Every inhabitant of our country knows that it is impossible to do without a heating system in a house or apartment. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully monitor the efficient operation of the entire system. Unfortunately, over time, the quality of the heat supplied decreases and the time comes to replace the old heating pipes.
Reasons for replacing the heating system
In multi-apartment, private houses of the old building, radiators made of cast iron or steel were mounted. This material is prone to corrosion, dirt sticking to the walls, which leads to blockages and leaks. But even modern radiators installed in new homes can fail. There are a number of possible reasons why heating pipes may fail and need to be replaced.
- Incorrectly installed circuit. There are a number of rules, technologies for assembling heating in an apartment, the order in which the main elements (faucets, pumps, expansion valves) are located. Trying to reduce the cost of housing, developers save on installing all the necessary fittings. For example, if the repairmen did not provide shutoff valves when connecting the radiator, then it will be impossible to remove it for repair or cleaning. You will need to turn off all water supply to the system. It also happens that some unscrupulous craftsmen make changes on their own, without thinking about the consequences, which then have to resort to a complete replacement of the riser and heating pipes
- Low temperature. This is a fairly common reason for redoing your design. The lack of heat can be completely corrected by simply replacing the batteries or increasing the diameter of the pipes.
- Incorrectly designed wiring system. It depends on the scheme how exactly the water will circulate in the radiators, whether the directions of supply and return coincide. If the scheme is chosen incorrectly, then you will have to completely redo the entire heating system.
- High breathability. For high-temperature structures, diffusion is a big problem. The material from which the pipeline is made can pass air. The presence of air accumulations in the hydraulic system can cause serious problems and lead to cavitation processes, that is, the occurrence of noise and water hammer. According to the established standards, it is allowed to use materials with an anti-diffusion coating, the penetration coefficient of which is not higher than 100 mg/m2 per day.
Nevertheless, experts identify two main problems when replacing heating pipes is required:
- Strong wear of the pipeline. This is especially true in old houses where metal structures predominate. Over a long service life, they become overgrown with deposits and cease to function effectively.
- Carrying out overhaul. If you have a private house, and you decide to redevelop, change the location of the boiler or boiler. If this is an apartment building, then a planned overhaul of the riser, pipes in the basement is carried out.
But whatever the reason, it will take a lot of effort and financial costs to create a high-quality heating pipeline. To do this, first select the material from which the structure will be made.
What pipes to choose for heating?
In most cases, apartment buildings have central heating. In order to decide which material is best suited, you need to understand that the water temperature in the system is 950 degrees. The material must withstand this temperature regime and pressure of 10-12 atmospheres. The most popular are:
- Rehau pipeline.
Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Modern pipes made of metal-plastic are a one-piece, elongated structure of circular cross section. They are made in several layers: the inner layer has a metal base, the outer ones are plastic.
The top layer is made of cross-linked PEX polyethylene, which is highly cross-linked. Such material is able to withstand high temperatures and does not deform when heated. The smooth inner layer protects the construction from dirt sticking, and the PEX layers prevent the release of galvanic steam from the aluminium. In addition, polymers do not allow condensation to collect.
Metal-plastic plumbing has several advantages:
- Resistance to corrosive processes, even in the presence of aggressive substances;
- Salts, silt, sand and other stickings are not deposited on the walls;
- Plastic. This quality is especially necessary when creating a complex structure, where it is required to go around obstacles or create turns;
- Ease. To work with this material does not require much effort;
- Low coefficient of resistance allows to maintain stable pressure during fluid movement;
- Durability. Service life at good leaving more than 50 years;
- Environmental friendliness. The material does not emit toxic and harmful substances, so the composition of the water does not change;
- Do not conduct current;
- They have low thermal conductivity and high sound insulation.
Significant advantages include ease of installation of the heating structure. Assembly does not require welding equipment and special tools. The whole structure is mounted using fittings, which can be purchased at any plumbing store. Metal-plastic is compatible with other materials, and in case of emergency repairs, you can use any means.
For a long time, metal pipes have been used to create a heating system. Despite the emergence of new modern materials, their popularity does not decrease due to reliability and durability. Galvanized metal structures are able to withstand high operating loads, pressure and temperatures above +100˚С.
The performance of the pipeline depends on the characteristics of the production of steel products. They can be made seamless or welded. In the first case, the manufacturing process requires sophisticated technical equipment, in the other, they are welded from a single sheet of galvanized metal.
The advantages of this product include:
- High thermal conductivity. The metal is able to heat up and give off heat to the air space of the room, thus performing the role of heating devices.
- Low coefficient of gaseous diffusion. The value of this criterion approaches absolute. It is impossible to make a high-quality closed loop without such indicators.
- Strength. This quality makes the metal pipeline the most reliable. They are best used if high-pressure fluid filling is envisaged.
- The low price makes this product affordable.
Of course, there are also a number of disadvantages. These include:
- Susceptibility to corrosion. The metal does not resist aggressive substances well, but thanks to galvanization, this drawback can be smoothed out.
- Rigidity. When creating complex design configurations, professional skills and curly elements will be required, which will adversely affect the reliability of the entire heating system.
- Electrical conductivity. The property of the metal to conduct current does not allow the use of this material in the formation of a system with an electric boiler.
- Big weight. For the installation of the heating structure, a lot of physical effort and outside help will be required.
The heating system made of polypropylene pipes will serve effectively for a long time. Polypropylene is a material made by processing petroleum products combined with catalysts. The following positive qualities speak in favor of choosing this material:
- High pressure resistant;
- High quality thermal insulation;
- Acceptable price;
- Easy installation of structures of any complexity;
- The material is lightweight, which makes it easy to move it to the right place;
- Does not conduct current pulses, which minimizes the formation of deposits inside the pipe;
- Durability. With proper use, they can last more than 50 years.
But they also have certain disadvantages, which should also be considered when choosing a material:
- Installation requires special equipment and professional skills;
- Repair is associated with some difficulties in the selection of fittings;
- Vulnerable at temperatures above 100 degrees.
Despite the shortcomings, polypropylene pipes remain the most in demand for creating a heating system.
Rehau polyethylene products in our country are not inferior in popularity to other materials. To create a pipeline from Rehau cross-linked pipes, no special tools are required. Installation technology is simplified as much as possible. To connect structural elements, a system of sliding sleeves has been developed, which increases the reliability of soldering at the joints. Due to the ease of connection, almost anyone can make a heating system in their home on their own.
You can also add a number of positive qualities of this material:
- Reliability of heating systems under any operational loads;
- Ease of use. Light weight and flexibility make it easy to create the desired design without additional help;
- Many fittings and fasteners allow you to make the most complex schematic heating projects.
In fact, Rehau products are a designer of many parts that allows you to create a reliable system for supplying heat to a house with your own hands.
After choosing the material, it is time to directly create a new heating system. But before that, you need to remove old pipes, risers and radiators.
Dismantling of old pipes and risers
Emergency replacement of heating risers is the most unpleasant and difficult case. According to the law, repairs should be carried out by the management company, but if this is your personal desire, certain rules will be required.
If you are going to change the riser and the entire system inside the apartment. You will need permission from the neighbors, and you must also warn them and the utilities about the upcoming repairs. In the case where the waste structure changes from a valve inside the room, no permit is required. The dismantling of the old system is carried out in the following sequence:
- From all pipes, batteries, liquid descends and the water supply is shut off;
- If the pipeline is made of metal, you will need a grinder, which cuts off old products. When the riser changes on all floors, it must be cut so that the structure does not crack and it would be convenient to remove it;
- Old radiators are disconnected from the pipeline using wrenches.
These steps will help remove unnecessary items and allow you to proceed with the installation of a new system.
Creating a new heating
Installation of a new design for conducting heat into the room is carried out by several schemes: one-pipe and two-pipe wiring. The latter option is considered more efficient and reliable.
If work is carried out in a private house, you will need to first install the boiler. Connection of thermal, gas equipment can only be carried out by a specialist. After equipping the boiler room, it is necessary to mark the future heating structure as a whole. Further work is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Connection of riser pipes with intermediate ones to radiators is carried out;
- Bimetallic radiators are being installed. Before mounting the battery on the wall, you can glue a sheet of foil to reduce heat loss. You can also create a visor on the battery, which will protect the window sill from heating and allow hot air to be directed directly into the room;
- To connect plastic pipes, fittings are used, which must first be treated with a sealant;
- Before pulling the pipes, wrap the end with a film so that dirt does not get inside;
- Further, the system is filled with water and passes through all the elements under maximum pressure;
- In new houses, they began to replace water with antifreeze in the heating system. The liquid is resistant to low temperatures. It does not freeze even at -50 degrees.
The assembled structure must be checked. To do this, use a special device — a presser. It creates increased pressure in the system to check the reliability and tightness of joints and pipes. If during the test the readings of the sensors did not change, then the tests were successful and there will be no leaks.
Using the information provided, you can independently replace and make a new high-quality heating system.