Choosing a heating system for a city apartment is a complex and responsible process. For residents of apartment buildings with central heating, the issue of heating housing is solved simply. It’s cold, so wait for the heating to turn on. That category of citizens who have decided to take care of their own comfort on their own faces a difficult and difficult choice — what type of autonomous heating for an apartment in a multi-storey building should be preferred. For the owner of the apartment, it is important that the system be as efficient, safe to use and economical as possible. Of all the types of autonomous home heating that exist today, heating with electricity meets all of the above criteria.

The heating season, which many of us are looking forward to, for apartments with electric heating is now independent of a specific date. With the help of electricity in your apartment, you can at any time achieve an acceptable temperature, create the necessary comfort and microclimate.

Electric home heating — the basic principle

Electricity has long and firmly entered our lives. It is impossible to imagine a sphere of our life in which electricity would not be used. Lighting, the operation of household appliances, transport, a host of other devices and appliances are built on the principle of using electricity. One of the most important directions in the use of electricity at the household level is home heating.

The very concept of electric heating is quite capacious, which combines various types, types and options for heating, which are based on the work of electric current. Each system has its own technical differences and functional differences. Despite the differences, all types of heating with the help of electricity are united by a number of technical characteristics and parameters. The principle of operation of all electric heating systems is based on the operation of Joule’s law. The current entering the heating device experiences the resistance of the conductor. In this case, part of the energy is transformed into thermal energy, reducing the voltage. The process is clearly visible on the example of the work of an ordinary «goat», a household appliance made in a handicraft way.

The level of heat transfer in this case is regulated by making changes to the connection diagram of heating devices. As a conductor in heating devices, spirals and threads made of refractory metals, gases are used. In each individual case, the heating device performs a specific function, carrying out direct heating with electric current or performing indirect work.

A good example: a home household electric heater, in which the task of heating the surrounding air is performed by a spiral. Helix heating up to t 8000C occurs when the device is turned on. The length of the spiral, the diameter and cross-sectional area of ​​the nichrome filament from which the spirals are made, determines the intensity of heating. Failure to comply with clear parameters causes the failure of the heating element.

Important! The intensity of heating of electrical appliances depends on the applied voltage and current strength in the network. The higher the current strength, the faster and stronger the element heats up, playing the role of a conductor. When calculating the operation of heating devices, the resistance value, current strength and operating time are always taken into account.


In the operation of each electric heater, an electrical circuit occupies a special place. Given the parameters of the network, the technical capabilities and characteristics of the individual elements of the heating device, the expected result, you can make a fairly effective heating device with your own hands.

See also: how to heat an apartment without heating?

Advantages of an electric heating system

The laws of elementary physics can quite simply explain how electric heating works in an apartment, according to what principle the degree of heating of heating devices is adjusted. Hence the advantages that this type of heating has. The electricity used to heat the house, apartment gives you the following:

  • environmentally friendly option for heating an apartment;
  • silent mode of operation of heating devices (exception — fan heaters);
  • a wide range of power adjustment of the heating device (from the minimum level to the maximum);
  • the ability to set the required heating mode in each individual room.

Having listed the advantages, it is worth noting the main thing — the economic benefits and high profitability of such a system. The wide technological possibilities of electric energy, the availability of new technologies explain the huge selection of electric heaters that are present on the heating equipment market today. However, all diversity can be characterized by two criteria:

  • electric heating systems using a heat carrier;
  • heating systems with direct heating as a result of the operation of an electric current.

Here it would be appropriate to say that electricity is still the most accessible and cheapest energy, which is successfully used by man at all levels. Accordingly, electric household appliances and electric boilers remain in demand and relevant. The diagram shows the principle of operation of various electric heating systems

Electric heaters, in comparison with other types, seem to be a priority for use in an apartment building for the following reasons.

Electric heating in the apartment is built on the use of thermal energy of thermal electric heaters (heaters). In most models, the efficiency reaches 96-98%, which is much more than similar parameters in other heating systems. Such heating elements have fast and good heating, are reliable and safe in operation.

Important! The installation of electric heaters in the apartment does not require official permission. The only condition for the normal operation of heating electrical appliances and units is the correspondence of the electrical wiring parameters to the number of heaters and the size of the heated area.


Among the electric boilers on the market for electric heaters for home heating, there are single-phase and three-phase models. In each individual case, the owner of the apartment himself chooses the appropriate model of the boiler for his home, based on the exact data included in the design of the autonomous heating system. A well-designed scheme and thermal calculations will achieve the desired effect and save your own money.

The main types of electric heating

Electric boilers and water heating

In those apartments where multi-tariff electricity meters are installed, the installation of electric heating is doubly justified. At night, electricity tariffs are an order of magnitude lower, so you can use more intensive use of space heating using electricity at night.

Modern electric boilers are ideal in operation, simple and convenient devices, almost completely automated. All models of boilers are equipped with thermostats, thanks to which the heating intensity of the heating elements is automatically regulated depending on the temperature in the apartment. The boilers operate silently, which is very important for owners of small apartments, for families in which small children are growing up.

On a note: If we compare electric boilers with the operation of gas boilers and units operating on other types of fuel, electric heating of an apartment is much easier to install and can be easily dismantled if necessary. The presence of a machine on the switchboard will ensure that the entire power supply system of the apartment is turned off in the event of a malfunction in the heating system.


Electric boilers operate according to the traditional autonomous heating scheme, heating the coolant in the system. It can be plain water or antifreeze diluted with water in the appropriate proportion. Such a scheme is most often used at the household level, providing good heating of the interior. A heating boiler or boiler can be installed in any technical room, in the kitchen or in the bathrooms, where there are technical possibilities for installing such equipment.

On the consumer market, there are wall-mounted electric boilers with a capacity of 5 to 60 kW, as well as floor-standing models with a power exceeding 60 kW.

The power of the boiler is selected on the basis of generally accepted technological standards. For heating a room with an area of ​​10 m2 1 kW of electricity is required.

Important! The installation of a boiler with a capacity of over 12 kW in a city apartment will require the re-equipment of the home electrical network and the installation of a three-phase meter. Installation of a large capacity boiler will require obtaining the appropriate permit from the energy company.

The layout of the pipeline and the methods of connecting radiators are similar to the installation of a water heating system. The only difference is that electric heating boilers are designed to serve a small number of batteries, and therefore cannot provide the necessary heat for sufficiently large apartments.

Direct heating using electricity

As a successful alternative to electric heating using a heat carrier, heating devices using the principle of direct heating with electricity are considered. Heating of the apartment with electricity is provided without the participation of an intermediate link, there is no coolant in the system. Such systems include portable or stationary convectors, underfloor heating and other types of electric heaters. The power of the devices is determined manually or automatically, depending on household needs.

Convectors are the simplest and cheapest way of electric heating. The devices that are offered to consumers today are equipped with the necessary temperature controllers, have a different configuration and power. Due to their compact size and ease of connection, the convectors fit perfectly into the interior of a city apartment, and are unpretentious in operation. Having at hand the data on the heated area, the required power of the convector is determined accordingly.

Direct heating systems also include underfloor heating. Usually the floor is considered the coldest place in the living room. By equipping the apartment with underfloor heating, powered by the mains, you will significantly increase the thermal efficiency of your home. Installation of a warm floor from the technical side is quite a laborious task, but the result is worth it. An evenly heated floor provides efficient heating of the living space in the mode of natural air circulation.

Do not throw electric heaters and infrared heaters from the lights. In the first case, you are dealing with a hot conductor that transfers heat to the surrounding space. In the second case, the air in the apartment is heated by radiant energy in the infrared range, resulting from the operation of an infrared lamp.

Among portable electric heaters, attention can be paid to thermal fans. A heat gun, which, through the forced supply of air heated by electricity, is able to heat a fairly spacious room in a short time.

The gun works on the principle of a domestic household heat generator. In a short period of time, the interior space is filled with warm air. Such devices are often used in the construction industry when it is required to dry the interior surfaces of buildings within a short time.

Opportunities to improve the efficiency of heating with electricity

While utility rates continue to rise today, electricity has a solid headroom at cost compared to other forms of energy. Residents of apartment buildings who want to become independent and self-sufficient from central heating should not be afraid of high costs. A competent calculation of the heating scheme and connection of electric heaters, the transition to multi-tariff meters will allow you to get the necessary heat in the house and regularly save on electricity costs.

In the absence of technical feasibility to install gas heating, electric — will be a real way out of this situation.


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