The efficiency of engineering communications is influenced by various factors, one of them is cold. So that low temperatures do not interfere with the functioning of the liquid, it is necessary to carry out reliable thermal insulation of the pipes of the sewage system.
The choice of insulation for sewerage
High-quality insulation cannot be carried out without reliable materials. A wide range of heat insulators for pipelines of various directions is presented on the Russian market. To choose the right one, you need to know the technical characteristics of this material and its scope.
The main task of insulating sewer pipes is not to heat the circulating liquid, but to protect against heat loss in the system. Therefore, it is important to take into account the thermal conductivity of the insulating material when choosing it.
What should be the heater
There are criteria that a heat insulator must meet.
- Ease of installation. The criterion is important for domestic use, since most do not have professional plumbing skills, and convenience when working with insulation will be very helpful.
- Long service life. High-quality thermal insulation material will protect the pipeline for at least 50 years.
- Fire resistance. When heating a plumbing system, electrical cables are often used. This criterion is aimed at protection against fire. The material must be self-extinguishing.
- Resistant to moisture and air penetration. If the material is not sealed, its ability to retain heat is greatly reduced.
- Affordable price. It must be objective. The use of cheap material will lead to additional costs with its frequent replacement.
The technical characteristics of each type of insulation are taken into account. For pipelines of open type and laid in the ground, different heat insulators are selected.
Types of insulation for sewerage
The most popular are the following materials:
- Mineral wool. The standards enshrined in GOST 31913 indicate that this insulation refers to a fibrous material made from alloys of mountain and metal slags. The concept combines three of its varieties: glass wool, stone wool and slag wool. Each type is distinguished by the coefficient of thermal conductivity, fiber thickness, and the ability to resist mechanical stress.
Mineral wool has a number of positive qualities:
- Ease of work. With cotton wool produced in rolls, you can simply wrap the pipe and secure it with twine or adhesive tape.
- The low price is a weighty argument in favor of this material.
- It is not subject to decay, which makes it possible to use it for insulation of a pipeline laid in the ground.
It is necessary to mention the negative aspects of this insulation, which include the presence of harmful substances in its composition. When heated, formaldehyde resins emit harmful fumes that adversely affect human health. Mineral wool actively absorbs moisture, which negatively affects its characteristics.
- Extruded polystyrene foam. It is a foamed mass with closed cells. Thanks to this structure, they can carry out thermal insulation of sewer pipes in wet ground. The material is produced in the form of a cover, which is easily put on the surface from both sides, and is fixed by the “thorn-groove” system. The dimensions of the covering parts depend on the diameter of the pipes and the length of the entire system.
Let’s note some more of its positive qualities:
- Low thermal conductivity.
- Long operating period. Does not lose its properties for 50 years.
- Has a high density.
- Resistant to drops
For objectivity, it is necessary to mention the shortcomings of this material:
- Combustible. This means that it should not be used near electrical wires or in an open area.
- It emits harmful substances when heated above 70 degrees.
- Subject to destruction of the structure when exposed to UV rays.
- Whatever the manufacturers say, it has been proven in practice that insects and rodents start up and are very fond of this material.
Methods for installing insulation for pipes
As an example, take polystyrene foam as a heater. The main positive side when using it is the convenience and ease of installation. You do not need special skills, so you can easily carry out the insulation yourself.
To do this, you must perform the following steps:
- The cylinder is divided into two parts, which are put on the pipe with an offset relative to each other. In this case, a small overlap with the limits should form: from below in a radius of 10 cm, from above — 20 cm. The diameter of the casing must match the diameter of the pipeline.
- When laying the sewage system underground, the two halves are fastened to the structure with adhesive tape. For the external pipeline, fixing is carried out after completion of work. In places with a joint, it is necessary to glue with adhesive tape additionally. For better sealing.
- For insulation of corners, turns, joints, special fan shells are used. They have a shape that repeats the bending of the system.
Following all the instructions, warming will not require much time.
Insulation of the external sewerage system
To ensure that the external drainage system does not fail for better insulation, you can use an electric cable. This method requires additional financial investments.
Work is carried out taking into account the following points:
- The heating cable is laid on the surface of the pipe and fixed on it.
- To reduce heat loss, the cable is covered with heat-shielding foil material. He will direct the flow of heat to the pipe.
- Next, the pipe is laid in a trench, pre-laid with waterproofing to protect it from moisture penetration and contact with the cable.
Installing a heated cable will reliably protect your sewer system from freezing.
Engineering way to shelter the pipeline from the cold
A constructive approach to pipe laying is one of the simplest and most effective ways to protect a system from freezing.
The essence of the method is to lay the pipeline below the freezing level of the soil. Installation is carried out in the following way:
- I make a trench with a slope of 1 meter.
- Sand or expanded clay is poured to the bottom. A drain structure is mounted on them.
- The created structure is covered with gravel, then with earth and rammed.
This method of protecting pipes from freezing is easy to use. You can use it in normal living conditions without the use of mechanized equipment.
Closing the heat insulator of the fan pipe
The insulation of the fan riser is of particular importance. It is displayed outside for ventilation of the pipeline system. There is no circulating liquid in it that can freeze, but the walls of the riser can freeze heavily. The overgrown crust of ice can clog the air passage. Therefore, it should also be insulated.
Materials that are resistant to moisture and ultraviolet radiation should be chosen for the insulation of the fan riser. Warming requires a section of the system located in the upper part. a metal cap is put on top of the end of the structure to protect it from the weather.
If the riser is covered with frost, it can be thawed in a folk way:
- A stranded metal wire without insulation is taken. A segment is measured with a length equal to the distance of the riser.
- A ball is formed from it, suitable for the diameter of the pipe. Attached to a thick wire or rope.
- After that, it should be fixed at the end of the pipe and kept in this form for several days.
At this time, a chemical reaction occurs with the release of heat, which will warm the walls of the riser and free the pipe from the ice crust.
The choice of method and material for the insulation of the sewerage system remains with the owner of the site. The main thing is to take into account the peculiarities of the landscape and climate of the region of residence.