Liquid fuel heating units have been used by humans for more than a hundred years and at the same time do not lose popularity. Consumer requirements for the quality of heating equipment for the home are constantly growing, so manufacturers not only improve the design of manufactured units, but also regularly replenish the market with new types of liquid fuel heaters of increased efficiency and functionality.
Despite the differences in design and potential, all liquid fuel heaters are united by a common factor — their operation requires increased attention from the consumer and compliance with certain fire safety rules. However, these difficulties are offset by the advantages of liquid fuel units, you just need to correctly navigate their characteristics when choosing a model — choose a device with reference to specific conditions of use.
Consider one of the types of heating equipment — a kerosene heater in terms of comparison with heat generators operating on other liquid energy carriers.
Kerosene is an oily transparent flammable liquid, colorless or with a yellowish tint, produced from petroleum. Without going into details of physical characteristics, the potential of this substance can be judged at least by such an application as fuel (or its component) for rocket and gas turbine aircraft engines, as well as furnaces for firing glass and porcelain products.
In everyday life, kerosene is the most common energy carrier of all types of liquid fuel, as it is used in heating units operated in residential, utility, utility and industrial premises. The higher the purification class of this fuel, the less combustion products are released into the air when using a heater.
For refueling in household heaters, several brands of aviation (TS-1, T-1, T-2, T-1C) and lighting kerosene (KO-20, KO-22, KO-25, KO-30) are used.
The characteristics of aviation fuel are high, but its price does not allow it to be attributed to combustible materials widely available to the consumer, therefore lighting kerosene is mainly used in home heaters.
The principle of operation and the device of household kerosene heaters
Kerosene heaters are heat generators that heat the room using infrared radiation. IR rays do not affect the transit medium — air, but, when they encounter obstacles in the propagation path, they increase the intensity of the movement of molecules on their surfaces, which causes an increase in the temperature of the upper layers of objects. The interior heated in this way then gives off heat to the air, initiating convective flows in it.
Conventionally, a kerosene heater consists of a housing in which the following components are located:
- fuel tank (removable or as part of the structure);
- electric ignition device (optional);
- wick with emitter and combustion intensity regulator;
- protective grid.
Kerosene from the fuel tank enters the wick, where it burns and heats the metal grid emitter. The intensity of burning is regulated by a device that changes the length of the burning wick. To prevent burns in case of accidental contact, the infrared emitter is taken away by a protective grille. On the fuel tank cap there is a valve for replacement air intake, on the heater body there is a fuel level indicator and a unit shutdown device. For ease of movement, the heaters are equipped with folding handles or special grooves.
Depending on the design and execution class, heaters differ in functionality and, accordingly, in price.
Varieties of kerosene heaters
Infrared kerosene heaters are produced in rectangular or cylindrical cases, the dimensions of which are directly proportional to their power.
Rectangular devices, as a rule, are more powerful than cylindrical devices and are made in the form of an assembly, in the body of which, behind the emitter on one side, there is a reflective screen that concentrates IR radiation in the opposite direction. Adjustment of the direction of heating for such units is carried out manually — by turning the heater in the desired direction.
The most powerful kerosene heaters with rectangular housings are produced outdoor fireplace with a removable fuel tank and a battery-powered electric ignition function.
Cylindrical heaters are produced in two types — directional and circular heating. This line of kerosene heaters consists of units that are more compact due to the body geometry. In addition, some models of cylindrical devices are used not only for heating, but also for lighting, reminiscent of the effect of performing this function on a gas lamp.
Consider the characteristics of kerosene heaters on the example of specific units.
Heater «Kerona» (Kerona WKH-3450)
- power — 3.8 kW
- dimensions — 50.6 × 32.5 × 32.5 cm (height x width x depth);
- consumed fuel — aviation or lighting kerosene;
- energy consumption — 360 g/h
- fuel tank capacity — 4.8 l
- heating area — up to 20 m2
- electric ignition of the wick device;
- device for turning off the device in case of overturning;
- unit weight — 12 kg;
- manufacturer — Republic of Korea.
The model is one of the most popular, due to its versatility — the ability to use for heating both residential and warehouse, utility, utility rooms.
For operation in residential premises, it is advisable to pre-ignite a kerosene heater outside the housing, and let it work there for the first 5-7 minutes — until the formation of soot stops, and then bring it into the room. However, ignition is also possible in the apartment — followed by a 5-minute airing
Important! The combustion of fuel in the heater occurs with the consumption of oxygen from the air of the room, so the heated room must be periodically ventilated — regardless of the degree of presence in the housing of the smell from burning kerosene.
The principle of operation of the heater:
- the fuel tank is equipped with a pressure valve at the bottom, which opens when the tank is installed in its regular place in the body;
- fuel from the tank is fed to the base of the porous wick and impregnates it in a capillary way;
- after ignition of the wick, the combustion chamber is heated, causing the subsequent evaporation of kerosene and the combustion of its vapors;
- the mesh walls of the combustion chamber are heated to a high temperature and begin to generate infrared radiation.
Important! After heating the combustion chamber, manual adjustment of the wick operation is performed, on which the calorific value of the heater, the intensity of consumption and the completeness of fuel combustion depend.
Advantages infrared kerosene household fireplace heaters:
- autonomy (batteries);
- durability, including the wick;
- short duration of smoke formation (on/off);
- relatively high cost of heaters (from 9 thousand rubles);
- high cost of fuel;
- open fire factors (fire hazard, oxygen consumption from indoor air).
To get a better idea of this kerosene heater, watch the video:
IR heater on kerosene FUJIX M168
An economical portable device, a kind of «burner» for heating and cooking, the shape of the body resembles a kerosene lamp for outdoor lighting.
- type of ignition — electronic;
- automation — standard adjustable thermostat;
- rollover shutdown system;
- case material – metal/glass;
- fuel / consumption — kerosene / ≈ 0.25 l / h;
- tank capacity — 2.5 l;
- calorific value — 2-2.5 kW;
- operating time on one gas station -10 -12 hours;
- dimensions — 33x33x44 cm; weight — 4.7 kg;
- country of origin — China.
This kerosene heater is compact, easy to move and therefore convenient for a garage, a small greenhouse, a country house. As a heater for a tent, the device can be used provided it has sufficient area and regular ventilation.
A video comparing Chinese and Korean-made products will help you better navigate when buying:
Line of heaters for liquid fuel of the company «Solarogaz»:
- «KO — 1.8 Mini»;
- «KO — 1.8 Caprice»;
- «PO — 2.5 Mini»;
- «PO — 2.5 Mini +»;
- «PO — 2.5 Savo».
The listed heat generators also belong to infrared heaters, while they can work on kerosene or diesel fuel. The models differ from each other not only in power and fuel consumption, but also structurally — in the profile of the furnace, its material of manufacture, and the configuration of the reflector.
Consider their most popular modifications.
The firebox, located in a ceramic cylinder, is designed for heating on three sides, and on top for placing dishes.
Characteristics of «KO — 1.8 Mini»:
- calorific power at the burner — 1.8 kW;
- liquid fuel consumption — 0.2 l / h;
- tank capacity — 2.5 l;
- operating time on one gas station — 18 hours;
- dimensions — 30x30x30 cm;
- weight — 4.3 kg.
In the line of heaters «Solarogaz» the unit is distinguished by a steel cylinder around the hearth and surrounding the firebox on three sides with a reflector. The top of the grid is designed to hold cooking utensils.
With dimensions of 37x42x32 cm, the device weighs 5.6 kg.
The calorific power of such a stove is 2.5 kW with an average fuel consumption of 0.2 l / h. The capacity of the fuel tank is 3.2 liters, which is enough for 14-18 hours of continuous operation of the heater.
The liquid fuel stove «PO — 2.5 Savo» is effective for heating apartments, small country houses and summer cottages, but the power of the units used in buildings must correspond to the area of heated premises, and the open fire of the furnace of the units requires periodic ventilation of the rooms. Even better, the device copes with heating the garage, small greenhouses, heating and cooking.
- Liquid fuel heaters for the purpose of fire safety must be located on a stable base, strictly horizontally and at a safe distance from the elements of the interior of the room.
- Refueling of the fuel tank is carried out only when the heater is turned off or in another room — at a distance from sources of fire. At the end of filling, the tank lid must be tightly closed.
- Fuel storage should be carried out only in specially designated places that meet fire safety requirements.
- When switching from one type of liquid fuel to another, it is necessary to drain the remaining fuel from the tank, which is planned to be abandoned.
- A specific smell at the first ignition of the heater is not a sign of a malfunction of the device — it is the preservative compositions that burn out.
- It is forbidden to use liquid fuel heaters in children’s rooms, cabins and interiors of motor vehicles, vans and trailers while driving, boats, poorly ventilated rooms and basements.
- It is not allowed to independently change the design of the heater.
Diesel gun — diesel fuel heater
The use of diesel fuel for heating is accompanied by a greater release of combustion products into the environment than heating with kerosene, therefore, mini-ovens from the Solarogaz company are not used in stationary housing if they are refueled with diesel — there will be a smell in the air, and a yellowish coating will appear on the walls over time .
Considering the price attractiveness of diesel fuel, diesel fuel heaters are also produced in other designs that provide for the removal of harmful by-products to the street. An example of such heaters is a diesel-powered heat gun, but from the group of units of not direct, but indirect heating.
Indirectly heated heating units for the removal of diesel combustion products require connection to a ventilation system, the potential of which must ensure that the heater is needed in full so that the waste does not get inside.
The main characteristics of heat guns are calorific power, the volume of supplied heated air and energy consumption.
The power of the units, depending on the purpose of the model, is in the range from 10 to 200 kW. For heating housing, equipment of 15-25 kW is used.
The consumption of kerosene or diesel varies from 1 to 7 l/h. The more powerful the model or the higher the value of the heating intensity regulator, the greater the consumption.
The operation of these devices is accompanied by a slight noise, which imposes certain restrictions on their use for heating residential premises. But these heat generators have no equal when you need to warm up a large room quickly, while people can be nearby without fear of being poisoned by combustion products. In addition, the noise level from the operation of a heat gun can be reduced by placing it in another room, equipping it with a heat pipe or simply directing a jet of generated hot air into the open door of an adjacent room.
Comparing diesel-fueled heat guns with kerosene units in terms of the efficiency of heating residential premises, one should proceed from the region of residence and the area of \u200b\u200bhousing. An apartment of 1-2 rooms in the middle lane in an emergency can be heated with heaters of sufficient power on kerosene. A private house will require a lot of effort, and here one of the solutions to the problem will be to install a diesel-powered heat gun.
Kerosene heaters are useful household appliances. But, when solving the issue of heating housing, you cannot completely rely on them, this is a temporary way out in a situation where the main heating equipment is out of order, you need to increase the temperature in a remote room, etc. However, buying a kerosene unit “just in case” is a more than reasonable decision, since most emergencies with central heating systems are unforeseen.
The main essence of the article
- Modern liquid fuel heaters are efficient heating devices, the designs of which are constantly being improved.
- Kerosene heaters are not the cheapest way to heat a home, but using them in an emergency or in the field is quite effective.
- A kerosene fireplace unit is a device of sufficient power that can heat a room up to 20 m22.
- Kerosene heaters with a cylindrical body are more compact devices, many models of which are not inferior in power to fireplace units.
- The line of liquid fuel heaters of the company «Solarogaz» is one of the best solutions for the issue of heating and cooking in field conditions.
- A liquid fuel heat gun is superior in power to kerosene units, but its use is justified only if it is necessary to heat large areas.