Multi-apartment residential buildings are equipped with a centralized water supply and heating system. The system assumes the presence of dividing structures, because water and heat must be evenly distributed throughout all rooms.
Communications are centrally supplied to the basement of an apartment building, and from there it is distributed through the distribution network to the apartments. Inside the dwelling, distribution is carried out through internal pipes. Each of them has its own specific service life, eventually becomes unusable and requires replacement of damaged pipes in the apartment. Sometimes a tenant expresses a desire to change the outdated system from cast iron to a polyethylene version. They are more modern and practical in use.
Who pays for the repair
When it comes to replacing heating and water pipes in an apartment building, consider some of the nuances:
- If an overhaul of engineering communications is scheduled in the house, it is carried out by the management company of the house;
- Repair of a failed sewer riser is also carried out at the expense of the management company, since it is a common house property;
- The communal services are responsible for repair work in a state-owned apartment, but if the owner is a private person, all costs will fall on his shoulders.
Therefore, do not rush to invest in repairs where others should do it.
Types of pipes for heating and water supply
If in Soviet times there was not much choice and almost all apartments had metal and cast-iron risers, today the variety of materials for the manufacture of pipes can only be surprised. If it is necessary to replace the water supply and heating pipes in the apartment, you should not blindly follow the applicant’s lead, you yourself need to understand what types of materials currently exist.
The choice of material for the water supply and heating system
This process must be approached responsibly. After all, this will ultimately determine how well the system of engineering communications will carry out its tasks. If the buyer is an amateur, then it is difficult for him to understand the wide variety. The choice of material from which the pipes are made is determined by the specific technical operating conditions and the budget of the buyer. If we are talking about a sewerage system, then plastic pipes will be the priority of choice. It is much more difficult to choose them for plumbing.
Replacing water pipes in your apartment implies knowing exactly which system is designed to supply clean drinking water, and which one is for its disposal. Such water contains a large amount of oxygen and a small amount of salts. The pressure in constructions with clean water does not exceed 5 bar, and the temperature is within 60 degrees.
For repair work, choose the following types of materials:
- Copper products. Like it or not, but on any side, such a pipe is best suited for plumbing. Copper, being a natural material, has been used for thousands of years to store and transport water. In relation to water, copper is inert. Shows this metal and bacteriostatic properties. It inhibits the growth of microbial flora. Salts are not deposited on the smooth wall of the copper pipe. In any case, in this regard, they are much better than steel pipes. To connect a water pipe from this material, capillary soldering is used, which is similar in quality to crimping.
The service life of a copper pipe is longer compared to a plastic version. Sometimes they last longer than the building itself. The only significant drawback that limits their widespread use is their high cost. But if you take into account all the costs of operating and repairing other systems, then this option has a certain attractiveness. If the length of the copper water supply is small, then the low cost of fittings for them makes the installation of the structure profitable;
- Pipe made of plastic and metal polymer. This option is suitable for homeowners with a small budget. The cheapest is polypropylene water supply. But if we are talking about hot water supply, then it is necessary to use polyethylene pipes with reinforcement. Connect such pipes using diffuse welding. Not every person can carry out installation work, but only one who has sufficient qualifications. It is enough to slightly overheat the pipe and it will melt;
- Products made of polyethylene with metal-plastic. Their reliability and price occupies an intermediate position. Cross-linked polyethylene and metal-plastic have an external similarity, but there are still differences. Polyethylene ones have greater elasticity, but plasticity is more pronounced in metal-plastic ones. It is much easier to repair communications with such pipes;
- Steel products are strong, but can be corroded, since oxygen dissolved in water is a strong oxidizing agent. In addition, the walls of this design become rough due to the fact that salts are deposited. But oddly enough, they are most suitable for replacing old pipes in Khrushchev. The fact is that all communications in old houses are made of this material, and the same type of product is needed for repairs.
According to professionals, the best is a copper pipe. If the budget is small, then you can use a plastic and metal-plastic pipe. But metal, it is strongly not recommended to use, especially in old houses.
Fittings are a separate type of plumbing systems with which a plastic system is mounted. With their help, an integral connection is obtained. SNiP allows them to be integrated into the building structure. In the most extreme cases, a threaded fitting is used, since the connection must be accessible for maintenance.
Replacement and repair of the heating system: materials and stages of work
Elements of such systems are operated in very harsh conditions of high temperatures and pressures. Again, the best in this case is a copper pipe. In addition, they have several positive qualities:
- Strong, plastic and resistant to mechanical stress. Since they have a presentable appearance, they can be mounted in an open way;
- They have low hydraulic resistance. They can be used with a smaller outer diameter, resulting in significant cost savings;
- The material is not capable of burning, and in case of fire they will not emit toxic substances;
- Copper pipe does not deform under maximum pressure;
- Corrosion resistant. This distinguishes it favorably from metal products;
- The pipes are connected by soldering, which is safe for the surrounding interior in the room.
As already mentioned, the disadvantage of copper pipes is their high cost.
Metal and plastic products for heating installation
For the repair and installation of the heating system, galvanized metal pipes can be used. They are durable, corrosion resistant due to zinc coating and able to withstand high temperatures.
A cheap plastic pipe for heating can be used if the coolant has a temperature of no higher than +75 degrees. They will only serve the owner for a few years.
Step-by-step technique for performing work
Before you install a new distributing heating or water supply system with your own hands, you should carry out work to dismantle the old cast-iron pipes. The performance of such work has some features, since it is a very fragile material. This is especially true for those communications that have been used in the house for a very long time. When working, it is necessary to take care of personal protective equipment, which must include goggles.
If a metal hammer is used, then the cast iron may crack or fly off a piece of material upon impact. For a person carrying out dismantling work, this is unsafe. Therefore, it is better to use a hammer that has a rubber or wooden butt. Ideally, it is necessary to dismantle the pipe up to the riser. If this cannot be done, you can use a plastic adapter.
A grinder is used to cut cast iron. In its absence, you can use a conventional hacksaw for metal. But at the same time, one must understand that the process will be longer in time and with greater effort.
Replacement of heating pipes
It does not hurt to first familiarize yourself with what type of heating systems are. They can exist in two forms:
- one pipe. The supply of hot water through the riser is carried out vertically. Such risers are made with a diameter of 25 or 32 mm. For wiring use pipes with a diameter of 20 mm;
- system of two elements. One serves to supply hot water, and the other to drain it. When installing such systems, the diameter is determined by the number of radiators that are supposed to be installed. If there are 8 batteries, then pipes with a diameter of 32 mm should be used. If there are fewer radiators, then use 20 mm products. Pipes with a diameter of 32 mm are also used as a riser.
Work should be done in the following order:
- First, you need to drain all the water in the system.
- Mark the location of the fasteners. In this case, a perforator is used to make holes.
- If the system is single-pipe, then a Mayevsky crane must be installed in the upper part of the radiator. With it, air that has entered the system will be removed. The hole at the bottom is tightly closed with a cork.
- Then the cranes are installed. To do this, use a special wrench with union nuts. When the radiator is already hung, the installation of a pipeline suitable for it is carried out.
- If the heating system is two-pipe, then strobes (recesses) are made in the floor. A pipe wrapped with insulation is laid in them. In a similar way, a structure is hidden in the wall that goes to heating radiators.
The newly completed system is checked for tightness by means of hydraulic tests. This is carried out at elevated pressure, which is 1.5 times higher than normal values. In this regard, one piece of advice can be given: in a two-pipe heating system, the water flow must be carried out in the opposite direction. In this case, the air rises to the top, and it is removed by means of the Mayevsky crane.
Water supply system
Most often, you can observe cases of replacing cast-iron water supply pipes with plastic or metal-plastic options.
Replacing communications in Khrushchev is fraught with some difficulties. These are old panel houses, where it is necessary to dismantle the structure very carefully, otherwise not only the hot and cold water supply system, but also the ceilings themselves can be damaged. This is dangerous for the integrity of the whole house.
Given this, the installation is carried out according to the following scheme:
- First you need to shut off the water supply to the riser;
- All sanitary equipment is disconnected from the system;
- It is necessary to dismantle the old pipes. They should be cut and removed from the floors;
- Using a pipe cutter, structural elements are pre-cut to the desired length. At the same time, a reconciliation with the developed water supply scheme is carried out. When cutting, do not forget to take into account the depth of the fitting. If, say, the length of the pipe is 40 cm, then 43 cm should be cut off. 1.5 cm is added to the depth of the fitting;
- If it is supposed to connect a polypropylene pipe on its own, then a special nozzle is put on the soldering iron. After that, the product should be heated to the required temperature. Its value is indicated in the instructions. As a rule, it is 250 degrees. The connection is made carefully to avoid leaks during operation of the system. The pipe must be kept on the nozzle for 5-10 seconds. After that, the joints are connected and wait for complete cooling;
- Replacement begins with a fan pipe in the apartment. Then you need to solder the taps;
- After that, wiring is carried out towards different rooms (bathroom, toilet, kitchen).
The work is not particularly difficult, and with a certain skill, this can be done quite independently. This requires precise observance of the stages of work and accuracy.