Canadian building heating technology is a more economical alternative to water and electricity. It is based on the circulation of warm air in a closed piping system, which contributes to the uniform distribution of thermal energy throughout the entire volume of the building. Among the positive features of the technique can be called integration with the ventilation system, addition in the form of filter elements, air conditioners and humidifiers.
In most cases, the method is used in frame buildings, which are widespread in Canada, which is why the technology got its name. Due to the insufficient thickness of the walls, in comparison with a brick structure, the frame does not retain the heat produced by the batteries so well, while air heating forms the optimal microclimate of the dwelling with minimal financial costs.
Air efficient home heating according to the Canadian method should ideally be formed at the design stage of the building so that all pipelines fit harmoniously into the architecture. First, a project is drawn up, it is determined what cross-sectional area the pipes should have. Exceeding the optimal value will lead to unnecessary financial costs, insufficient cross-section — to low efficiency.
Of course, the craftsmen will be able to lay the system in an already built building, but in such a situation, the difficulty lies in making the pipes as invisible as possible, the engineering design of the pipeline does not match modern and classic interiors too well.
The following devices are required for correct operation:
- Gas-fired air heater.
- The heat exchange circuit, in which the passing air reaches a predetermined temperature, the combustion products are separated.
- Pipes for supplying heated air to rooms. The types of pipes used should be discussed separately later.
- Ventilation grilles placed on the ceiling, walls, in the floor. With their help, heated air is supplied to the premises. Movable blinds on the grilles make it possible to adjust the power of the heat flow of air, to achieve the necessary climatic conditions.
- A fan that ensures the efficiency of the system, guaranteeing a constant supply of air to the circuit.
- Mechanical filters, air conditioners, humidifiers, that is, mechanisms and consumables that improve air quality, providing variability in environmental settings.
- Electronic sensors that automatically maintain the main operating parameters, preventing the occurrence of dangerous emergencies.
Varieties of pipes
When forming the system, several types of pipelines are used:
- The rectangular profile is considered the most common, perfectly compatible with suspended ceilings.
- Round pipes are considered the cheapest. They are very easy to connect, there is no need to use special fasteners. Unfortunately, the working area of such a profile is 12 percent lower than that of a square pipe of a similar free section.
- Flexible pipes are also used, which are based on synthetic material. They are divided into non-insulated and insulated, enclosed in a special hardened foam, which reduces the dependence of the internal environment on external conditions.
The operation of the whole scheme is based on the fact that the fan pumps cold outdoor air into the generator, where it is heated, cleaned, humidified and sent to pipes for further uniform distribution throughout the entire volume of the dwelling. As is known from the school physics course, natural convection involves the rise of warm air upwards, and therefore it is better to place the supply grates closer to the floor.
If we talk about what kind of fuel is preferred for the generator, then the best option is gas. This option is economical, involves the almost complete absence of combustion products, and is safe.
Adjustable ventilation allows you to precisely determine how much cold air will come from the street to warm up the system. Some options involve working in an exclusively closed cycle, that is, there is no supply of fresh street air at all, but the option is more preferable when such a function is supported.
It will not be superfluous to also have a thermostat, adjustable both manually and automatically. Automatic technology allows you to create entire climatic programs that vary the temperature depending on the time of year, time of day.
Finally, experts also strongly recommend installing a humidity sensor. To achieve the desired level, the ratio between outdoor and indoor air varies.
Advantages and disadvantages
The positive features of the Canadian method are as follows:
- The efficiency of the system often reaches 90 percent, which is almost a third higher than that of the water counterpart. This is due to the low energy consumption.
- Economic benefit. The heating circuit does not involve the installation of expensive pipes, radiators made of specialized alloys.
- Preservation of the interior. Air ducts are located under false ceilings, can be placed inside the walls, so they are invisible.
- Combined work with ventilation, humidification, cleaning, air conditioning.
- The minimum level of inertia, after 10 minutes of operation, the desired temperature is reached.
- Automatic control, no accidents.
- Absence of water that can freeze in case of an emergency (breakdown of the heat generator, intentional shutdown of the heat generator, unintentional shutdown of a volatile heat generator, etc.)
- Lack of antifreeze fluid, which must be changed periodically. By the way, many manufacturers do not give a guarantee for the boiler if something other than water is poured into the system.
- The air recuperation system (the use of secondary heat to heat fresh air) becomes more accessible. The efficiency of the system increases.
- Installation of the system is simple, there is no need for expensive plumbing services, since air microleaks practically do not affect the system.
If we talk about the shortcomings, then their number is minimal. In case of incorrect calculation, for example, the system works with some noise. The second disadvantage is that the low location of the gratings sometimes leads to the rise of dust from the floor, which makes it more likely to do wet cleaning. The third minus is that a person is comfortable with air heating from +18 degrees Celsius, with water or stove heating from +16 degrees Celsius (due to radiation). The fourth minus is that a designer is needed. The fifth minus is an open question: “How to flush pipelines if dust has accumulated in them?”. The sixth minus — if the pipelines are under the ceiling, then it is necessary at the design stage to lay a higher ceiling height, for the diameter of the pipeline.
Thus, in many situations, it is this method of heating a building that is preferable. The main thing is to entrust the calculations to professionals so that there are no problems during operation.