The most effective space heating devices include a warm water floor, but its profitability is far from optimal. When installing such systems in wooden houses, there are a number of significant limitations. A screed cannot be used, since the plank base may not withstand such a heavy load. However, there are other effective ways to make an electric underfloor heating independent in a wooden house without stressing the base.
If we take into account the buildings of the old model, then wooden floors were used in their construction. In this case, it is possible to use a concrete screed, on the surface of which a warm floor will be placed. In the case of a private house, such manipulations are impossible. Often we are talking about weak and time-shaken wooden floors that are not able to withstand significant loads.
If it was decided to use electrical systems for space heating, then the following important points should be considered:
- Wood belongs to the category of flammable materials. That is why, as far as possible (apartments), it is the infrared type of underfloor heating that should be used.
- Such devices are not able to replace the heating system, so you should take care of heating radiators.
- Low thermal conductivity, which will lead to the use of an increased temperature regime.
What are the requirements for underfloor heating?
If it was decided to install an electric underfloor heating in a wooden house, special attention should be paid to compliance with safety rules that will eliminate the possibility of unforeseen and dangerous situations in the future.
- Do not place the cable under interior items. Violation will lead to overheating of the device and its breakdown.
- When using species such as oak or beech, the thickness of the boards should not exceed 2.5 cm, and larch and pine 2.3 cm.
- In order to avoid the formation and retention of moisture (condensate), laying a solid waterproofing layer will be required. Any electrical equipment does not tolerate water, and underfloor heating is no exception.
- The thermostat will help to avoid possible overheating of the structure. It should be equipped with an air cushion and temperature sensors. This will prevent self-ignition. For wooden floors, the maximum temperature is 40 ° C.
- The installation of the cable is carried out evenly, which will ensure the same heating of all sections.
In the room where underfloor heating systems are installed, it is not recommended to use any carpets. This will create an unnecessary insulating layer that will not allow heat to penetrate into the room.
What mounting technologies are used
There are only two options for laying a warm floor: with and without a screed. Everything will depend on the strength indicators of the base of the room or the building as a whole. In this case, some other additional factors should be taken into account, such as the age of the building and the frequency of use of the premises.
If you plan to install underfloor heating in a wooden house, then the use of a screed is not recommended due to its enormous weight. The technology used is somewhat different from the usual. To begin with, the necessary preliminary work is carried out aimed at cleaning and preparing the working surface. A log is being installed, under which it is necessary to lay a heat-insulating material (at least 4.5 cm), in which one of the sides will be foil. A mounting grid is placed on top to help secure the cable used.
Important! If desired, you can use a special laminate in which the TEP cable is already installed. However, you should be prepared for significant costs for its acquisition.
Installation is carried out with loops, the marking of which is carried out on the logs, in which cuts for the loops are made. The cable itself is mounted in prepared cuts and secured with clamps. At some distance from the floor (convenient for a person), a temperature controller is installed, and the sensor is placed between the lags. After completing the performance check of each of the elements of the system, you can start laying the finish coating. There must be a layer of at least 5 cm from the device to the coating.
Using a screed
The wooden floor should be made smooth and even (monolithic). The tree should not walk, so any loosening should be excluded. If necessary, the structure is completely disassembled and reassembled. After that, a waterproofing material (polyethylene with a density of 200 microns) is laid. Thermal insulation should be laid on it (“tizol” is perfect). The foil side should be facing up. The cable is installed over the thermal insulation material. Fastenings are made with a pre-calculated step using loops. After installation, the cable is filled with a cement-based mortar. But before that, it is recommended to install a thermostat and a temperature sensor. It is placed between the loops.
There are a number of features that should be worked out even before the start of installation work. Wooden houses require a particularly careful approach, because additional weight can lead to skew or shrinkage of the structure. The heating system will be laid on logs.
The sequence of work will look like this:
- arrangement of the rough coating;
- laying a vapor barrier layer;
- installation of waterproofing material;
- finishing processing;
Inside this pie, the underfloor heating system will be placed. If all the upcoming work is planned to be carried out independently, then you should pay attention to one of the following methods:
- The use of plates with a reflective effect. This is a kind of compromise if it is necessary to carry out a screed based on a concrete solution. The plates will help to direct the heat flows in the right direction, thereby increasing the efficiency indicator.
- Small ventilation gap. It can only be used as an additional source of heat in the presence of centralized heating. The powerful system cannot be used in this case. Existing ducting will reduce the efficiency of the installed equipment.
- Screed over an existing floor. This method belongs to the category of complex and requires preliminary preparation. The heat-insulating properties of the screed are at the proper level, which will significantly increase the efficiency of space heating. Such manipulations are recommended to be carried out in rooms with a high level of humidity or if it is planned to install tiles or any other cold coating.
- Skillful combination of concrete and dry screed. The use of two of the most common technologies at the same time will make it possible to make a surface that can withstand any load.
Regardless of the final choice of the preferred technology, it is important to strictly follow the available instructions and listen to all the wishes of the manufacturer.
Experts recommend laying the system under a small layer of screed. Thus, it will be possible to install tiles or any other types of cold coatings as a floor covering. The arrangement of the underlying layer is mandatory and for this you will need high-quality heat-insulating materials, the surface of which is metallized. The main stages of laying a warm floor are similar to the installation of a heated water floor. The underlying layer acts as a solid base, regardless of the technology used.
The device is connected to special sensors, then to the mains and covered with floorboards. You can not use a cement screed, because it can add a significant weight to the main structure. But to equip the rough floor, in this case, you have to. To begin with, guides are mounted, between which heat-insulating material is laid. A welded mesh is laid on top of it, on which the power cable is placed. It must be placed on the same level.
Saw grooves are used at the points of its intersection. Their bottom is lined with foil, and clamps and mounting tape act as fasteners. After that, you should proceed to the arrangement of the finishing coating, for which it is customary to use a beam or a board with tenon grooves as connections. Sheet piles will also come in handy. Before proceeding with the arrangement of the final coating, it is necessary to connect the system to the network and leave it on for several days.
The most common design mistakes
If a beginner takes up the matter, then difficulties can arise at every step. The secrets of success lie in the details, which should be known before the start of the upcoming work. It is necessary to understand that it is necessary to work with electrical devices that have an increased level of danger. This type of coating is designed to heat the surface of the floor covering, thereby creating the necessary home comfort. The design will be based on a mat or two-core cable. The length should be calculated in advance, since cutting it yourself is not recommended.
In most cases, problems arise precisely due to non-compliance with the designated technologies and violation of the rules for the installation work.
The area of the room will also play an important role. Separately, the area that will warm up and the one on which the furniture or plumbing is placed is calculated. It is strictly forbidden to install the cable under furniture, as the system will work to warm up the bed or closet, and not the surrounding space. This will lead to an early breakdown due to huge and regular loads. The work surface must be cleaned and prepared in advance. The loops should not touch or intersect.
Curves are also to be avoided. Stepping on the cable is prohibited, as internal deformation of the wires and their subsequent short circuit and loss of elasticity are possible. It is not recommended to place the temperature sensor in the thickness of concrete, since a corrugated pipe is used for this. Before switching on, you should wait until the solution used is completely dry. Drying the screed with a device is not recommended.
Laying a warm electric floor in a wooden house can be done in several ways, based on time-tested schemes. To create a cozy atmosphere in a wooden house, any technology is suitable. If you follow the recommendations specified by the manufacturer and follow the safety rules, then installing a warm floor will not take much effort and time, not to mention saving the family budget.