Most communications in apartment buildings on the secondary market are very worn out. Sewerage replacement occurs for various reasons, but the work itself is carried out according to the same scheme.
Each action related to the repair of communications begins with finding out the cause of the problems. It should be clarified that the replacement of obsolete sewer pipes in an apartment can be total or partial.
Why is it necessary to repair communications
Partial replacement of waste communications — elimination of used drain systems in a single room. This action is required in the following cases:
- the appearance of a leak in the riser;
- overhaul of the sewage system by the owner and the tenant independently;
- planned replacement of communications, due to their complete deterioration.
In apartment buildings built more than 10-20 years ago, communications were created from cast iron products. The material itself is considered very reliable, but over time it gets very dirty, rust settles on the walls, so it needs to be repaired.
Who is responsible for the repair
There are a number of regulatory documents governing the rules for the operation and repair of sewer drains in an apartment:
- Government Decree of August 8, 2006 No. 491 “On the maintenance of public property”.
- Decree of the Gosstroy on the technical standards for the operation of the housing stock dated September 27, 2006 No. 170
- Guidelines for the maintenance and repair of public property dated 02.04.2004.
These documents confirm that the replacement of sewer risers in the apartment, all repair and maintenance activities, are the responsibility of the management company of this house.
To carry out these works, the owner or tenant must submit an application to the housing and communal services for the replacement of pipes, with the specified cause of the breakdown. After that, at the agreed time, the owner of the living space must provide access to all necessary communications.
Note! All statements by company employees about monetary payment for the work performed, as well as requests to purchase materials, are illegal.
It is worth mentioning here that public utilities have the right to refuse repairs if you are in arrears in monthly payments. An exception is an emergency situation when other apartments are at risk of flooding. In this case, the repair team will simply put a plug on the outlet to your riser section.
If repair work has already been carried out at the indicated place of residence, and you have changed the vertical pipe, then the owners will have to answer for the problems associated with the independent intervention of the residents and all consequences, including compensation payments for damage caused to other owners, will be your responsibility.
Replacing the sewer drain pipe in the toilet may occur due to blockages. This is also the responsibility of the management company. Since the drain structure runs throughout the house, and if a cause occurs, the culprit cannot be identified, the public utilities are obliged to fix the problem on their own. Even if the blockage occurs on the top floor, the owner may claim that the problem is with the roof, where everyone has access.
Since sewer communications are on the general house balance, scheduled repairs and replacement of old cast-iron sewer pipes with plastic ones are financed from funds received for major repairs of the house. If the change of serviceable sewerage is carried out at the initiative of the owner, then he will pay for all the work on his own.
Please note that all work performed without notifying the management company removes all responsibility from it.
Do-it-yourself sewer replacement
If you decide to repair the sewer with your own hands, you must consider the following:
- Be sure to notify the utility company of all ongoing work that you intend to do on your own.
- Inform the neighbors about the time of the work in advance, and also ask them not to use the drain at this moment. It is advisable to do this personally and explain the reason.
- It is impossible to carry out repairs until the water supply to the riser is turned off.
Before starting plumbing work, it is necessary to take care of the availability of the required materials and tools in advance. You will need:
- hammer, grinder for pipe threading, perforator;
- if metal is replaced with plastic, you will need a soldering iron for plastic;
- mortar or silicone sealant;
- fixing elements (clamps);
- plastic bends, fittings, tees;
- elastic bands for sealing, cuffs for additional sealing.
In addition, prepare a level and a tape measure for measuring the distance and a pencil for marking.
One of the important preparatory aspects is the choice of the desired diameter of the connecting elements. This parameter directly affects the functioning of the sewer. The size of the corrugated siphon for installation in the bathroom or under the sink is 3.2-5 cm, if there is an additional connection to the washing machine, then the diameter is 2.5 cm, and for toilet cuffs 11-12.5 cm.
Scheme of work
All repair work begins with the dismantling of old communications. Removal can be done in two ways:
- without affecting the interfloor slabs;
- taking into account the space between the floors.
To dismantle the pipe itself, the procedure is the same in both cases. The difference is only in the opening of the ceilings. The stage of work will be as follows:
- At a level of 1 meter from the dismantled part of the old part, an incision is made with a grinder, the old section of the sewer pipe below the socket is removed.
- If the structure cannot be removed due to old sealant, try heating it to soften the fixing material.
- The analysis of the structure is carried out, starting from the top.
- If the opening of interfloor slabs is required, permission from the neighbors will be required. For dismantling, you need a puncher and a hammer. The work is performed by a swinging method, without applying strong blows. A strong impact on an old cast-iron riser can cause cracks or completely split the pipe.
After dismantling the riser, the tee is carefully removed. The last step is to clean the pipe from dirt sticking, remove old grease from the socket.
How to assemble a new sewer
Most often, the replacement takes place in the toilet, where the main sanitary drain is located. The assembly order will be as follows:
- A new tee is installed in the old place.
- A rubber cuff is mounted from below, previously lubricated with silicone sealant.
- A pipe of the desired diameter is placed in the cross part.
- The riser is fixed with clamps to the wall from four different sides for reliability.
Keep in mind that modern pipes produce a lot of noise when water passes, so it’s better to take care of sound insulation right away.
When changing the cast iron system to polypropylene, you will need to do the following:
- Cuts from the inside must be deburred, as they will interfere with work and become a source of debris.
- To facilitate the entry of elements into each other, grease the surface with soap. This will improve glide and prevent damage to the pipe.
- Replacement is carried out from the bottom up towards the water flow.
With the help of measuring tools, an approximate plan for laying a new structure is outlined, taking into account a slope of 5 degrees to the riser. This is necessary to maintain the pressure level. It must be above atmospheric. At the end, plumbing is installed, using rubber cuffs.
Replacing the sewer system in a private house
It is necessary to monitor the condition of sanitary pipes in your own house very carefully. After all, a blockage or leakage will lead to big problems for the owners. When it comes time to replace old pipes, then all the work can be done independently, without waiting for the repair team.
Measures to replace the sewage structure in a private house or in the country begin with preparatory work, the selection of tools and the choice of material. Planning also includes drawing up a diagram of where the replacement will take place. The equipment must be prepared in advance and checked for its serviceability. You will need: puncher, level, sealant gun, adjustable wrench, hammer.
The installation of new structures involves the elimination of old systems. The work algorithm is as follows:
- It is necessary to turn off the water throughout the house, drain the remaining liquid from the toilet bowl and bathroom.
- Disconnect plumbing devices from the system (sink, washbasin, washing machine, etc.).
- Disconnect the pipes installed in the cross.
- Clean the flare, remove the old grease.
After all the preparatory work carried out and the removal of the old structure, you can begin to collect a new sewer.
A pipe with a size of 110 cm is built into the cross. At the junction with the bathroom, an adapter with a diameter of 50 cm is required. A toilet tee is attached to the 110 cm pipe. The compact is further connected with a corrugated pipe, having previously lubricated the joints with silicone.
Installation of turns is carried out using corners. To be able to connect new equipment to the sewer, tees must be provided. Next, plumbing is installed and all spillways are checked. For this, water is drained through each hole about 15 liters.
Installation of sewerage in a suburban area
If you spend only summer time in the country, and do not go there all the time, the best option for arranging gutters would be a trenchless way. This technology has a number of advantages:
- The use of modern equipment increases the reliability of soldering and the service life of pipes.
- The technology allows you to quickly carry out all the work, while increasing the diameter of the pipes.
- No need for earthworks.
Trenchless quick replacement of sewer pipes is carried out in several ways:
- Road dig. It is used for products of small diameter.
- Case punching. Applicable for wide pipes (160-1450 cm).
- Horizontal drilling. The most common method for laying sewers with a diameter of 110 to 800 cm.
Preparatory work is not required, but you will not be able to conduct this sewer yourself. This will require specialists and equipment. They will quickly remove old communications, check pumping equipment, and conduct a study of the soil.
Most owners use polyethylene products when replacing old drains. They best tolerate temperature changes, are not subject to rust and serve for more than 70 years.
Expert advice when replacing sewers in a private house
Quality work depends on the strict fulfillment of all requirements. To avoid problems in the future, you should listen to the advice of professionals.
First, before starting work on replacing or arranging a new sewer in a private house, determine the type of soil where the pipeline will be laid. It is also worth considering the presence of a cesspool, septic tank or other device.
Secondly, for outdoor work, use PVC products, while the selection of the diameter depends on the number of plumbing fixtures and pump power.
Thirdly, for laying pipes in the ground, their insulation is mandatory. To do this, you can use different heaters (polystyrene, mineral wool, etc.), as well as a heating cable.
On straight sections, be sure to observe a slope of 3 degrees so that stagnation does not occur. The angle of rotation of the internal wiring should not exceed 45 degrees.
In the end, it is worth noting that the installation and repair of sewers depends on many factors, and will differ in technology, depending on the place of residence.