Water supply and sewerage are engineering systems, the installation of which is mandatory in any private house, since their presence ensures the creation of a minimum level of comfort: the ability to take a shower, wash dishes or food, cook dinner.
At the design stage, it is important not only to correctly calculate and select pumping equipment, but also to correctly plan the connection of the source and the distribution of water supply around the house. The laying of water supply pipes and the installation of all necessary equipment should be carried out immediately after the construction of the house. Otherwise, installation will take a significant amount of time and money.
First of all, when designing a system, it is necessary to determine the source of water supply. There are three options:
If there is a well on your personal plot, you can do the plumbing with your own hands. However, this method of water intake has several disadvantages:
- Water intake must be continuous, otherwise the well will be flooded.
- It is necessary to install a multi-level purification system, since usually the water quality does not meet the standards.
- The resource of this source is limited, so this method is only suitable for a small house.
- Regular cleaning and disinfection of the well is necessary.
In this case, a surface pump (if the well is a few meters from the house) or a submersible pump can be used to supply water. Usually a well is used only in case of low water consumption, in most cases other sources are preferred.
The most popular way to supply water to a private house is to draw water from an artesian well. The cost of installation is relatively high, but the reliability of the system and the high quality of the water compensate for this disadvantage.
Connecting to the main network is the easiest way to supply water, but it is rare. To introduce water to the site, it is enough only to obtain a permit (with recommendations for laying a pipeline) and connect the pipes.
Piping layout: manifold or serial
Regardless of which source of water supply has been chosen, the optimal piping scheme for the facility is selected: serial or collector piping of the water supply system. When designing a network, you need to pay attention to the following factors:
- the number of people living in the house;
- the frequency of being in the house;
- intensity of water use.
Tee (or serial) piping from a heater, main or riser passes by connecting plumbing equipment one after another. Thus, the installation of the system takes a minimum amount of materials and time, however, this connection method has two significant drawbacks:
- Uneven pressure in the system when used by several users at the same time. That is, for example, when you turn on the water in the bathroom or in the kitchen, the normal water pressure will be only in the tap located closer to the source.
- To repair a separate element of the system, it is necessary to completely turn off the water supply of the building.
With a collector (or parallel) connection, the pipes to the intake points are brought directly from the distribution manifold (individual distributors are provided for hot and cold water). Collector wiring allows all users to constantly receive a stable water pressure, regardless of the number of plumbing fixtures turned on at the same time. The main disadvantage of this method is a large number of pipes, which are difficult and expensive to hide.
In recent years, combined distribution of water pipes has become increasingly popular, in which short lines are mounted in series, and later assembled into a collector. This method is a budget alternative to parallel pipe connection. Indeed, with it, the material for installation takes much less, and in the event of a breakdown, it is enough to turn off the water supply of only one short branch.
Hidden and open water supply system
Plumbing can be carried out in an open or closed way. At first glance, the second option is more preferable for the following reasons:
- saving usable space;
- a neat look, since all communications are sewn up with drywall or hidden in the wall.
The main thing when distributing a water supply system in this way is to seal all joints as carefully as possible (or it is better to completely hide only whole sections of the pipeline) and leave space between the wall and the pipe to facilitate repair work.
The main disadvantages of hidden wiring: the inability to instantly detect a leak and more complex and expensive repairs, as it becomes necessary to open (and later re-install) the facing material. The best way to avoid this is to install special doors at the locations of the valves.
Unlike concealed wiring, which is installed before finishing work, open installation takes place after the completion of tiling or painting the walls. It will look less attractive, however, in the event of repair or rearrangement of plumbing equipment, all work can be done as quickly and simply as possible.
The choice of pipes for the water supply system
The water supply system in a private house or country house can be carried out using pipes made of various materials, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages:
- Copper. The best material for pipes of the water supply system in all respects: it is not subject to corrosion, it is not afraid of ultraviolet radiation, it cannot be damaged by microorganisms, it does not expand and does not narrow due to temperature and pressure changes. The only drawback is the high price, so the wiring of copper water pipes is used extremely rarely.
- metal-plastic. Aluminum pipes, protected on both sides with plastic, are an excellent alternative to copper pipes. They are not subject to corrosion and ultraviolet radiation, they bend perfectly. Among the shortcomings, it is worth noting the fear of high temperatures (more than 95 degrees). Therefore, if you are planning a wiring with metal-plastic pipes, find out in advance about the temperature of the supplied water (if you connect to the main water supply) and monitor the correct operation of the boiler. Do-it-yourself wiring of metal-plastic pipes is possible. The main thing is to connect all the joints as tightly as possible. During operation, it is important to regularly check the quality of threaded connections and, if necessary, tighten them.
- Steel. The classic version, used since the days of the USSR. Advantages of the material: strength and durability, disadvantages: the rapid appearance of rust and the complexity of installation due to the need to cut threads at all points of connection of elements or welding.
- Polyethylene. Polyethylene pipes are excellent for distributing hot and cold water, as they are resistant to temperature changes and have good plasticity, which greatly facilitates installation. Branches are assembled from this material by welding elements, however, if you choose cross-linked polyethylene, installation is carried out using connecting fittings.
- PVC. This material is able to enter into a chemical reaction, therefore it is not recommended for domestic plumbing.
- Polypropylene. Polypropylene wiring is a budget option for laying water supply in the house. Systems made of polypropylene pipes are durable, not afraid of corrosion and are easy to install using a welding machine, which is why they are now so common.
When selecting pipes, do not forget which method of laying (serial or manifold) you have chosen, since the cost of the system largely depends on this. Pipes with the best price / quality ratio are polypropylene, when buying them, please note that reinforced elements must be selected for laying hot water.
Selection of the section of pipelines
Before purchasing material, select the diameter of the pipeline in all sections of the system. If it is too small, the flow rate will be high, which will lead to loud noise, if it is large, you will spend more money on the purchase, and it will be more difficult to hide the pipes. The optimal speed of water movement in the system is 2 m/s.
With the tee method of laying, the diameter depends on the number of plumbing fixtures connected in series and is calculated individually for each branch. With a parallel connection, it is enough to know the length of the section:
- if the section has a length of less than 10 meters, the internal diameter of the pipeline should be from 16 mm to 20 mm.
- up to 30 meters — 25 mm.
- more than 30 meters — 32 mm.
When connected in series, the main parameter for calculation is the throughput of the pipe. For example, one tap on average passes 5-6 liters of water per minute. When calculating, sum up the throughput of plumbing equipment that can be turned on at the same time, and depending on this, select the diameter. A pipeline with a cross section of 25 mm is capable of passing 30 liters per minute, 32 mm — 50 l / min, 38 mm — 75 l / min.
Features of the water supply system
Any wiring diagram for a water supply system includes the following elements:
- Water source (well, well or main).
- A pump or pumping station that supplies water to a system (electrical or mechanical).
- A hydraulic accumulator that provides the accumulation of water and creates the necessary pressure.
- External and internal pipes through which water moves through the site and inside the house.
- Shut-off valves and plumbing equipment for regulating and supplying fluid flow.
For hot water supply, it is also necessary to include a heating element in the system — a boiler. The most economical option is a gas double-circuit boiler, which also provides heat supply to the building in winter. if the gas supply is not possible, for a bathhouse, a summer residence or a small private house, it will be enough to install a storage electric boiler.
Often, to save money at the stage of installing a bathhouse or a summer house for use only in the warm season, they arrange summer water supply, in which pipes along the street are located on the surface of the earth. The main disadvantage of this method is the need to drain water and remove pipes before the onset of cold weather. This option is good only as a temporary solution, for example, when it is possible to connect to the highway, but it takes time to agree on permits.
Do-it-yourself plumbing installation
Before self-installation of the water supply system, read the following rules and tips:
- Minimize the number of pipe passes through the building envelope.
- Leave free space (at least 2 centimeters) between walls and pipes to facilitate repair work.
- Attach the horizontal sections of the pipeline to the wall every 1-1.5 meters.
- Before the connection points of the washing machine and dishwasher, it is imperative to install coarse filters, otherwise the devices will quickly fail.
- The pipeline leading to the shower cabin must be equipped with a ball valve.
- If you are planning a water supply for a small house, it is advisable to connect the kitchen and bathroom in parallel. Otherwise, if someone starts washing dishes with cold water, the person taking a shower will get burned from excessively hot water.
- An interesting option is the horizontal distribution of water pipes in the basement, followed by a rise to the connection points for plumbing equipment. In this case, most of the communications will be hidden without additional work. This option is only suitable for one-story houses. In higher buildings, it is possible to lay part of the pipes along the ceiling.
The installation procedure depends on the type of material used. Consider the now popular Rehau cross-linked polyethylene pipes, which can be installed not only by the master, but also by any owner of the dwelling who does not have special skills.
The layout of pipes of the German brand Rehau begins with the preparation of the necessary materials and tools: pipes and fittings, an expander with nozzles for different diameters, a press clamp, a cutting tool, a tape measure and a marker.
The assembly of the system proceeds as follows:
- Pipe cutting.
- Layout of the system with fittings on the floor.
- Connection with special sleeves.
Fixation occurs by expanding the ends of the connected elements and inserting a sleeve from them. The main thing is to strictly observe the horizontality of all elements, the slightest misalignment will lead to a non-tight joint.