Currently, there is a fairly large selection of heating devices with which you can effectively organize an autonomous heating system. The desire of consumers to reduce dependence on centralized heat and power services is understandable. Saving money spent on gas heating is a significant factor that residents of private houses pay attention to.
In addition, it is not always technologically possible to connect to a centralized gas supply. In such a situation, boiler equipment operating on solid fuels comes to the fore. A powerful solid fuel boiler is an excellent alternative to gas equipment. Manufacturers have managed not only to improve the manufacturability of heating equipment of this type, but also to achieve a significant increase in the efficiency of solid fuel units. The high power and high efficiency of a solid fuel boiler operating on various types of fossil and fossil fuels make such devices in demand and popular.
An important aspect in order to choose the right heating device for your own needs is the calculation of the boiler power. Let’s take a closer look at how to do this and what you should pay attention to.
Why is it necessary to calculate the power of the heating device
The appearance of heating equipment, high technological characteristics, stated in the technical data sheet, give only a superficial idea of the technical capabilities of a solid fuel boiler. The main parameter influencing your choice is the power of the device. In pursuit of it, we sometimes draw hasty conclusions and overpay, acquiring powerful units that do not meet real requirements and tasks.
Price-quality + heat output, the ratio is of decisive importance for any heating equipment. Manufacturers offer the consumer heating boilers of various models, each of which corresponds to certain operating conditions. Despite this, in each hotel case it is important to have an understanding of how the heating device should work and what the resource of the heating unit will be spent on. The parameter of operation of a solid fuel heater, calculated taking into account the needs and design features of the room, and the correct installation of the equipment, will allow the home heating system to be brought to the optimal operating mode.
Many consumers are wondering. How to calculate the power of your own solid fuel boiler yourself, so that in the future there would be no problems with the operation of the heating system. There is nothing difficult. With a minimum of knowledge and effort, you can get preliminary data that give an idea of what a heating device should be and how it is better to heat it.
Heating boiler power — theory and real facts
A heating apparatus operating on coal, wood or other organic fuel performs certain work related to heating the coolant. The amount of work of boiler equipment is determined by the amount of heat load that a solid fuel boiler can withstand when a certain amount of fuel is burned. The ratio of the amount of fuel consumed, the amount of heat energy released at the optimal operating modes of the equipment is the boiler power.
An incorrectly selected heating unit in terms of power will not be able to provide the required temperature of the boiler water in the heating circuit. Low-power solid fuel devices will not allow an autonomous system to fully meet your needs in terms of heating your home and providing hot water. There will be a need to increase the power of an autonomous device. A powerful device, on the contrary, will create problems during operation. It will be necessary to make structural changes to the existing heating complex to reduce the thermal load of the solid fuel heating device. Why burn precious fuel in vain if there is no need for such an amount of heat.
For reference: exceeding the power of the boiler of the technological parameters of the heating system, leads to the fact that the coolant in the circuit will diverge impulsively. Frequent switching on and off of the heating unit leads to excessive fuel consumption, a decrease in the operational capabilities of the heating equipment as a whole.
From a theoretical point of view, it is not difficult to calculate the optimal operating mode of boiler equipment. It is tentatively assumed that 10 kW is enough to heat a living area of 10 m2. This indicator is taken taking into account the high thermal efficiency of the building and the standard design features of the building (ceiling height, glazing area).
In theory, the calculation is done based on the following parameters:
- the area of the heated room;
- specific power of heating equipment for heating 10 sq. m, taking into account the climatic conditions of your region.
The table shows the average parameters of boiler equipment used by consumers in the Moscow region:
|Area of a residential building, other premises, m2||Recommended unit power, kW|
|60 — 200||up to 25|
|200 — 300||25 — 35|
|300 — 600||35 — 60|
|600 — 1200||60 — 100|
The thermal load parameters look optimal on paper, in theory, which is clearly not enough in relation to local conditions. The selected unit in reality should have redundant capabilities. In reality, you need to focus on equipment that can work with a small margin of power.
On a note: The excess power of a solid fuel boiler will allow you to quickly reach the optimal operating mode for the entire heating system in the house. The additional resource should exceed the calculated data by 20-30%.
The actual load indicators of solid fuel units depend on a combination of various factors. The climatic conditions of the region in which you live may make adjustments when choosing a heating boiler. For the middle band, the following power parameters of boiler equipment are considered optimal:
- one-room city apartment — a boiler with an output load of 4.16-5 kW;
- for a two-room apartment — equipment with a nominal value of 5.85-6 kW;
- a three-room apartment will be enough to have a unit of 8.71-10 kW;
- a four-room apartment, a residential private house will require a boiler installation with parameters of 12-24 kW for heating.
Important! If we are talking about the installation of solid fuel boiler equipment in private houses and suburban residential buildings, it is necessary to focus on devices with great technological capabilities. For heating and providing hot water supply to a residential building with an area of 150 m2 and more, you will need to install a solid fuel boiler of 24 kW or more. It all depends on the intensity of the heating system and the volume of household needs for hot water.
It is always necessary to choose heating equipment individually, based on the calculated data and your own needs.
Options for calculating the power of solid fuel units
The accuracy of your calculations depends on taking into account all the factors and indicators that we paid attention to above. For greater clarity, you can perform a number of actions that will give an idea of \u200b\u200bhow this is done.
The specific power of the heating device is indicated by the letter W. For regions of our country with a harsh climate, this parameter is 1.2-2 kW. In the southern regions, the specific value of the heater varies between 0.7-0.9 kW. The average value in this case is 1.2-1.5 kW.
First, we determine the area of \u200b\u200bthe premises to be heated. Further, we divide the obtained area data by the specific power of the boiler installed in the house in a certain area. We divide the result by 10, based on the theoretical ratio of the power consumed by the heating equipment for heating 10 square meters. meters.
For example: we calculate the maximum load of a coal-fired heating boiler for an average residential building with an area of 150 m2.
- The living area is 150 sq. meters.
- Specific power of the heating device for heating 10 m2 is 1.5 kW.
We use the following formula for work: W = (150 x 1.5) / 10. As a result, we get 22.5 kW. The value obtained is the starting point for choosing an autonomous solid fuel boiler, taking into account the technological capabilities of the heating system and its own domestic needs.
On a note: having found a similar model of heating equipment, throw in 20-30% of the power to increase the technological capabilities of all heating equipment. The load on the DHW system, the comfortable temperature in the house, provided that the boiler is operating at optimal conditions, depends on the number of residents in the house.
According to a similar scenario, it is possible to calculate the necessary resource of the heating apparatus for a house of any area. Always take into account the climatic conditions and your own requests for boiler equipment.
The optimal choice of heating equipment — the nuances and subtleties of the issue
Having learned for yourself the necessary power parameters of a solid fuel boiler that will be in your house, you can proceed to the design and installation of the heating system. You should be aware that the declared data on the resource of the thermal load of the equipment affect the cost of the unit. Heating devices of low power have limited technological capabilities and are mainly designed for heating small rooms. These can be country houses, saunas and guest buildings of a country type.
If necessary, the question arises of how to increase the functionality and efficiency of a solid fuel device. In this case, there are reasonable technical and engineering solutions, with the help of which an increase in the efficiency of the boiler will give a tangible effect.
On a note: It is possible to significantly increase the efficiency of the device by installing an additional heat exchanger in the chimney, which will receive heat from volatile combustion wastes escaping into the atmosphere. The economizer (additional heat exchanger) will give an increase of 20-30% to the rated power of the boiler equipment.
It is not advisable to use solid fuel boilers of high power for autonomous heating of residential buildings. Such equipment is bulky and requires a large area for the installation of a special room. Given the size and enormous power of industrial boiler equipment, one should be aware of the significant consumption of the fuel resource.
This technique is ideal for heating on an industrial scale. A lot of heat will be required when heating large industrial facilities and structures. Solid fuel units with a large thermal load are installed at enterprises.
The selection of heating equipment is a complex and responsible task. Do not immediately chase after models of solid fuel units that have a lot of power. In some cases, for heating a residential building, it is enough to install a unit with output parameters of 24-36 kW. At a temperature outside the window -30 0C, such a boiler will make it possible to create an indoor temperature of + 20-22 0C and heat the water in the DHW system to 40-45 0FROM.
In each individual case, you can make a choice in favor of one or another type of heating technology.
Large boiler power may be required in peak situations, when climatic conditions force the heating system to work in enhanced mode. However, such situations are not systematic, and most of the time your heater will operate at reduced modes. If you expect a large consumption of hot water for domestic purposes, then you should immediately focus on equipment of greater power. In modern private houses, more than 50% of the power of heating equipment is used to provide hot water to the inhabitants of the house. Connecting the «warm floor» heating system also forces you to pay attention to boiler equipment with more power.
It is necessary to select a boiler not only based on its actual power. The operational capabilities of heating equipment, the method and quality of maintenance of boiler equipment play a role here. Using the optimal type of fuel for your heating equipment, the presence of automation will allow you to achieve the normal operation of a solid fuel boiler.