workpiece is pressed manually to the edges of the segment, rigidly fixing one end.

wood pattern

The thin-walled element can be deformed when heated. The area is heated with a blowtorch to a temperature of 350-400°C and, using manual force, the profile is arched.

If you use simple methods that do not allow product parameters, you can design a manual roller pipe bender for a profile pipe. With its help, arches and arcs are made for canopies, greenhouses and other structures of complex shape.

Required materials and tools

To make a device, you will need:

  • channel No. 8 or No. 10 for a rigid frame;
  • 2 castors made of hardened steel with steps for profiles of different heights or restrictive rings;
  • notched roller for the movable shaft;
  • finished bearing units;
  • 2 or 3 gears or «sprockets»;
  • steel chain;
  • clamping screw;
  • thin pipe for the gate;
  • lever;
  • welding machine;
  • drill;
  • «Bulgarian»;
  • a hammer.

Still need cotter pins, nuts, threaded bushings, washers. To process the finished structure, paint and lubricant will be required.


The drawing is the basis that will help you make a pipe bender without gross errors. This is especially important when working with metal.

Ready-made drawings are posted on the Internet. With sufficient experience, they are easy to understand and adjust to your capabilities.

You can imagine an exemplary pipe bender device when studying the factory analogue, and then develop a detailed diagram of your model.

Drawing and general view of a hand tool


Construction assembly steps

The sequence of operations for the manufacture of a homemade roller pipe bender:

  1. Cut the channel according to the dimensions of the racks and base.
  2. Drill holes in the frame parts for mounting the rollers.
  3. Weld the support frame with the uprights from the channel.
  4. Cut and weld a body with holes for installing the drive roller from the channel. The shaft should rotate easily inside.
  5. Fasten the clamping screw to the resulting box using bearings. Drill a hole in the top of the screw for the gate.
  6. Insert a housing with a drive roller between the uprights. The structure must move freely vertically. Fasten the cover with a screw nut from above.

    Scheme of the clamping mechanism

  7. Screw the bearing units to the frame.
  8. Insert the collar into the hole of the clamping bolt.
  9. On the shaft axis from the outside, put the gears on the key or taper split bushings with nuts. Attach the third «asterisk» to the rack. Put on the chain, press the sleeve for the handle.
  10. Carry out trial tests, if necessary, make adjustments.

The last step is to disassemble, clean the metal from burrs, paint the fixed parts, reassemble. Assemblies that are subject to friction during operation should be treated with Litol or other grease.

Ready homemade machine

To bend the workpiece, it is placed on fixed rollers, the clamping screw is lowered to the stop and pulled with the help of a rotating handle alternately in one direction and the other.

After each rental, the screw is tightened with a collar. When the arc has acquired sufficient curvature, the screw nut is fixed with a lock nut. This will allow you to bend several arches with the same radius.

Such a homemade pipe bender can be used even for professional purposes. He will «master» profiles up to 60×60 mm in size or at the same time 3 pipes with a section width of 20 mm.

Details of the manufacturing process of a manual machine can be seen here.


Hydraulic Pipe Bender

The use of hydraulics greatly simplifies both the operation of the pipe bender and its design. The simplest device is a frame with two support rollers. The mechanical effect on the profile is exerted by a jack with a shoe attachment.

The hydraulic fixture is designed for pipe bending, as the deforming force is transmitted to a short section.

Tools, materials and drawing

For self-production of a hydraulic pipe bender, you will need:

  • «Bulgarian»;
  • welding machine;
  • hydraulic jack;
  • channel and corner for power frame;
  • stop shoe;
  • rollers or guides.
Drawing of a pipe bender with a jack

Assembly steps

Scheme for assembling a simple hydraulic pipe bender:

  1. Cut the corner to size and weld the frame in the form of a support platform with uprights.
  2. Weld a horizontal frame from the channel to the frame.
  3. To adjust the bending radius, drill several holes in the frame.

    Traverse for adjusting the bending radius of the pipe

  4. Set the rollers to the desired position.
  5. Put the shoe on the jack rod, install the hydraulic mechanism in the lower part of the frame.

To bend the workpiece, it is placed between the segment and the support rollers. Gradually increase the load with the jack lever.

When the desired bending angle is obtained, the bypass valve of the hydraulic cylinder is opened, the jack piston is lowered and the finished part is removed.

Pipe bending process

For thin-walled profiles, mechanisms with a carrying capacity of 5-8 tons are used. To bend powerful pipes, hydraulics must have great capabilities — up to 12 tons.

Video about the manufacture of a hydraulic pipe bender:

Hydraulic homemade pipe bender is easy to disassemble. The jack can be replaced with a more convenient or powerful one. To make it easier to perform all operations, the design is sometimes adapted for horizontal operation.

The most common bending defects with a hydraulic pipe bender are the formation of cavities, corrugations, cracks or profile breakage. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to use factory-made shoes. They are made of durable steel, centered and evenly transfer the load to the pipe walls.


Details about domestic gas heating boilers


At present, in apartments and private houses one can still find old-style heating equipment that no longer meets the increased requirements — inefficient, uneconomical and does not meet safety conditions. For a long time, the main type of household gas-heating equipment was AOGV gas floor-standing boilers (autonomous heating and hot water supply). These household boilers — heating gas units were equipped with atmospheric type burners and provided heating of housing by natural circulation of hot coolant in the heating system. Significant advantages of this technique are energy independence and high reliability. AOGV was equipped with primitive automation, which quickly failed, but the heater continued to successfully perform its functions without it. Such a household gas boiler is the only heating unit that does not consume electricity.

Modern household gas heating boilers of domestic and foreign production represent a new generation of heating equipment that meets not only the increased requirements for safety and efficiency, but also the aesthetic needs of the consumer.

Let us consider in more detail what modern boiler equipment is, and how functional this heating technique is.

Gas boiler — the main element of an autonomous heating system


An autonomous domestic water heating system based on a gas boiler consists of the following main parts:

  • heating boiler with pump;
  • automation system;
  • ventilation system;
  • pipe wiring of the coolant;
  • radiators.

The main element of the heating system is a gas boiler that provides heating and circulation of the coolant. Let’s consider this unit in more detail.

Purpose and functions of gas water heating boilers

The main task of gas boilers is to heat the interior and provide DHW (hot water supply systems). Household autonomous boilers, gas heat generators use natural gas as fuel, supplied to the autonomous heating system of housing from the central highway. The use of gas heating boilers for domestic heating and hot water systems is due to their following characteristics:

  • compactness;
  • performance (power) gradation;
  • relative ease of installation;
  • profitability;
  • efficiency;
  • ease of use due to a high degree of automation.

Identical industrial equipment differs from household equipment in power, dimensions and technical equipment, therefore the operation of industrial gas boilers requires professionalism and constant monitoring of the operation of the unit from the service personnel.

The use of gas boilers in everyday life should be safe, so the management and maintenance of these units should be simple and do not require the consumer to have special skills. Modern models of gas boilers, due to the use of special technologies in their production, fully meet the requirements.

Modern heating boilers, unlike outdated models, have an efficiency close to 90%. In addition to heating the interior, modern household gas-heating equipment of the latter is able to automatically ensure the operation of the hot water supply system for housing.


Boilers of modern models are optimally automated, the degree of automation depends on the purpose of the unit and the performance class. The consumer market for water heaters is represented by household appliances of various types and types. Customers have a wide variety of models at their disposal, from powerful floor-standing household boilers for heating large private houses to compact wall-mounted units for city apartments. For each type of housing and operating conditions, you can choose a boiler of the appropriate type — a single-circuit or double-circuit gas boiler, a unit with an open firebox or with a closed-type combustion chamber, boilers with cast-iron or bimetallic heat exchangers.

Important! The high degree of automation of gas boilers has reduced the share of human participation in their operation, but has not reduced its role — the fulfillment of all the requirements for the safe use of gas heating equipment set out in the operating instructions is strictly necessary.

Classification of domestic gas boilers

A review of household gas boilers will be incomplete without considering the types of classification of these heating units:

  • by location;
  • by functionality.

Location classification

Depending on the location and method of installation, autonomous gas domestic boilers are produced in two types:

  • floor execution;
  • wall type.

Household gas boilers in the floor version are more powerful units (up to 1000 kW), capable of providing heat and hot water to large houses. The performance of the boiler is indicated in the instructions for its use in order to facilitate the choice of the unit for specific areas and operating conditions.

Important! The large volume of the water tank causes a significant weight and dimensions of such units, therefore, for the installation of outdoor equipment, it is necessary to specially equip a separate boiler room, equipped with a chimney and ventilation.

The requirements for a home boiler room are determined by GOST and are mandatory. In particular, for gas boilers with a power of up to 30 kW, the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe room must be at least 4 square meters, and the volume — 8 cubic meters.


A household wall-mounted gas heating boiler has a compact size, but its power is limited, since mounting a boiler with a large water tank on the wall places increased demands on the bearing capacity of the base.

Boilers of wall models can be easily installed in the utility room, in the kitchen, in the bathroom. To save space, you can use the existing niche in the wall for installation. In this case, it is not required to allocate a separate room for the heating boiler, the necessary air flow into the combustion chamber and the output of combustion products to the outside will provide a double-acting chimney — coaxial, replacing bulky traditional structures.

When it is installed on the wall, according to the location of the boiler, marking is performed, and then a hole is made along the diameter of the coaxial chimney with an addition of 3-4 cm for subsequent complete sealing of the gaps with a caulk or other method. The installation of additional air ducts or the connection of this chimney to the common shaft of the house is not required.

If you want to have at home, in addition to heating, an autonomous hot water supply, a wall-mounted boiler should be selected with a heat capacity of at least 24 kW (not to be confused with the electrical power consumption of the unit).

Cascade system of gas boilers


When designing the heating of private houses of a large area, in order to save money, they use the use of a cascade of gas boilers of small and medium power, united by a single system of hydraulics and electrics (not to be confused with the parallel connection of a group of boilers, where each of them is controlled separately).

This technology, depending on the time of year and the need for hot water, makes it possible to use not the only available huge floor-standing unit, but the required number of boilers from the cascade.

Ways to control the cascade system of units can include not only the use of a certain number of cascade boilers, but also a combination (using a cascade controller) of heating devices operating with different power settings.

The cascade use system is mounted both from floor-mounted boilers and from wall-mounted units.

In addition to heating private housing, the cascade technology for installing heating equipment, but from units of higher power, is used for heating public buildings (train stations, shopping centers, exhibition and concert halls).

It’s important to know! For heating an apartment with an area of ​​​​50-70 m2 5-10 kW of the total heat output of the boiler is sufficient. The rest of the power will be required to heat water in the DHW system. The more hot water intake points, the more powerful the boiler should be.

If the power of the unit is not sufficient to provide the GHS in the required volume, the installation of an additional device is used — an indirect heating boiler, which is connected to the gas boiler by piping.

Classification by functionality

The division of boilers according to the type of placement is directly related to the functionality of the gas unit, which depends on the number of circuits in the design of the device — one or two.

Single-circuit boilers are used only for heating residential premises, which is provided by the only water circuit available in the design of the unit.

For the full life support of a residential facility, double-circuit gas boilers look more attractive, which, in addition to heating, ensure the functioning of the hot water supply system, using its second circuit for this. Double-circuit heating devices differ in the method of heating the coolant:

  • flowing;
  • capacitive.

With a small consumption of hot water and a small number of hot water intake points (1 or 2), it is better to use double-circuit boilers with instantaneous water heating. Such devices have less power and are economical.

With a significant need for hot water, you should purchase a double-circuit boiler with a capacitive method of heating water, but even in this case, its consumption has limits — if the consumption of hot water with a temperature of +450With and above exceeds 20-40 liters per day, the boiler will not be able to cope with space heating, as it will work only for heating water.


Models of wall-mounted boilers with instantaneous heating are compact and quickly heat hot water. The disadvantages of the design of such equipment are high gas consumption and a drop in the temperature of the coolant with intensive consumption of hot water. The way out of this situation is to install a storage boiler, which will reduce fuel consumption and allow you to maintain the desired temperature of the coolant. However, this operation will significantly increase the cost of arranging the heating system, in addition, a certain location is also required to install the boiler.

For reference: owners of private houses, who are less limited in living space than apartment residents, and who have single-circuit boilers at their disposal, can additionally install an indirect heating boiler of the required capacity as an alternative to a double-circuit unit.

Design features

Household gas heating equipment can have significant design differences and features, including differing in the material of manufacture of heat exchangers, which are divided into the following types according to this feature:

  • steel — on the equipment of budget models;
  • cast iron — for floor-standing boilers;
  • stainless steel — used in wall-mounted boilers;
  • bimetallic (bithermic) — the most common type.

Each type of heat exchanger has its own advantages and disadvantages, so the heat exchanger must be selected with reference to operating conditions and personal preferences:

  • steel heat exchangers are cheap, but subject to corrosion.
  • cast iron products are practical and durable.
  • bimetallic products are lightweight and therefore are installed in wall-mounted models of double-circuit boilers.
  • stainless steel heat exchangers are strong, durable, do not change the chemical composition of water, but due to the high cost of the material and the complexity of manufacturing technology, they have a high price.

Gas heating boilers are also classified according to the design of the combustion chamber:

  • open type;
  • closed furnace.

The difference between them is that when the wind blows, harmful combustion products can enter the room. In addition, the air necessary for the combustion of gas enters the open combustion chamber from the room, which leads to the burning of oxygen in the room. Both of these factors oblige to periodically ventilate housing.

And the closed type of the combustion chamber isolates the combustion process from the atmosphere of the room, the air enters there from the outside, and the oxygen in the room does not burn out.

Currently, condensing gas boilers and turbocharged units are gaining popularity, which, with less fuel consumption, have greater efficiency, but, accordingly, a higher price.

See also: why does a gas boiler blow out?


Each model of a domestic gas boiler has its own functionality and resource. When choosing a device model for yourself, it is necessary to take into account the conditions for the upcoming operation of the unit and the tasks that it will have to solve. Budget models are able to meet the minimum requirements of consumers, while expensive appliances significantly expand the capabilities of the inhabitants of an apartment or residential building.

According to these reflections, it is not worth saving on heating equipment, just as it is not worth paying for the potential of equipment that will not be in demand as unnecessary.


How to make heating in a greenhouse with your own hands?


The content of the article:

A greenhouse is a structure whose task is to maintain the temperature necessary for the active growth of plants, to ensure the yield and fertility of crops, which is impossible without high-quality heating. In summer, the temperature is reached by an abundance of sunlight and external conditions, but not all owners are satisfied with the option of operating the greenhouse exclusively in the warm seasons of the year. The heating of the greenhouses makes it possible to use them already in April, and if the most efficient technology is chosen, even in winter, when there is still snow on the ground.

Basic selection principles


So, before you make heating in the greenhouse, you need to take into account the following nuances:

  • Agricultural structure dimensions;
  • Type of heating system in the country house or in the cottage, if they are located in the neighborhood;
  • Available funds.

The modern market offers greenhouse heating in a variety of options, that is, for each specific situation, it will be possible to find the most rational and competent solution. Of course, you should not get too carried away with the details when choosing, you should always remember the main requirement — thermal energy should be evenly distributed throughout the entire volume of the room. This is achieved either by using fans that “drive” warm air or by installing several heaters at different heights. To make heating with your own hands, which will last a long time, without causing any unnecessary trouble to the owners, it is worth considering a number of the following factors:

  • Operational simplicity and convenience.
  • Reducing the risk of bacteria development, the occurrence of foci of diseases that pose a threat to crops.
  • Hot air in the room should not be too dry. A drop in humidity for plants is just as detrimental as cold. Low humidity provokes the death of part of the plants located in the upper layers of the soil.
  • A good system is economical at all stages of its arrangement: purchase, installation, operation.
  • If you decide to build a heated greenhouse, then ideally, the heat sources should be at the bottom to rise to the ceiling by natural convection, guaranteeing an even distribution of heat energy throughout the internal volume.

Electricity is the most common technology

electric heating of greenhouses
Despite the abundance of options, the most popular technology for greenhouses and greenhouses remains the use of electricity. Such equipment is actively used by both amateur gardeners and commercial agricultural enterprises. Electric heating of greenhouses and greenhouses is represented by the following groups:

  • convection systems. Nothing complicated. Equipment with heating elements is installed in the room. The natural formation of convection currents allows the room to warm up evenly. Of the minuses, difficulties can be distinguished if it is necessary to improve the system, as well as a small impact on the soil.
  • Heaters, that is, mobile thermal fans. These units are inexpensive, characterized by compactness, due to which they are suitable even for operation in small structures. The downside is an open spiral, due to which the air becomes too dry. You can cope with this problem by choosing a model with a temperature controller, through which an optimal microclimate is formed.
  • Heating cable. A stationary heating cable is located in the ground. To increase efficiency, the element can also be laid in walls. It is important to correctly determine the required temperature, as overheating can cause damage to the root system.
  • Water way. An efficient and reliable way to heat a greenhouse, built on the circulation of electrically heated water through pipes. He has one drawback — the need for significant initial financial investments, since installation will not do without the involvement of qualified specialists.
  • Infrared technology. Perhaps it can be called the most modern greenhouse heating system. The technique assumes that it is not the air that is heated, but directly the areas where the plants are located. This technique most fully imitates natural heating, the room does not overheat, it maintains an optimal temperature regime, the air remains quite humid, which has a beneficial effect on the condition of the plants.

What are the alternatives

greenhouse air heating

The following technologies can become an alternative to electricity:

  • Air heating of industrial greenhouses is a professional system, the installation of which is carried out directly during the construction of an agricultural facility. Uniform heating is guaranteed by units in which heating elements are connected to fans. These units are mounted in the foundation, but warm air is supplied immediately to the middle and upper parts of the greenhouse. This approach protects young plants from burns of the root system, helps to heat the soil well.
  • gas method. Before you build a greenhouse with gas heating, you should take into account that the combustion of this fuel can provoke a lack of oxygen in the air. Thus, a system is formed with the simultaneous laying of effective ventilation, which pumps outdoor air saturated with oxygen into the room.
  • solar energy. Alternative heating of greenhouses, involving the use of special batteries. Holes are dug in the greenhouse to a depth of about 15 centimeters, covered with waterproofing materials so that the battery is not damaged by contact with moisture. It is noteworthy that with absolute independence from any fuel, the battery will help maintain a positive temperature in the room even when it is minus 10 degrees outside.
  • solid fuel. Heating greenhouses with stoves or boilers running on solid fuels (coal or wood) is a fairly economical solution. Experts do not recommend using devices of outdated designs, it is better to heat your room with modern stoves, the walls of which do not heat up too much, which increases the level of fire safety, and also eliminates harm to plants.

General recommendations

Finally, we will give some general tips, following which will help to heat the greenhouse with your own hands with minimal effort and money:

  • It is best to start the process with the insulation of the structure, that is, reducing heat loss. It is necessary to pay attention to the features of the foundation, check the walls for cracks through which heat escapes. Insufficient thermal insulation can neutralize the effectiveness of the most expensive heating system.
  • Pay attention to the material. Heating a greenhouse covered with a film is more difficult than working with a polycarbonate or glass-based structure, which retain heat much better. It is likely that the replacement of the material will improve the energy efficiency of the facility.

If you are interested in do-it-yourself greenhouse heating, a video shot by professionals will allow you to understand the basic principles of this work, help you find non-standard technical solutions that are relevant in your case. Do-it-yourself heated greenhouse — cheap and efficient!


The main types and rules for installing thermal insulation for pipes


When installing pipelines, thermal insulation is necessary for pipes in order to reduce heat losses or maintain the temperature of communications. This is essential for daily safe operation. If this is not done, then no one can guarantee that the system will work smoothly in winter and will not fail at one moment.

Protecting metal pipes from heat loss using insulators

The thermal insulation of metal pipes prevents the possibility that the liquid in it will not freeze at low outside temperatures. This will also prevent condensation from forming on the surface of the pipe.

Important! The requirements for thermal insulation are set out in the safety regulations. If gas is transported through the pipeline, then heat insulators are used in various versions.

It is possible to isolate such a pipe by covering it with a special varnish or paint. But in practice, protective material is more often used, so that certain requirements can be met:

  • Monolithic insulators are used, which evenly lie on the pipe.
  • Working materials must have a low moisture absorption coefficient, and the waterproofing properties must be high.
  • The material must resist the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation well.

Insulation is clearly regulated in the relevant regulatory documents, which are called building codes and rules (today these are sets of rules that are an updated edition of SNiPs). These documents contain the technical characteristics of the material for the heat insulator and a detailed methodology for performing work.

Application of thermal insulation in the production of pipes at the factory

Type of heat insulator


This type of work is carried out by heat insulators in the following forms:

  • separate segment;
  • cylinder;
  • mat;
  • semi-cylinder;
  • roll.

The pipeline can be thermally insulated using the following types of insulators:

  • Mineral wool.
  • Shell.
  • polyurethane sealant.
  • Pipe heater.
  • Liquid expanded clay.
  • Basalt wool.

This is not a complete list of heat-insulating materials. The construction market is subject to constant renewal with the advent of new, more modern materials.

Use of mineral wool

This is the cheapest material with which it is easy to carry out installation work. It is difficult to disagree with the fact that this circumstance is a pronounced positive moment. Work is carried out in compliance with the following requirements:

  • A cross section of the roll is made. Strips 200 mm thick are formed, with which the pipe is wrapped. First, mineral wool is laid, and on top of it — fiberglass.
  • The technology of laying mineral wool is carried out evenly, preventing its wrinkling.

Large diameter pipes are insulated in this way. Since cotton wool actively absorbs moisture, it quickly rots. Therefore, the insulation of pipelines with mineral wool is carried out only in cases where the heating main passes above the ground or indoors. This method is not used to isolate the sewer system and pipes with a small diameter. It is capable of igniting at high temperatures, so you should refrain from using it near stove heating, as well as in places where electrical cables pass.

The use of mineral wool for pipe insulation

Mineral wool exists in two types:

  • stone;
  • glass.

In the first case, the material for its manufacture are rocks. For the manufacture of glass wool, cullet or staple fiber is used, the basis for the manufacture of which is quartz sand.

External heat pipes


If the pipes are laid externally, then roll-type mats are used for thermal insulation. The application of liquid heaters has a certain ease of use. These include epoxy pipe insulation.

Powder or liquid coating has advantages over other types:

  • Increased resistance to abrasive wear.
  • Impact resistance.
  • High temperature resistance.
  • Anti-corrosion protection.
Epoxy coating for corrosion protection

The linear sections of the pipeline are covered with a heat insulator with a galvanized casing.

Technological pipelines are insulated with foam rubber tubes or rolls. The insulation is carried out in several layers. Their number depends on the total required value.

Of particular interest is thermal insulation with the application of a cover layer.

The use of thermal insulation for pipe insulation does not allow hot water to cool down during its long journey from the source to the consumer. They are used for almost all types of pipes:

  • Plastic.
  • Metal.
  • polymer composite.
  • Metal-plastic.
  • Composite.

When performing such work in a private house, it is better to use pipes that have pre-insulation. In this case, self-adhesive insulation is used. An additional winding will help, for which you can use aluminum tape.

Before performing work, it is required to calculate heat losses. This takes into account the temperature that the coolant has and the temperature parameters of the surrounding air.

Good thermal insulation properties can be observed in polyurethane foam and glass wool. They are highly efficient.

Insulation of metal cold water pipes has the main purpose of preventing the appearance of moisture on the surface. Condensation protection is essential to prevent rust from developing. It leads to corrosion of the metal and, as a result, to the complete failure of the pipe.

Insulation of the plumbing with cold water in the basement

Use of polyurethane foam


Foam polymer-mineral insulation has excellent environmental properties in the presence of high efficiency of its use as a heat insulator.

This type of insulator has many positive aspects:

  • neutral smell;
  • not susceptible to the damaging effect of the fungus;
  • resistant to aggressive substances;
  • does not have a harmful effect on the human body;
  • manifests itself as an excellent dielectric;
  • has good resistance to various mechanical influences.

If the pipes have a large diameter, then its application is carried out by spraying. In this case, the insulating layer is continuous, without a seam. The use of this method guarantees the exclusion of maximum heat loss. Spraying is carried out using special equipment. The spraying process is simple and short in time.

PPU pipeline insulation

For pipes of small diameter installed in the apartment, a polyurethane foam shell is used. At the same time, a high level of thermal insulation is achieved. This method has a relatively low cost.

The use of polyethylene foam

In the market for such materials today, he occupies a leading position. It is applied to isolation of pipelines of any appointment. It looks like a finished shell, which was shaped like a pipe. She, as it were, envelops the pipe, protecting it from the action of harmful factors.

Using polyethylene foam as pipe insulation

Such a shell has a seam along which a cut is made during installation work. After their completion, the shell is glued again.

Application of glass wool


This material has all the properties that meet the requirements for heat insulators. Rolls are used for thermal insulation. If we consider this material as the main means for thermal insulation, then with its use the cost of work increases slightly. This is due to the need for additional measures. Such works are longer in time.

Positive aspects of using glass wool:

  • material can be used for a long time;
  • has a high resistance to the vibration factor;
  • high resistance to chemical and biological agents.

Before carrying out work on the thermal insulation of pipelines, it is necessary to draw up an estimate. It will reflect the step-by-step production of the entire scope of work. The result will be the total cost.

Glass wool casing with foil protection

Thermal insulation works are carried out in accordance with the current regulatory building documents. If the work is carried out correctly, a guarantee is achieved that the desired energy efficiency will be achieved. The period of useful operation of the pipeline will increase significantly.

Various materials are used during installation work. In doing so, certain factors must be taken into account. Of decisive importance will be the purpose for which the pipeline is planned to be laid.

For example, if the pipeline is expected to have a heat carrier with a high temperature, then it is better to use cylinder insulation. A polyurethane foam shell is quite suitable for these purposes. As an additional tool, laminated foil cardboard or foil is used.

Internal coating


The application of internal insulation for metal pipes is carried out only in the factory, in strict compliance with regulatory indicators. Internal isolation allows to keep all operational characteristics of the pipeline. Most often, products with this type of insulation are used for laying underground pipelines.

Reinforced internal insulation

Separate stages of work production

The work is carried out in compliance with the following rules:

  • It is necessary to start thermally insulating the pipe only after the completion of all installation work (locksmith work, welding).
  • The surface of the pipe is manually cleaned using special brushes. Mechanical sandblasting can be used. After that, the surface is subjected to degreasing.
  • Welds must be tested for strength and tightness. In addition to visual inspection, hydraulic pressure tests are carried out. Special equipment can also be used for control.
  • Then special compounds are applied to the surface. An example is an epoxy primer.

Recently, a method of insulating water and sewer pipes using a heating cable has gained good popularity. This method is most relevant in regions with severe winters. There are types that independently regulate the heating temperature. For greater energy savings, it is necessary to install a thermal relay. But the presence of such a cable still implies the need for high-quality thermal insulation. Without it, uncontrollable expenses will take place.


Detailed overview of ventilation in a boiler room with a gas boiler


Gas heating equipment, whose task is to heat residential premises and organize hot water supply, must be equipped with ventilation. Heating of the coolant in the gas boiler of the autonomous heating system occurs due to the combustion of natural gas. The combustion process of any fuel, not just a gaseous mixture, requires a constant supply of air containing oxygen. Efficient ventilation of a home boiler room with an autonomous gas boiler is one of the key aspects of the successful operation of the heating system. The efficiency of the gas boiler depends on the volume of oxygen entering the combustion chamber.

More air — the fuel burns more completely, the heat transfer of the boiler increases, less gas is consumed. Less air — fuel combustion worsens and, as a result, the heat transfer of the gas heater decreases, gas consumption increases. Let us consider in more detail the purpose of ventilation in a house with autonomous gas heating, its types, and how the main calculations are made in this case.

Purpose of ventilation

In the project of an autonomous heating system, one of the sections is always devoted to ventilation. The importance of this factor for the functioning of the heating system can hardly be overestimated. The main task assigned to ventilation is to ensure the efficient operation of heating devices, the creation of a full-fledged air exchange mode in heated rooms.

The second, even more important aspect that you should pay attention to when installing gas heating equipment is to ensure the safety of the heated object during the operation of the installed devices. Natural gas is a flammable, explosive substance, therefore, when operating gas heaters, all necessary precautions must be observed.

Failure to comply with the requirements for ventilation of gas equipment, violation of the main technological parameters of air exchange in the boiler room can cause carbon monoxide and other combustion products to enter the residential facility, which are dangerous to the life and health of the inhabitants of the house.

Ventilation in the boiler room with a gas heating boiler, properly arranged, prevents the accumulation of gas as a result of fuel leakage, reducing its concentration and preventing the formation of an explosive mixture.

Requirements for ventilation and the main methods of ventilation of boiler rooms

Currently, various methods of equipping gas boilers with ventilation are used in industry and in everyday life. The type of ventilation system depends on the type of boiler equipment, its power and design features of the building.

Important! The main rule when arranging boiler ventilation is that the air flow must be three times!

In other words, for the efficient and safe operation of a gas boiler, the air in the boiler room must be changed three times in one hour. Otherwise, combustion products will accumulate in the room, since ventilation will only ensure the operation of the boiler.

Requirements for ventilation systems are set out in SNiPs, we list them in a more accessible form:

  • the boiler room can be equipped in an annex to the main building, in a separate building or in a room specially allocated in the house for this purpose;
  • the ventilation system of the boiler room must be either separate or connected to the general forced system of the building, while it must have a backup option in case the main one fails;
  • air supply to the boiler room can be carried out both from the outside and due to the air mass present inside the residential facility, but in both cases the amount of incoming air must match the volume of outgoing air so that there is no pressure drop in the room;
  • the diameter of the vent (inlet) to ensure traction must be maintained in accordance with the norm — 8 cm2 cross-sectional area of ​​​​the vent per 1 kW of power of boiler equipment in the presence of forced exhaust;
  • if the ventilation is natural, then the standard size of the cross-sectional area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe vent is already 30 cm2 cross-sectional area per 1 kW.

All the necessary parameters for ventilation equipment, as a rule, are indicated in the technical passport of the gas heater.

Installing a gas boiler requires precision. Installation of gas heating in a private house must be carried out in strict accordance with the data specified in the project, and under the supervision of the inspection for the operation of gas equipment. Otherwise, the operation of the boiler will be recognized as dangerous, and its operation will be prohibited.

For reference: during start-up tests of autonomous heating, the functionality of the ventilation system is checked by a heating engineer. Shortcomings and technical non-compliance with the project may cause a refusal to put the heating system into operation.


Types of ventilation of gas heating equipment

Ventilation of gas heating equipment according to the method of ventilation is divided into 2 types:

  • natural;
  • forced.

Let’s take a closer look at these types.

natural ventilation

The easiest way to provide air supply is natural ventilation. This option is independent of external energy sources, however, its efficiency may not be high enough due to the design features of the gas boiler and the architectural parameters of the heated room.

The effectiveness of natural ventilation is influenced by the temperature of the atmospheric air, the strength and direction of the wind, and the parameters of atmospheric pressure. The intensity of the heating system, the gas pressure in the system can also affect the volume of naturally incoming air and the normal operation of the hood, so there is a significant drawback of natural ventilation — the dependence of its intensity on a number of factors.

Important! When connecting a gas boiler to a natural ventilation system, it is necessary to use exhaust fans as additional measures to avoid the accumulation of carbon monoxide inside the boiler room and prevent the formation of an explosive air-gas mixture.

This ventilation method is suitable for residential facilities of a small area, equipped with wall-mounted gas boilers of low power. Such boilers do not require the allocation of a special room and do not need a separate air duct system. It is enough to arrange a hole with a diameter of 100-150 mm in the outer wall and insert a coaxial chimney pipe into it.

As a more efficient and safer alternative to natural ventilation, forced, or mechanical, ventilation is common today.

Forced ventilation

The forced ventilation of the boiler room has been used for a long time, and its effectiveness has been proven by practice.

The advantages of forced, or mechanical, ventilation are as follows:

  • it is equipped on those objects where natural ventilation is not effective;
  • the possibility of adjusting the intensity of air exchange depending on the operating mode of the boiler;
  • the presence in the management of automation to adjust the operation of the injection equipment.

Mechanical ventilation is designed for installation in large residential areas. The use of gas heating boilers of considerable power and the high intensity of operation of such heating systems put forward increased requirements for ventilation. Therefore, it is the forced system, mounted on the basis of calculated data, that makes it possible to ensure the efficient operation of powerful gas boilers and the safety of the inhabitants of the house.

Calculation production

If you want to provide your home with high-quality heating, the issue of equipping gas heaters with ventilation should be approached responsibly.

An important point is the diameter of the pipes of the supply and exhaust air ducts — one of the key parameters that ensure the efficient operation of the heating unit. To calculate the characteristics of air ducts, the following are used:

  • the volume of the heated room;
  • dependence of the air exchange gain on the height of the ceilings in the room;
  • air supply speed.

Consider an example of a calculation. In each situation, the initial data will be individual, but the calculation algorithm will remain the same. Similar calculations can be seen in each project for the installation of autonomous gas heating equipment.

Room dimensions:

  • height H=2.8 m;
  • width B=3 m;
  • length L=4 m.

We multiply all the parameters:

(2.8 x 4 x 3) = 33.6 m3.

The resulting figure means the volume of the room — V.

Then the coefficient of air exchange gain in the room is calculated, depending on the height of the room. The given standard height of 6 meters is taken, and the actual height of the room is subtracted from it: 6m — 2.8m = 3.2m.

Then the resulting excess value must be multiplied by 0.25 and 3 added to the result.


The result of 3.8 is the calculated value of the air exchange amplification factor.

Multiplying the value of this coefficient by the volume of the room, we obtain the volume of air that must enter the boiler room from the ventilation system in an hour:

V = 3.8 x 33.6 = 128 m3

The final figure is the starting point for the subsequent tabular determination of the optimal cross-sectional area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe duct.

Important! The parameters of the supply ventilation must be the same as the diameter of the hood. Typically, exhaust pipes and a chimney of circular cross section are used, which ensures ease of docking and the least resistance to the passage of air flows.

For clarity, the table shows the calculated data on the dependence of the required air volume on the parameters of the duct.


Having become acquainted with the requirements for ventilation of the boiler room, it is easier to control the progress of work on its installation if the installation is carried out by a third-party contractor. Neither at the project stage, nor during the installation process, it is strictly forbidden to ignore the established norms, standards and rules. Any non-compliance with the design data is a violation and, as a result, the basis for the prohibition of putting the system and the boiler into operation, since the severity of the consequences of such violations is unpredictable.

Poor ventilation of the boiler room often causes emergency situations in the operation of the heating system, the consequences of which can be the most serious. Not to mention that an improperly adjusted and installed system becomes the main cause of excessive fuel consumption, which will significantly affect your budget.


Choosing the most economical way to heat your garage


Most motorists use the garage not only for its intended purpose, but also as a place where you can take a break from household chores, do a hobby or do some household chores. In order to stay comfortable in the garage even in winter, the room must be somehow heated.

In order for heating to be economical, it is necessary to know the features of existing heating methods, since you can choose the best one for yourself only taking into account the specific situation and a number of factors: the dimensions of the room, its distance from housing, the availability of fuel consumed, the budget for providing heat to the garage, etc. d.

Heating Options for a Standard Single Car Garage

The most popular and most economical way is to heat the garage with electricity, especially if the building is located at some distance from the house, has small dimensions and is not visited often in winter.

There are several ways to heat a garage space using electricity.


Models of electric convectors for use in garages and other technical premises

A reliable and efficient device, the principle of operation of which is based on air convection initiated by heating elements — cold air enters the device from below and, heating up upon contact with a heating element, rises warm to the top.

Convectors are available in floor, wall or universal versions — on support legs, with brackets for wall mounting or equipped with both mounting options. The latter type is especially convenient, as it allows you to compactly place the heater on the wall with the possibility of quick dismantling and installation next to the car — at the place of repair.

Advantages of an electric convector:

  • fast heating to working condition;
  • heating in automatic mode — a certain temperature value is manually set, upon reaching which the device turns off and resumes heating the room only when the air cools by 1 degree;
  • safe operation and ease of maintenance;
  • durability;
  • the possibility of using in rooms with high humidity and pollution, since the operating elements of the device are closed by a protective case.

Disadvantages of the convector:

  • higher cost compared to some other types of electric heaters (quartz);
  • the achievement of the effect of the work of the convector in the garage occurs after at least half an hour of time;
  • increased electricity consumption.

fan heater

fan heater
Portable fan heater of high power floor version for household and industrial needs

Principle of operation: a heat exchanger (heating elements or a spiral) is heated by means of electricity, the air from the room is blown into the heater by a fan, passed between the heating elements and returned to the garage already hot.

Advantages of a fan heater:

  • environmental friendliness — the absence of any emissions into the surrounding space during work;
  • convenience of adjusting the intensity of heating — there are switches for heating modes (turning off part of the heating elements) and fan speed;
  • small dimensions and mobility — can be installed anywhere in the garage;
  • the possibility of focused heating of zones or objects;
  • rapid heating of the room;
  • equipment with automatic shutdown devices in case of overheating or capsizing;
  • the possibility of additional self-completion with an electromechanical thermostat for automatically maintaining the set temperature in the room;
  • low cost of electrical appliances of small and medium power;
  • ease of use and maintenance.

Like any unit The fan heater also has disadvantages.which must be taken into account:

  • heating-related decrease in air humidity in the room;
  • the presence of a dust accumulation factor on the heating elements, which is fraught with fire or, at least, an unpleasant smell in the garage;
  • noise caused by the operation of the fan;
  • increased electricity consumption.

Despite these shortcomings, the use of a fan heater is the most popular heating for a garage.

heat gun

heat gun
Lightweight Timberk heat gun with handle for easy portability

A compact and easy-to-use device that provides fast and efficient heating of the garage. It differs from a fan heater by several times higher power of heating elements. The device is based on electric heaters and a high-performance fan, which provides intensive air blowing of the heating elements, causing the rapid distribution of heat in the room.

Connection of heat guns of increased power requires a three-phase power supply with a voltage of 380 V, less powerful units are designed for 220 V.

In garages of a small area, the use of heat guns creates dust in the air, so they can be effectively used there only if the room is kept clean at all times, including through high-quality finishing of building envelopes.

Infrared heater

Infrared heater UFO
Infrared heaters in various designs: tripod, wall and ceiling

The operation of the device is based on the emission of infrared rays, which, reaching the surface of objects in the path of propagation, heat them, and those, in turn, give off heat to the room. Such devices are sometimes referred to as UFO heaters, but UFO, the common Cyrillic abbreviation of the same name, has nothing to do with ultraviolet radiation.

UFO heaters are available in various sizes and capacities, they can be on a leg or designed to be mounted on a vertical or horizontal base (wall, ceiling). Provided that the housing is waterproof or placed under a canopy, infrared heaters can also be used in front of the garage on the street.

Advantages of IR heaters:

  • economical consumption of electricity;
  • ease of operation and installation;
  • reliability, safety and environmental friendliness.

The disadvantage of infrared heaters when used in a limited garage space is the effect of IR rays on a small area, which causes less heat transfer from objects into the air. But when focusing radiation in the direction of the actual zone, these heaters are quite effective.

Important! Significant heating of the body of UFO heaters during operation requires caution in handling the device in a cramped garage.

Water heating of a large capital garage


The most familiar to consumers is a water heating system, the use of which in spacious garages is justified by many factors, including the possibility of do-it-yourself installation. If the cost of purchasing a heating boiler, radiators and other components of the garage owner does not bother, then water heating is the best way to heat a large garage.

The operation of a garage water heating system requires compliance with the following rules:

  • equip enclosing structures, including gates, with insulation — this will give up to 40% energy savings;
  • use non-freezing liquid as a coolant — this will eliminate the need to drain water during a long absence of the owner;
  • to avoid damage, use heating radiators for industrial use, anti-vandal design.

If the distance of the garage is not more than 20 m from the house, you can connect it to the home heating system (in the case of autonomous heating — with sufficient power of the heating boiler). But heating a garage of a large area will require a significant additional consumption of coolant, that is, the installation of a common high-power boiler, the operation of which in the summer will not be economically justified. Therefore, in a spacious garage, it is more expedient to arrange an autonomous heating system and install an individual boiler. After making such a decision, it is necessary to determine the optimal fuel for specific conditions, under which the heating boiler will be purchased.


In terms of the cost of an energy carrier (natural gas), this is the most economical way to heat a garage, but it comes with hidden costs:

  • registration of design and permit documentation;
  • payment for the work of licensed specialists in the installation of gas equipment;
  • costs for ventilation and removal of combustion products;
  • costs for maintenance work on the boiler;
  • possibly the necessary construction and subsequent maintenance of the chimney.

Alternatively, infrared gas heaters, heating panels, convectors that consume liquefied propane and butane in cylinders can be used to heat the garage — this eliminates the need to go to the authorities, but adds the problem of providing fuel.

Features of gas heating:

  • advantages — a high level of automation of the heating system, when using natural gas — the constant availability of an energy carrier in the main, efficiency and high efficiency of gas equipment;
  • disadvantages — the presence of a risk factor for explosion, fire or carbon monoxide poisoning.

When using gas heating, the owner of the building must especially strictly observe the safety requirements in his garage.

A good option for a garage is a steam-drop type condensing automatic unit, which is up to 15% more economical than other models, as it is able to work efficiently at low gas pressure. In the heat exchanger of such a boiler, water from being heated by a gas burner turns into steam, and then again condenses into a liquid state, which is accompanied by the release of heat. Such boilers are produced in floor and wall versions. For a garage, the second option is preferable, excluding the possibility of tipping over when performing some work.



Heating with an electric boiler is a rather expensive solution to the heating problem for a garage. If there is no alternative type of fuel, then it is better to use electrical appliances (convectors, fans, heat guns, UFO heaters — described in detail above).

When using electric heating equipment indoors with an open arrangement of heating elements (coils, heating elements), it is necessary to remove flammable and combustible materials (fuels and lubricants, solvents, paints, tow, etc.) from the garage.

We also recommend — We make steam heating in the garage with our own hands.

solid fuel

solid fuel
Long-burning pyrolysis boiler Atmos made in the Czech Republic

Today, solid fuel boilers are in demand by homeowners and industrial buildings along with gas equipment. The fuel is coal, sawdust, firewood. This is a fairly economical heating, well providing the room with heat.

Disadvantages of heating a garage with a solid fuel boiler:

  • the need for smoke removal;
  • the need to allocate a significant area for arranging a place to store fuel, which is not always possible in a garage;
  • the danger of being in the garage of everything that can ignite from a spark when the firebox door is opened;
  • the need for regular cleaning of the furnace from ash, and pipes — from soot.

The most advanced and therefore economical type of solid fuel boiler is a pyrolysis-type unit, where the fuel, under the influence of high temperatures, decomposes into two components — pyrolysis gas and ash, each of which is burned almost without residue in a separate chamber.

In most models of pyrolysis boilers, only wood, pellets and waste (not bulk) from the woodworking industry are used as fuel. However, universal units are also produced, also designed for the use of coal and peat briquettes. The only common condition for all models is that in order for the boiler to enter the pyrolysis mode, the moisture content of the fuel should not exceed 20%, otherwise it will work like a conventional solid fuel heater.

However, pyrolysis-type boilers are expensive equipment, and therefore not every consumer can afford to use them to heat a garage — it is really economical to heat a garage with your own hands only when all components of the process do not require significant costs.

For a better idea of ​​how to equip a garage with a stove, you can watch this video:

It is not difficult to build a stove by watching the corresponding video.


Mining as a type of fuel

There are special furnaces that use used engine oil as fuel, the consumption of which is up to 1 liter per hour.

The disadvantage of this heating method is the need to clean the oil in special installations (you can make it yourself), since burning used lubricating fluids without first adapting the fuel to the process is fraught with failure of the furnace.

Air heating system for garage

Air heating is not as popular with garage owners as water heating, but with its help you can not only heat, but also ventilate the room.

The method consists in equipping the garage with an air duct with deflectors through which air is supplied, which is blown by a fan of a heat gun or fan heater and additionally passed through an air filter.

The main advantage of air heating for a garage is the rapid simultaneous drying of the entire volume, which prevents the aggressive effect of moisture on the car and other furnishings.


To reduce heating costs, the owner is recommended to insulate the outside walls and ceiling in the garage, having previously sealed all the cracks and holes. For thermal insulation of walls, you can use foam sheets, for the ceiling and floor — expanded clay. The use of mineral wool boards will require subsequent waterproofing

A properly selected garage heating system will not only provide a comfortable temperature in the room, protect the building envelope from dampness, but also prevent the development of corrosion on the metal parts of the car, which is detrimental to equipment.