Industry and agriculture are constantly developing, and this is impossible without the use of various pipelines. To use them, they must first be laid. Without this, it is impossible to centrally provide the facility with water and divert domestic or industrial wastewater from it. The laying of pipelines allows, if necessary, to supply gas or water to the facility. It is for the purpose of providing various liquid and gaseous products to industrial facilities and the population that pipelines are intended.
What is piping?
When performing such work, the laying of water supply, engineering networks or individual communications is carried out. Through them, the necessary substance, whether liquid or gas, is transported to the consumer. In what way, the structures should be laid and connected, as well as the depth of laying for water pipes, everything is described in the project documentation. The basis for its development is the design and technical documentation and current regulations.
The pipeline can be laid under the highway and the line of railway tracks, any building. At the same time, the asphalt pavement and underground engineering structures are not violated. For the main laying of pipelines, a trench method is used. In this case, the soil cover is disturbed, traffic is paralyzed. After laying everything will have to be restored.
Basic styling methods
Laying of any pipeline can be carried out in the following ways:
- public method. The main is installed on supports or its location is a through passage or impassable collector.
- Using a closed or trenchless method. Laying the highway does not require pre-opening the ground.
- Underground way of laying the pipeline. Trenches are being made into which the drainage system is mounted.
These types have their advantages and disadvantages.
Technology of laying an open pipeline
First, the construction of what will serve as the support of the structure is carried out. Further, the pipeline is laid in the passage and impassable channels, galleries. Their location may be a trench or the surface of the soil:
- free-standing foundation or support;
- ballasting. A load is attached to the pipeline, or its anchoring in the ground is used. This is necessary so that the pipe does not float;
- the highway is laid on the ground and backfilled.
You can lay a pipeline under a highway using the open method as follows:
- Works that do not violate the intensity of traffic. In this case, a detour or relocation is arranged.
- During the work, one half of the road is blocked alternately.
- For a short period of time, the movement is interrupted completely.
If the territory of the work being carried out has difficult hydrogeological conditions, then the structure can be laid in a tunnel. When carrying out installation in the winter, it is impossible to lay steel pipes on a base that is frozen. Before laying them, it is necessary to inspect all connecting parts and elements for defects. After laying the line, hydraulic tests are carried out. In the absence of complaints, the entire structure falls asleep.
The open laying method is most often used in summer cottages or in private houses where quick access to leakage is required in case of emergency. It is also used to carry gas to the private sector. This method of external use allows you to conduct gas separately and install meters directly at the point where the pipeline approaches the house.
Hidden laying method
With this method, the pipe is laid in a trench or impassable channel. If during operation access to pipes is required, then it is necessary to open the corresponding structures.
With it, the soil is not opened. This option is also called channelless laying of water pipes. It is carried out by the following methods:
- Vibration punctures are performed by using vibration installations.
- Hydropunctures. In this case, a manual or powered piercer is used.
- Mechanical punctures in which a jack is used.
- Punctures in which a screw soil piercer is used.
- Performing pneumatic punching with a pneumatic punch.
- Vibro-vacuum laying method.
Drilling or microtunneling may be used. A variant of shield and adit penetration is possible.
The way in which the pipe will be laid depends on a number of factors. What matters is the length and diameter of the entire structure. This is also influenced by the characteristics of the soil and hydrogeology. Depends on what equipment will be used.
Laying the pipeline above ground
This method is characterized by the presence of a number of advantages in operation. This method is recommended for use when laying underground is difficult for some reason. It can be carried out on a site that has any relief with your own hands. With this method, the following devices are used:
- Use of the beam system.
- Straight line laying. With it, longitudinal deformations are not compensated. Single-span crossings, multi-span systems with rigid or earthen supports are carried out.
- A method in which self-compensation of longitudinal deformations is used. As a rule, this is a single-span cantilever transition or a multi-span system that has trapezoidal expansion joints.
- Laying option in the form of kinks «snake». There may be a flyover or a bridge.
Arched, beam or hanging construction is possible.
Underground laying without a trench
With this method, the scheme is identical to that used in cases where elevated pipelines are laid, which include compensation sections. If the location of the pipe is a solid base, then the laying patterns can be different and are determined by the length of the pipeline. This is also influenced by the circumstance in which there are or are no transverse stiffening rings.
A similar technique is used in the case of an old, worn-out pipeline, when it is required to restore it. Most often, metal-plastic water pipes are laid, where the system is under reliable protection against mechanical or chemical damage. At the same time, the new structure is laid using the relining method. The laying does not require the disclosure of the old highway, or it is only partially disclosed. The old pipeline cannot be dismantled.
A protective cover may be used. This is observed in those cases when the highway passes through any obstacles, for example, a highway. At the same time, the new pipe in which the laying is carried out has a diameter of at least 200 mm. Such casings in technical terminology are usually called «cases» or «cartridges».
Passage by the «puncture» method
The execution of such punctures is carried out in a variety of ways. For example, use a jack. This creates a hole. A pipe is inserted into it. The puncture can be carried out with different force, which is determined by the angle at which the tip is sharpened.
Using a hydraulic jack when performing mechanical punctures
It is with the help of such a device that the indentation is carried out. A pipe link is laid at the bottom of the pit, which has a tip. The indentation is carried out to such a distance that only allows the stroke of the rod to be made. As soon as the rod takes its original position, it is replaced with a pressure pipe (ramrod). After that, the process is repeated. As soon as the first link is fully pressed in, the second link is welded to its end. The whole cycle is repeated anew until the pipe is pressed in to the entire required length. Within one cycle, the pipe is able to move to a depth of up to 150 mm.
Using this method, it is possible to lay a pipe with a diameter of up to 500 mm. The length of the puncture can be up to 40 m. The speed is 2 m/h. Punctures are carried out with different efforts, which depends on the nature of the soil. This method is used if the soils are well compressed.
A special tunneling projectile is used, the action of which is associated with a pneumatic impact. According to this method, pipes with a diameter of up to 400 mm are laid, and the depth of the well is up to 50 m. For this, a pressure installation consisting of several jacks is used. It is driven by high pressure pumps.
Such penetration is fully automated and does not require the presence of people in the development. According to this trenchless method, driving is carried out using special devices, which are called jacking stations. In this case, a special tunnel-boring shield (drill) is used. The rock is mixed with water and brought out. Here it is already being separated.
This method is most convenient in places where buildings are characterized by high density or in the presence of rough terrain. This system allows us to meet the highest requirements. The method has high accuracy. In addition, there is a complete control of the values over certain periods of time. At their core, such complexes have a modular principle. They are easy to transfer from one object to another. Moreover, their installation is carried out very quickly.
Separately, it is worth mentioning the laying of a pipeline in an apartment when replacing old cast-iron sewer systems. Plumbing installation is carried out by other methods. In this case, various materials are used, including copper pipes, whose use for laying long underground highways is impractical.
Pipelines are necessary at the facilities of any industry, agriculture and everyday life. Despite the variety of methods for laying pipes, the choice will be determined depending on the presence of many factors. What matters is the nature of the soil where the pipes will be laid, the material from which the structural elements are made, and the exact observance of all technological moments. The result and time of operation of the highway will depend on this.