The rules for storing food in the autumn-winter period differ from the peculiarities of their preservation in summer. Extending the shelf life of fresh vegetables and preservation is possible due to special basement and semi-basement rooms with a controlled microclimate. The main condition for their storage is full air circulation and control over the level of humidity. Cellar ventilation with one and two pipes makes it possible to achieve optimal environmental parameters and ensure the safety of all products until the next season.
Principle of operation and purpose of the system
The organization of the microclimate is a complex task, to achieve which a whole range of means, materials and methods is used. One of the stages in the design of the cellar is the selection and installation of the ventilation system. The lack of air circulation is considered a serious problem that can negate all efforts to collect and harvest crops for the winter. In a room with incompletely functioning or completely absent ventilation, the following phenomena develop:
- air stagnation;
- increase in humidity;
- an increase in the temperature inside the room;
- acceleration of decay processes;
- the appearance of condensate;
- development of fungi;
- activation of corrosion processes.
As a result of such factors, food and all other attributes in the room suffer. Shelves rust rapidly, shelves rot and collapse, lids oxidize, fruits and vegetables rot, and the air becomes unbreathable. Effective ventilation guarantees the storage of products, increasing the service life of racks and all related equipment.
There are several ways to achieve complete circulation of air masses inside the cellar. However, the most effective among them is the design of a natural supply and exhaust system with two pipes. The principle of its operation is due to the temperature difference between the environment and the cellar. From the school physics course it follows that the heated air escapes, rising to the ceiling. At the same time, cooled masses take its place, providing the necessary circulation of flows. To achieve a similar effect indoors is possible through the use of a simple system consisting of two pipes.
Scheme of the ventilation system and its features
The arrangement of natural aeration is possible only in small areas without partitions and large-sized racks. The presence of obstructions reduces the rate of circulation, making ventilation less effective. The same rule applies to the area of \u200b\u200bthe room, since the larger it is, the more difficult it is for the air flow to move through it. Therefore, to organize full-fledged ventilation in such buildings, forced-type systems based on the action of electrical energy are used.
- The creation of a working model of ventilation of a natural type room is carried out according to clearly established rules regulated by SNiP. The influx of fresh air and the removal of exhaust air is carried out using 2 channels. The supply air duct is brought out 10-15 cm above the floor level, and the second one is under the very ceiling, retreating from it by 5-10 cm.
- From the outside, the supply air duct is mounted above the ground 30-40 cm above its level. The exhaust pipe is installed above the inlet pipe by 25 cm or more. A similar arrangement makes it possible to achieve the necessary pressure difference and ensure full aeration inside the cellar.
- Important! The higher the outlet pipe is installed, the greater will be the difference in pressure inside the room. Consequently, air masses will replace each other more often, removing excess moisture and preventing the spread of mold.
Equipment and materials
The natural supply and exhaust system is simple in design compared to forced-type structures. The main part is the air duct, and the remaining parts are classified as auxiliary means. In addition to pipes, to create full-fledged natural aeration, you need:
- pipe connectors;
- protective nets;
- deflectors or umbrellas.
No other devices, fixtures or parts are included in the design of supply and exhaust aeration models. Due to this, the cost of their construction is reduced, and the effectiveness (subject to requirements) is increased.
The only criterion that directly affects the cost of the project is the material of the pipes. The following types are used as air ducts:
Each of these materials has features, characteristics and positive qualities. At the same time, the choice of a particular type of product is carried out not from economic indicators, but solely on the basis of the technical features and operating conditions of the future model.
Pros and cons of ventilation pipes
Plastic pipes are considered the most popular material used for the construction of natural aeration structures. Their main advantage is their relatively low cost, which reduces the overall cost of the project. In addition, the positive aspects of plastic include low weight, high ductility, flexibility and resistance to temperature extremes. However, with obvious advantages, they also have obvious disadvantages associated with low strength and instability to mechanical stress.
Asbestos-cement pipes are considered no less popular among builders. Their strength surpasses plastic products, which expands the scope of the material. In addition, its cost is also quite economical, which makes it possible to obtain an effective model for relatively little money. However, this is where the advantages of asbestos cement end. Its negative sides include weight and bulkiness, lack of adapters, the need for additional reinforcement of fasteners and sealing of joints.
Galvanization is the most popular material for the construction of ventilation systems from two pipes. The material is not subject to corrosion, durable, affordable, does not deform, is resistant to thermal effects and has an extensive product range. Lines of various shapes, lengths and directions are created from galvanized metal, without worrying about their tightness and functionality. The relative disadvantage of the material is the cost, which exceeds other products, affecting the economy of the project.
Calculation of duct diameter
Calculating the diameter of the pipe for cellar ventilation is a difficult task, on which the ventilation functionality depends. Too small cross-section of pipes does not allow air to fully circulate, and exceeding the size leads to the absence of the necessary pressure drop. To determine the size of the inlet and outlet channels, you need to know the following parameters:
- room area;
- wind load in a particular climatic zone;
- location on the ground;
- temperature features of the region.
Based on these criteria, making ventilation is not difficult. According to the technical documentation for utility rooms (cellars and basements), the circulation of air masses in the amount of 120 cubic meters per hour is the norm. As a rule, to obtain full-fledged air exchange in a room with an area of up to 25 sq.m., it is enough to install pipes with a diameter of 100 mm.
To improve natural circulation, special deflectors are used, which are installed at the outlet of the exhaust ducts. Thanks to the design details, these devices increase the speed of air movement, promoting indoor renewal.
Installation of the ventilation system from the design stage of the future structure. This part plays an important role, because it makes it possible to assess the scope and direction of the work, as well as determine the amount of material needed. To assess the complexity of the project, the simplest diagram drawn with an ordinary pencil on a piece of paper is suitable. Having estimated and purchased all the details, we proceed to the direct installation of ventilation from 2 pipes with our own hands, which consists of the following steps:
- collection and preparation of inventory;
- formation of holes for laying air ducts;
- wiring and fixing pipes;
- sealing connections;
- installation of protective umbrellas.
When erecting a structure, it is better to do without joints and turns, bending or a fragile joint affects the pressure inside the channels. As a result, there is a decrease in the level of circulation of air masses, which leads to a decrease in the performance of the model. Another condition for the effective operation of the system is the tightness of the room. In addition to the supply and exhaust pipes, there should not be any other sources of air in the cellar. Additional holes, slots and holes also affect the movement of masses within the room, reducing the circulation rate.
Cellar ventilation with one pipe: differences and features
The principle of cellar ventilation with one pipe is built on the same principle as the previous design. The role of the output channel is played by the front door and the natural cracks of the room. In this case, the supply pipe is installed according to the general principle, that is, 10-15 cm above the floor level. Thanks to this, fresh air enters the cellar, ensuring normal circulation. The only drawback of this design is considered to be installation only in a small area up to 12-15 sq.m. Exceeding such values does not allow to achieve effective aeration.
Important! The design features of the premises also play a significant role. The presence of high racks, turns, uneven walls, ceiling and floor inevitably affects the movement of air. As a result, the natural ventilation system becomes less efficient even when the area is within acceptable limits. For full-fledged air exchange in such cellars, it is necessary to build a project with 2 pipes.
Adjusting the system in winter
The penetration of frosty air into the cellar leads to a decrease in temperature below 0 degrees. Similar values have a negative impact on the safety of fresh products and preservation. Maintaining the optimum temperature of +2 + 6 degrees and preventing its decrease is an important task, which can be solved with the help of ventilation. However, if the cellar freezes due to insufficient thermal insulation, it will not be possible to solve the problem by restricting the incoming air. It is possible to increase the temperature inside the cellar by reducing the intensity of circulation. To do this, special plugs are installed at the inlet, which allow you to regulate the flow of incoming air or completely limit them.
Installation of ventilation with 2 pipes is advisable, provided that the cellar area is small and its tightness. With the correct calculation and drawing up of a master plan, the installation of natural-type supply and exhaust ventilation will not take much time. Work can be done by hand in one day. The result of the work will be an improvement in the microclimate and an increase in the shelf life of all products that are available in the cellar.