Liquefied gases were successfully used for heating even country houses until the 70s.
Tanks may be heated using special cables
Vessel design from WTS:
Russian tanks are made in the form of horizontal barrels with elliptical bottoms with a diameter of 1100-1600
The gas tank is fenced and equipped with lightning protection, as required by the regulations
The grounding system of the vessel is mounted from rolled metal along the contour of the pit
Tanks from WTS are made according to the principle of a thermos: a strong metal flask is inserted into a polyethylene casing that protects the vessel from chemical and electrochemical corrosion
Amico tanks from WTS can be placed in any soil. They are protected from floating by a heavy balancer-foundation (included in the delivery set)
The gas phase is discharged through a gas pipeline made of a metal gas pipe. It is laid on the bottom of the ditch with a slope towards the base inlet or condensate collector.
Capacity («EAST-CZECH PLANT OF GO») with metal bands (50
The vessel is connected to the ground loop with a steel cable.
Graph of LPG saturation pressure as a function of temperature
In imported tanks, branch pipes for gas fittings are welded into the vessel wall: a
The Algas-SDI evaporator (ZIMMER) can vaporize 40
A trench with a gentle slope for laying a polyethylene gas pipeline is made from the neck of the tank
Welding of polyethylene outlet and gas pipeline is carried out using an electric coupling
Gas fittings on a Czech container:
Pointer type level gauge. Shows the percentage of filled volume. Lower red zone
Backfilling with sand and planning the area around the tank is carried out manually so that the distance from the hatch to the level of cultivated soil is no more than 10-15
The second stage reducer model 0295-48 from GOK reduces the pressure to the working value of 30
The tanker is equipped with a pressure gauge, a level gauge and a counter of the drained LPG in liters. This allows you to pay for gas on the spot after the fact
Fill socket with non-return valve and protective cap
The gas pipeline inside the house is carried out through a metal coupling and is marked in yellow. The gas flow meter is not installed in the AGS
For safety, LPG is supplied through a high-pressure rubber-fabric hose (at 250 bar) through a connecting clamp with a ball valve
The electric evaporator for LPG is made in two lines, with full redundancy of equipment to guarantee the supply of gas in any situation. When one line is out of order or inspected
For autonomous supply of a group of houses or a village, cabinet gas control points are used. Such a cabinet from COTRACO with a capacity of up to 1000
With an increased demand for gas, several tanks can be combined into a group (by liquid and gas phases). Usually the group is connected to an electric evaporator
When planning the construction of a country house, we, first of all, consider the possibility of heating it with gas. At the same time, it is assumed by default that the gas will be mainline. However, liquefied gases have been used abroad for these purposes for a long time and on an ever-growing scale. BUT
The structure of fuels is changing right before our eyes
One of the «old» novelties is autonomous gas supply (AGS) of cottages using liquefied gas. It is clearly not developing in a vacuum. Judge for yourself: in the first year of this century, world consumption of gasoline amounted to 800 million tons, and liquefied gases
For Russia, liquefied gas (LNG) in everyday life is also not a curiosity. Small gas cylinders for 5, 27 and 50
Meanwhile, there is also a successful experience of heating with the help of SG in Russia, and considerable. AT
Installation scheme for autonomous gasification of a house (example):
There are no words, where the main gas pipeline passes nearby, gas heating is unrivaled. But with every kilometer away from the «pipe» its cheapness becomes more and more relative. In 5
Well, are there any disadvantages? Of course, not jokes. SGs are flammable and explosive substances and require careful observance of safety measures. But that is why all installations using SG are under the vigilant eye of Rostekhnadzor (former Gosgortekh-nadzor), from the purchase of a tank for SG to the expiration of its service life. Each installation at «birth» receives its own passport, which is registered with the supervisory authority and then reflects the full history of its life. All installations have a variety of protection systems. To
Resource of reservoirs for heating at home, day (according to the company «GAMARD PCT»)
The principle of the AGS system is simple. A capacious durable tank is buried in the ground near the house (and in warm areas they are placed on the surface of the earth). A pipeline is pulled from its neck to the house, from which branches are made to the boiler room and to the kitchen. the container is filled with liquefied gas (God forbid
The beginning of everything
So what is so special about a «good» SG? First of all, it is hydrocarbon gas (LHG), which under normal conditions is in a gaseous state. With a slight increase in pressure, it should go into a liquid state. Then it can be easily transported and stored. With a decrease in pressure or a slight increase in temperature, the «liquid» gas begins to evaporate and passes into the gas phase. The process ends when the saturation state is reached. Saturated vapor pressure depends only on the ambient temperature and does not depend on the amount of liquid. One liter of LPG produces about 0.25
When using LPG, one has to take into account that the process of their evaporation has the property of self-regulation. If steam is taken intensively (for example, several boilers are connected), then accelerated evaporation of the liquid will lead to its cooling and, therefore, to a decrease in gas pressure above the liquid mirror. AT
When the temperature rises, the liquid in the tank expands very much and, since it is incompressible, can even depressurize the vessel. Therefore, it is strictly forbidden to fill the tank with liquefied gas by more than 85% of the geometric volume. Refuelers strictly observe this norm.
Propane has the optimal set of necessary properties. It steadily supplies the gas phase even in frosts, but is relatively expensive and good only in winter. In summer, when it is hot, its vapor pressure reaches the limit value allowed for the walls of the vessel (1.6
LPG is twice as light as water, so water condensate gradually accumulates at the bottom of the vessel, from where it has to be pumped out (from small containers about once a year). AT
But the main problems with LPG lie elsewhere. By itself, liquefied gas does not burn and does not detonate. However, a mixture of the gas phase with air in the range of 1.8-10% instantly ignites if there is a heat source nearby with a temperature of about 500
Stronger than a safe
The heart of the AGS system is the LPG storage tank. Containers are made cylindrical by welding from thick (up to 10
Domestic firms produce horizontal tanks, while Italian ones also have vertical ones, with a neck at the end. It is believed that such a vessel is deeper and more heated by the heat of the soil. In addition, its performance is more uniform over time. But with the same volume, horizontal devices have a larger liquid mirror area than vertical ones, and therefore they are more productive.
Outside, all vessels are necessarily protected from chemical corrosion, but each manufacturer does this in its own way. Possible bituminous or glass bitumen coating with a thickness of 3-4
The Italian company WALTER TOSTO SERBATOI (WTS) protects its containers in an original way. Its tanks (vertical execution) are arranged according to the principle of a thermos. The metal container is inserted into the outer container made of HPDE polyethylene. A cap-neck is put on top of it (with a seal) so that a sealed compartment is formed to accommodate safety and control devices. AT
On all tanks, the so-called reducing heads are installed without fail, in which control equipment is located: safety shut-off and relief valves, pressure regulator, level gauge, pressure gauge, shutoff valves. Heads protect this equipment from moisture, snow and dust. For domestic tanks, they are purchased separately (they cost about 50-70 thousand rubles), but in imported
The most important question when buying a tank
In fact, the calculation of the required size of the tank is done by the designer for a specific system, depending on the power of the gas appliances installed in the house. In practice, tanks with a margin of volume are more often chosen. «Running» variant
Properties of liquefied gases
|Parameter||Propane||Butane||Methane||Gasoline (for comparison)|
|Liquid phase density, kg/l||0.51||0.58||0.45||0.73|
|Heat of combustion (gas phase), MJ/m3||91.3||118.7||35.8||213|
|Flammable limits, in % of the ratio of the volumes of the gas phase and air||2.1 to 9.5||from 1.5 to 8.5||5 to 14||from 1.5 to 6 (pairs)|
|The amount of air required for complete combustion 1
Annual heating costs 1
m2 area of the house in different ways *
|Type of heating generator||Fuel combustion heat||Annual demand||Energy price||The cost of the energy carrier system, rub.|
|Main gas boiler||10.1 kW
|Liquid fuel boiler||10.2 kW
|Electric boiler||—||158.7 kW
|LPG boiler (propane-butane mixture)||28.4 kW
Petroleum liquefied gas is produced in refineries as a by-product of gasoline production. From there, it is delivered through pipelines or in tanks to the GDS. To
So, where to start if you have firmly decided on autonomous gasification of your home? First
one. You write an application addressed to the director of the gas distribution station nearest to you with a request to issue technical conditions (TU) for gasification of the house with the installation of an installation for liquefied gas. Attach copies of: passport, title documents for the land plot, situational plan, heat engineering calculation of the heating system (to know the boiler capacity and determine the annual gas consumption).
2. After the interview and payment of the advance payment, a specialist visits the site and evaluates the possibility of installing a tank on the spot. At the same time, the relief and hydrogeology of the site are important, as well as the norms for the safe location of the tank: to the house
3. By adding the received specifications to the package of papers, you order a gasification project from a licensed organization. It is being coordinated in the services of architectural management, power supply, gas supply and environmental protection, as well as independent examination (by firefighters, environmentalists and builders). It is clear that these services do not want to work «for a private trader» for free, and you will have to spend a lot of money. Which? There is no single answer. When preparing the material, we received different answers: they did not disclose the figures to us at all, they called the sums of 30
four. After passing the examination of the project, you can buy a container. This is usually done by the installation company on the basis of a separate contract for the purchase of the tank. You can buy it yourself, but then the installation will cost more.
5. Sign an installation contract. After that, the company begins work, which ends with the connection of the gas phase supply pipe to the house. The work lasts 1-3 days and costs about $
6. Upon completion of the installation work, the installation is tested for tightness in the presence of an inspector of the territorial department of Rostekhnadzor and a representative of the gas network service. Only after receiving positive results, the vessel can be instilled. An act of «delivery and acceptance» of completed works is issued.
7. To all the papers accumulated by this time, a service agreement is added (it costs about $
You see how serious everything is, with multi-stage control, without the slightest possibility for accidents!
Private firms operate differently
LPG storage tanks
|Firm||Company location||Tank volumes*,
||Tank price** for 4-5
|«YEFREMOV EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICAL PLANT»||G.
||one; 1.7; 2.2; 2.7; 4.85||170|
||one; 2.5; 3.2; 5||170|
||four; 6; eight; ten||156|
|«EAST-CZECH GO PLANT»||Czech||2.3; 3.2; 4.85||189|
|ANTONIO MERLONI||Italy||1(c); 1.65 (c); 1(d); 1.75(g); 2.75 (g); 5(d)||248|
|WALTER TOSTO SERBATOI||Italy||1(c); 1.65(c); 2.25(c); 4.5(c); 3(d)||281|
System installation features
The amount of installation work is small. The pit for the vessel is made with a margin of length and width of about 0.5
Today, LPG is cheaper than diesel fuel.
The fact that prices are too high and are opportunistic is confirmed by the very long payback period of such systems.
The editors would like to thank TECHNO-ITALY GRAND, SERVISTRANSGAZ, AZS-SNAB, ENTIS and MOSGAZNIIPROEKT for their help in preparing the material.
Source: Ideas for Your Home magazine#86