Equipping housing with heating is a necessary condition for the possibility of living in any region of Russia, even in the south of the country. Therefore, to one degree or another, no one can escape from solving the issue of heating a home — a heating system is necessary for both owners of private houses and residents of multi-apartment high-rise buildings.
Equipping an apartment or house with heating is a complex of many activities, the success of solving the problem as a whole depends on the thoughtfulness and quality of execution of each of them. Let’s consider the correct algorithm for performing and technology of operations for arranging housing with heating, including factors, the consideration of which determines success in achieving the ultimate goal — safe, efficient and economical heating of a home.
Choosing the type of heating system
Furnishing a home with heating begins with choosing the type of heating with reference to the main factor — the availability of a certain type of fuel or energy converted into heat. When choosing a heating method, the economic factor takes second place after efficiency.
Let’s start with the least expensive method — water heating with a radiator system connected to a heat main. This type of heating is as safe as possible and eliminates the need to purchase / install a heating boiler with automation, narrowing the scope of work to installing a heating circuit and connecting it to a heating plant after agreement with the organization operating the heating network. But with the relative ease of installation in such heating, there is a complete dependence on the characteristics of the coolant, the performance of the heating plant and the human factor associated with the personnel serving the heating system.
If there is no heating plant nearby, but the area is gasified, then it is advisable to consider installing a natural gas water heating boiler. The relative cheapness of gas fuel is accompanied, in addition to the need to purchase a gas boiler, by the inevitability of a chimney, ventilation and, possibly, even a separate boiler room. In addition, gas is a high-risk fuel, so the system needs a high level of operation control.
In a situation where they prefer not to mess with gas, or simply do not have it nearby, a water heating system with an electric heating boiler will be a reasonable choice. This method of heating at first frightens with the cost of electricity, but then pleases with hidden efficiency — no need for a boiler room, a chimney with ventilation, cleaning this communication and constant fears of gas fuel leakage. In addition, electric boilers are produced in different types, with and without heating elements, so there is room for maneuver in this segment when choosing.
Another option for solving the issue of heating housing can be a liquid fuel boiler. The most common heating systems with liquid fuel units that consume diesel fuel. This type of fuel, like electricity, is not cheap today, and, given the associated costs for the chimney and ventilation, a diesel fuel boiler is economical only if it is possible to purchase this fuel on a preferential basis.
If the homeowner is a supporter of traditional fuels, such as firewood, which are also very cheap in this region, then a rational solution would be to install a mine-fired solid fuel boiler using the pyrolysis process — separate long burning. For such owners, harvesting firewood and cleaning the chimney is a familiar activity, offset by environmental friendliness and cheap fuel.
There are other methods of heating — underfloor heating, baseboard heaters, infrared heaters that are successfully used in a small house or, for example, a two-room apartment, but they are based on the same electricity or gas.
Having made a choice in favor of one or another heating method, they evaluate their capabilities in terms of self-installation and, depending on the results of the assessment, proceed to the execution or the next stage — the design of the heating system.
Heating system project
The heating system has always been a complex piece of equipment requiring control both during installation and during operation. Progress has improved equipment and technologies, but heating units have not become absolutely safe, since they still use electricity, natural gas and other types of energy and fuel, the use of which is always a danger factor for humans.
The safety, efficiency and economy of the heating system begin with the project, in accordance with which the heat supply will be installed, so the importance of meeting the design documentation with all the necessary requirements and operating conditions can hardly be overestimated.
The development of the project, depending on the complexity of the heating system, is carried out in several ways. If you have to install a simple potbelly stove with a chimney outlet through a window or place electric heaters in the rooms, then there is nothing to design here. If the house is equipped with a stationary heating system connected to a heat main, or, moreover, powered by an autonomous boiler, then one cannot do without the design part of the work.
An example of one of the drawings of the heating system in plan.
Few of the residents carry out the design of the heating system with their own hands, since in order to prevent the installation of low-quality and hazardous engineering systems, it is necessary to coordinate this document with government agencies, and a design error is fraught with unpredictable consequences — from local problems during operation to an accident.
Important! Coordination of the project does not aim to increase the costs of the customer, but is carried out to ensure the public and personal safety of the homeowner.
The design part of the work requires not only the correctness of the calculations, but also the appropriate graphic design, so homeowners most often turn to organizations that deal with this professionally.
This can be a design company that specializes only in design, or an installation organization that has a design department and performs installation of equipment for customers according to projects developed by its specialists. The services of such firms may also include the coordination of design documentation for heating systems.
Important! The organization must have a license to carry out design and installation work in the field of relevant equipment.
The situation when the developer of the project and the foreman is one legal entity has a significant advantage — if the customer has complaints about the operation of the heating system, the foreman will not refer to the project, and the designer will not refer to the foreman.
Assignment for the project of the heating system
To develop a heating project, the customer must prepare a project assignment for the designer, containing, first of all, his vision of the future heating system: type of heating boiler according to the fuel used (with an autonomous heating system), system functionality (heating only or with hot water supply), installation method and other wishes. As a rule, the contractor has ready-made forms of such tasks.
The task is accompanied by a floor plan of the building (apartment) with a specification of the premises and an indication of their area, information on the materials of the walls, floors of the building, and, possibly, the desired scheme of the heating system. If the outer walls are equipped with thermal insulation, then the assignment indicates the name of the material and its thickness. If the insulation is only planned to be performed, then it should be noted what material. The task for the project should contain the maximum amount of information that the customer considers necessary to bring to the contractor.
Important! If it is planned to use a boiler on electricity as a heater, then a project for the electrical supply of an apartment with a list of other power consumption systems is attached to the task.
To prepare a task for a project, it is not necessary to have a technical education and understand all these issues, since after receiving it, the designer must personally visit the facility in order to verify the accuracy of the information provided and obtain the missing information — to develop an effective heating system, it is necessary to take into account a maximum of factors.
Often the design organization makes its own adjustments to the characteristics of the equipment specified by the customer in the task for the project. The degree of validity of these recommendations may vary, as well as their objectivity, therefore, during the development of the project, it is advisable to consult with an independent specialist in order to avoid including inefficient technologies, components or materials in the project for the sake of the marketing interests of third parties.
It should be noted that the cost of design work depends on the complexity of the planned heating system and the timing of the project. Having received all the necessary information from the customer, the design organization submits a contract for the provision of services for signing, indicating the cost of design work and the deadline for their completion.
Upon the readiness of the heating project, the customer must individually submit this document for approval to state self-government bodies, where inspectors of regulatory structures will check the project documentation for compliance with all current legislation, including fire regulations. Upon completion of the check, the customer is issued either a conclusion with the violations identified in the project, which must be eliminated by revision with subsequent re-approval, or, if the project is recognized as safe, permission to carry out installation work.
Documents professionally drawn up by design companies are most often approved without serious problems.
Important! Installation of the heating system without the approval of the project with state authorities in the event of an accident that entailed serious consequences, entails the responsibility of the owner of the house under the current legislation.
Depending on the terms of the contract, an estimate may be attached to the heating system project — a list of all costs for the implementation of the project with a division by expense items (materials, work, transport, etc.). If the project has not been marked, then you can do it yourself. It should be borne in mind that the independent purchase of materials in a retail network is not always cost-effective — specialized professional companies are better guided by the quality of materials and purchase them at wholesale prices, then presenting discounts in order to attract customers — customers of the work.
When planning the installation of a heating system, three main options or combinations of them are considered:
- independent work;
- specialized organization.
Equipping your home with heating (meaning a modern automated heating system for several rooms), few people will undertake to independently perform this work in full. The exception is the installation of a heating unit (not gas) of low power, designed to perform one function — the installation of such a device can be done by hand if there is a heating scheme drawn up by a professional. Therefore, homeowners often resort to the services of professional lone craftsmen or teams of two or three such craftsmen.
Important! When choosing a gas boiler as a heating equipment, self-installation of the unit will be illegal and unsafe, not only for the owner of the home, but also for everyone living nearby.
Hiring an individual master without drawing up a contract is associated with the risk of poor-quality installation, even according to a good project, followed by a hopeless clarification of the reasons why the heating system does not work correctly. The services of such contractors should be used only if there are recommendations from homeowners who have already installed heating systems in their homes with the help of these specialists. However, in this case, the absence of problems in the future is not guaranteed — no one has canceled the human factor, and if labor relations with such a team have not been legally formalized, it is extremely difficult to attract contractors to free repairs caused by their shortcomings.
For the reasons listed above, it is advisable to carry out the installation of the heating system by a specialized installation organization, which, as a rule, has a certain reputation among the population and values its image. Such organizations perform installation work under a contract, which sets out, among other things, the deadlines for completion of work, the responsibility of the contractor and his warranty obligations. There are no one-night-stands among such firms, and it is usually not difficult to involve them in eliminating possible flaws in the work.
Having a calculation in hand, they proceed to the next stage of the heating device — they purchase the necessary equipment and materials if the contractor has not taken on this function. In a situation where an installation contract has been concluded with a contractor, the homeowner can only control the activities of the work manager, since the explanatory note to the project indicates everything — from technology to the installation sequence.
Technologies for the installation of heating systems of various types
The technologies for installing a heating pipeline with radiators are applicable to boilers using any type of fuel, and the installation of heating units of various types differs in the types and scope of work. Consider the installation of common heating devices, keeping the chronological sequence of work. Let’s start with a description of the installation of a gas-fired boiler, since the highest requirements are imposed on the installation of gas equipment.
Installation of a gas water heating boiler
Before starting the installation of a gas boiler, it is necessary to draw up the appropriate documentation giving the right to install and operate gas equipment.
Design and permitting components of work
First of all, you need to write an application to the gas supply organization in order to obtain permission to connect to the main — the so-called technical conditions (TU), which give the right to begin preparatory work. Upon receipt of this document, they begin to design the installation of a gas supply pipe from the installation site of the unit to the central gas pipeline.
If the housing is located in private land ownership, and the pipeline to be installed will pass through the adjacent area, then the project must be accompanied by a diagram of the installation of a gas pipe on it, indicating the place of its entry into the house.
Important! The project must be developed by specialists licensed for this activity, in accordance with the GSN (State Building Regulations).
The heating unit must be purchased at the stage of designing the heating system, when its power is calculated, so that when the project is ready, technical documents on the compliance of the device with the necessary requirements can be submitted to the controlling organization.
Boiler power for hot water heating system
Just in case, let’s touch on how the power of a heating unit suitable for installation is calculated so that you can check the value of this characteristic in the project.
The power value obtained by this formula is the starting point for the subsequent calculation, which should also take into account other factors affecting the air temperature in the house, for example, the presence and degree of insulation of the outer walls of the building. In the absence of insulation, heat loss can be:
- 5-15% — heat loss through window openings (from multilayer double-glazed windows to ordinary wooden frames);
- 20-40% — with non-insulated walls (depending on the thermal conductivity of the execution material);
- 5-15% — floor without thermal insulation;
- 10-20% — losses through a cold roof;
- up to 20% — through ventilation (depending on the system).
The impressive figures of heat loss in the absence of thermal insulation indicate the inevitability of paying maximum attention to this operation.
In addition to the above factors, when calculating the power, the presence of a circulation pump in the heating system is taken into account — if it is absent, 15% must be added to the calculated value, and the use of a boiler for hot water supply will require an additional 20%.
Having received the final calculated value, round it up to the nearest value of the boiler power available for sale, and purchase a heating unit.
Upon readiness, the project is submitted for approval to the organization that controls the gas supply in the area of residence of the owner of the housing. Documents drawn up by the manufacturer confirming the safety of operation, compliance with technical and sanitary and hygienic standards, a technical passport and instructions for using the unit must be attached to the project. These documents must be issued by the seller to the buyer when purchasing the heater.
After consideration, the project is approved or returned for revision with a justification for the refusal of approval.
A project signed by a responsible person and certified with a seal is the permit for the installation of a gas boiler.
Important! Installation of gas equipment should be carried out only by specialized licensed organizations.
Location of the gas boiler
In order to ensure safe operation, it is forbidden to mount gas-fired units in the following rooms:
- not equipped with ventilation;
- in buildings with the status of a hostel;
- in toilets and bathrooms;
- in corridors;
- on balconies;
- in the basement rooms;
- in the ground floor rooms.
Note: the placement of gas equipment in the premises of the basement or basement of a multi-storey building is prohibited, but it is allowed to install it in a single-family single-family house.
The installation location of the gas water heating device also depends on the version of the device — floor-standing units of high power require a separate room, as they are significant in weight and quite noisy. And boilers with a power of up to 30 kW are also wall-mounted, so their installation in the kitchen is possible, but not lower than 1 m above the floor surface.
Requirements for the installation room of a gas-fired heating unit
Installation of a gas boiler is carried out in a room with the following characteristics:
- doors and windows should open outwards;
- the doorway to the boiler room is arranged with a width of 80 cm or more;
- the minimum area of the installation room of the unit is 4 sq. m.;
- in a boiler room up to 15 cubic meters. there must be glazing with an area of at least 0.5 sq. m., an increase in the volume of the room requires an additional 0.03 sq. m. window opening per cubic meter (the use of double-glazed windows is prohibited);
- air is supplied to the room through a ventilation duct (window) with dimensions of at least 15 x 20 cm and a slot 2 cm high under the front door;
- the height from floor to ceiling of the boiler room must be at least 2.5 m (if the boiler is installed above the floor level, then 2.5 m is counted from the level of its installation);
- the boiler room is equipped with plumbing;
- the floors of the boiler room are made of fireproof material and equipped with a sanitary ladder — a drain device in case of an emergency with the need to drain water from the system circuit;
- the wall behind the boiler must also be non-combustible or lined with identical material;
- the size of the cross-sectional area of the chimney is determined by the power of the heating unit and cannot be less than the corresponding parameter of the boiler chimney.
Rules for installing a gas boiler
A schematic guide for the installation of the unit, which should only be carried out by a licensed gas technician, is available in the technical documentation that accompanies the product.
Installation is carried out in compliance with the following rules:
- Work on the installation of gas equipment is allowed to be performed at an air temperature of 5 to 35 degrees Celsius.
- Marking the location of the boiler mounting brackets on the wall is carried out using the building level.
- The location of the boiler must provide free access to it.
- When installing a double-circuit gas unit, a strainer with a ball valve is installed on the coolant return pipe (to protect the heat exchanger from clogging).
- On the pipe connecting the boiler to the central gas main, a fuel consumption meter and a shut-off gas valve are installed.
- A gas leakage sensor and an automatic shut-off valve are installed in the boiler room.
- The gas unit must be grounded if there are units that consume electricity in its design.
- The circuit is filled with water after connecting the unit pipes to the water and gas supply systems, but in the position disconnected from the mains.
- Filling with coolant is done slowly, allowing air to escape from the system through air vents.
- Before starting the boiler, a control check of the gas pipeline connections for tightness is carried out by applying soap suds to the checked areas.
Heating is started only when the entire system is ready, by connecting the equipment to the mains, when the defects have been eliminated in full.
Chimney device for a gas boiler
Not only the efficiency of the gas-fired heating system, but also the safety of operation of this equipment depends on the correctness of the chimney device.
The products of gas combustion, which are almost not observed visually, are toxic to humans and aggressive for many materials. Therefore, when installing a chimney for a gas unit, many requirements must be taken into account, starting with the design and ending with the material of execution. The chimney, designed for the operation of a gas boiler, is also suitable for connecting solid and liquid fuel units.
First of all, the design of the chimney depends on the design of the combustion chamber of the gas boiler.
If the unit has an open chamber, that is, it consumes oxygen from the air of the room for gas combustion, then a chimney of one direction is arranged — bringing smoke out of the room.
When designing a gas boiler, including a closed chamber, a so-called coaxial chimney is mounted, a pipe in a pipe, along which two flows move towards each other — fuel combustion products and air into the combustion chamber.
The flue can be internal and external execution. The efficiency of the heating system with an internal chimney is higher, since the surface of the pipe is an additional area for the heat transfer of the temperature of hot gases into the room, but with this design, special arrangement of the passages of the smoke exhaust system through the interfloor ceilings and the roof is necessary.
The combustion products of gaseous fuels contain nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, which, condensing on the inner surface of the pipe, destroy the chimney if it is made of brick or ordinary steel. Therefore, chimney pipes are equipped with external thermal insulation, and stainless steel and ceramics are considered the best materials for their manufacture.
The chimney can also be assembled from pre-insulated pipes — pipe material on which insulation has already been made between two steel shells. Installation of this design is much faster, but the cost of this material is much higher than the price of conventional chimney pipes. Accordingly, new heating systems of cottages built according to individual projects are equipped with chimneys from pre-insulated pipes.
Self-installation of gas equipment is justifiably prohibited — working with gas units requires professional knowledge, and installation errors are fraught with accidents, the scale of which is unpredictable. Therefore, without special training, the information received on the installation of gas boilers should be used solely to control the performance of work by the contractor, where no one has canceled the presence of the human factor.
In more detail, the requirements and standards for the installation of gas equipment are set out in the following regulatory documents:
- SNiP II-35-76* «Boiler plants»;
- SNiP 4.02-08-2003 «Boiler plants»;
- SNiP 42-01-2002 «Gas distribution systems»;
- SP-41-104-2000 — Code of Practice for the design of autonomous heat supply systems;
- SNiP 2.04.05-91 «Smoke protection in case of fire».
Installation of an electric water heating boiler
Choosing an electric unit for heating an apartment eliminates such significant problems as designing and coordinating a connection to a gas main, installing and maintaining a chimney, harvesting firewood, and so on.
Important! Supervisory authorities do not regulate the installation of a water heating boiler when installing a heating system. But, if the boiler capacity is significant, and the amount of energy consumption may exceed the boundaries indicated in the contract, its operation will still have to be agreed with the electricity supplier.
Boilers on electricity are classified according to the method of converting electricity into heat:
- heating elements;
Having studied the characteristics of each type, they choose the unit, and, without wasting time on obtaining technical specifications, they install the heating system in the apartment in accordance with the technical documentation of the boiler, as well as the requirements for the safe operation of electrical appliances.
Electric boilers are compact enough for an apartment and in most cases are made wall-mounted, however, the wall must still be strong enough to install brackets on it and then place the unit.
To connect the boiler to the mains, a separate line is installed from the electric meter, which is equipped with automatic switches for emergency or planned de-energization of the equipment, the same automatic switches serve as fuses in case of a short circuit.
Units with a power of up to 9 kW can quite cope with the task of heating in a 2-3-4-room apartment, while it is permissible to connect them to a single-phase network. More powerful equipment is made three-phase.
Ensuring the safety of the electric boiler
When using electric heaters in the water heating system, there is a risk of boiling of the coolant, therefore, when installing the equipment, special attention is paid to the thermostat — a device for automatically turning the boiler on and off. The thermostatic device can also operate in the anti-freeze circuit mode, when water heating is used as a backup heating method.
The electric boiler is also equipped with other protective devices:
- automatic air bleed valve;
- membrane valve for relieving water pressure in the system in case of failure of the thermostatic device or clogging of the pipeline;
- pressure gauge and thermometer — for visual control of the state of water in the circuit of the working medium in the circuit.
These devices are mounted separately or compactly assembled into a so-called safety block.
The heating system must have a connection to the water supply, which makes it possible to replenish the amount of coolant in the circuit. The connecting jumper is equipped with two ball valves with a filter between them. A phosphate salt is used as a filter element, which prevents the deposition of salts on the walls of the circuit and heating elements.
Connecting an electric boiler to the heating circuit is possible on its own, but if there is no practical experience in performing this work, it is still better to do it in tandem with a professional, or completely trust a specialized installation organization.
Heating circuit installation
The project of the heating system in the apartment contains all the necessary information for the distribution of the heating pipeline with radiators. The material of the pipes, the number and location of the radiators are indicated on the basis of the calculations performed and, in the case of connection to a heating plant, the characteristics of the heat carrier.
This type of work in the arrangement of housing with heating also has many features and requires not only theoretical knowledge, but also practical installation skills.
If the explanatory note to the heating project is done at the proper level, then the wiring of the pipeline is quite feasible on its own, paired with an experienced mentor.
In the absence of experience in the production of these works and a specific presentation of technologies in a note, it is better to entrust the installation to specialists.
Installing an efficient type of heating in an apartment is a set of measures, the successful implementation of which requires not only theoretical training, but also practical experience in the production of many types of work. Therefore, the materials of such articles facilitate the development of one or another type of installation work, but do not call for gaining practical experience, taking on the arrangement of housing with a complex heating system immediately after getting acquainted with the theory.
However, even theoretical knowledge will help to control the installation of heating in an apartment by a contractor, who, unfortunately, are not always responsible enough.
The main essence of the article
- Proper registration of permission for the installation of gas equipment is the key to the safe operation of the heating system.
- An efficient heating system starts with a good design.
- A gas water heating boiler is a unit whose installation requires increased control.
- An electric boiler is an opportunity to solve the problem of heating a home with less effort.
- High-quality installation of a heating system according to a well-executed project is a guarantee of safety, efficiency, economy and durability of heating equipment.