Gas heating equipment, whose task is to heat residential premises and organize hot water supply, must be equipped with ventilation. Heating of the coolant in the gas boiler of the autonomous heating system occurs due to the combustion of natural gas. The combustion process of any fuel, not just a gaseous mixture, requires a constant supply of air containing oxygen. Efficient ventilation of a home boiler room with an autonomous gas boiler is one of the key aspects of the successful operation of the heating system. The efficiency of the gas boiler depends on the volume of oxygen entering the combustion chamber.
More air — the fuel burns more completely, the heat transfer of the boiler increases, less gas is consumed. Less air — fuel combustion worsens and, as a result, the heat transfer of the gas heater decreases, gas consumption increases. Let us consider in more detail the purpose of ventilation in a house with autonomous gas heating, its types, and how the main calculations are made in this case.
Purpose of ventilation
In the project of an autonomous heating system, one of the sections is always devoted to ventilation. The importance of this factor for the functioning of the heating system can hardly be overestimated. The main task assigned to ventilation is to ensure the efficient operation of heating devices, the creation of a full-fledged air exchange mode in heated rooms.
The second, even more important aspect that you should pay attention to when installing gas heating equipment is to ensure the safety of the heated object during the operation of the installed devices. Natural gas is a flammable, explosive substance, therefore, when operating gas heaters, all necessary precautions must be observed.
Failure to comply with the requirements for ventilation of gas equipment, violation of the main technological parameters of air exchange in the boiler room can cause carbon monoxide and other combustion products to enter the residential facility, which are dangerous to the life and health of the inhabitants of the house.
Ventilation in the boiler room with a gas heating boiler, properly arranged, prevents the accumulation of gas as a result of fuel leakage, reducing its concentration and preventing the formation of an explosive mixture.
Requirements for ventilation and the main methods of ventilation of boiler rooms
Currently, various methods of equipping gas boilers with ventilation are used in industry and in everyday life. The type of ventilation system depends on the type of boiler equipment, its power and design features of the building.
Important! The main rule when arranging boiler ventilation is that the air flow must be three times!
In other words, for the efficient and safe operation of a gas boiler, the air in the boiler room must be changed three times in one hour. Otherwise, combustion products will accumulate in the room, since ventilation will only ensure the operation of the boiler.
Requirements for ventilation systems are set out in SNiPs, we list them in a more accessible form:
- the boiler room can be equipped in an annex to the main building, in a separate building or in a room specially allocated in the house for this purpose;
- the ventilation system of the boiler room must be either separate or connected to the general forced system of the building, while it must have a backup option in case the main one fails;
- air supply to the boiler room can be carried out both from the outside and due to the air mass present inside the residential facility, but in both cases the amount of incoming air must match the volume of outgoing air so that there is no pressure drop in the room;
- the diameter of the vent (inlet) to ensure traction must be maintained in accordance with the norm — 8 cm2 cross-sectional area of the vent per 1 kW of power of boiler equipment in the presence of forced exhaust;
- if the ventilation is natural, then the standard size of the cross-sectional area of \u200b\u200bthe vent is already 30 cm2 cross-sectional area per 1 kW.
All the necessary parameters for ventilation equipment, as a rule, are indicated in the technical passport of the gas heater.
Installing a gas boiler requires precision. Installation of gas heating in a private house must be carried out in strict accordance with the data specified in the project, and under the supervision of the inspection for the operation of gas equipment. Otherwise, the operation of the boiler will be recognized as dangerous, and its operation will be prohibited.
For reference: during start-up tests of autonomous heating, the functionality of the ventilation system is checked by a heating engineer. Shortcomings and technical non-compliance with the project may cause a refusal to put the heating system into operation.
Types of ventilation of gas heating equipment
Ventilation of gas heating equipment according to the method of ventilation is divided into 2 types:
Let’s take a closer look at these types.
The easiest way to provide air supply is natural ventilation. This option is independent of external energy sources, however, its efficiency may not be high enough due to the design features of the gas boiler and the architectural parameters of the heated room.
The effectiveness of natural ventilation is influenced by the temperature of the atmospheric air, the strength and direction of the wind, and the parameters of atmospheric pressure. The intensity of the heating system, the gas pressure in the system can also affect the volume of naturally incoming air and the normal operation of the hood, so there is a significant drawback of natural ventilation — the dependence of its intensity on a number of factors.
Important! When connecting a gas boiler to a natural ventilation system, it is necessary to use exhaust fans as additional measures to avoid the accumulation of carbon monoxide inside the boiler room and prevent the formation of an explosive air-gas mixture.
This ventilation method is suitable for residential facilities of a small area, equipped with wall-mounted gas boilers of low power. Such boilers do not require the allocation of a special room and do not need a separate air duct system. It is enough to arrange a hole with a diameter of 100-150 mm in the outer wall and insert a coaxial chimney pipe into it.
As a more efficient and safer alternative to natural ventilation, forced, or mechanical, ventilation is common today.
The forced ventilation of the boiler room has been used for a long time, and its effectiveness has been proven by practice.
The advantages of forced, or mechanical, ventilation are as follows:
- it is equipped on those objects where natural ventilation is not effective;
- the possibility of adjusting the intensity of air exchange depending on the operating mode of the boiler;
- the presence in the management of automation to adjust the operation of the injection equipment.
Mechanical ventilation is designed for installation in large residential areas. The use of gas heating boilers of considerable power and the high intensity of operation of such heating systems put forward increased requirements for ventilation. Therefore, it is the forced system, mounted on the basis of calculated data, that makes it possible to ensure the efficient operation of powerful gas boilers and the safety of the inhabitants of the house.
If you want to provide your home with high-quality heating, the issue of equipping gas heaters with ventilation should be approached responsibly.
An important point is the diameter of the pipes of the supply and exhaust air ducts — one of the key parameters that ensure the efficient operation of the heating unit. To calculate the characteristics of air ducts, the following are used:
- the volume of the heated room;
- dependence of the air exchange gain on the height of the ceilings in the room;
- air supply speed.
Consider an example of a calculation. In each situation, the initial data will be individual, but the calculation algorithm will remain the same. Similar calculations can be seen in each project for the installation of autonomous gas heating equipment.
- height H=2.8 m;
- width B=3 m;
- length L=4 m.
We multiply all the parameters:
(2.8 x 4 x 3) = 33.6 m3.
The resulting figure means the volume of the room — V.
Then the coefficient of air exchange gain in the room is calculated, depending on the height of the room. The given standard height of 6 meters is taken, and the actual height of the room is subtracted from it: 6m — 2.8m = 3.2m.
Then the resulting excess value must be multiplied by 0.25 and 3 added to the result.
The result of 3.8 is the calculated value of the air exchange amplification factor.
Multiplying the value of this coefficient by the volume of the room, we obtain the volume of air that must enter the boiler room from the ventilation system in an hour:
V = 3.8 x 33.6 = 128 m3
The final figure is the starting point for the subsequent tabular determination of the optimal cross-sectional area of \u200b\u200bthe duct.
Important! The parameters of the supply ventilation must be the same as the diameter of the hood. Typically, exhaust pipes and a chimney of circular cross section are used, which ensures ease of docking and the least resistance to the passage of air flows.
For clarity, the table shows the calculated data on the dependence of the required air volume on the parameters of the duct.
Having become acquainted with the requirements for ventilation of the boiler room, it is easier to control the progress of work on its installation if the installation is carried out by a third-party contractor. Neither at the project stage, nor during the installation process, it is strictly forbidden to ignore the established norms, standards and rules. Any non-compliance with the design data is a violation and, as a result, the basis for the prohibition of putting the system and the boiler into operation, since the severity of the consequences of such violations is unpredictable.
Poor ventilation of the boiler room often causes emergency situations in the operation of the heating system, the consequences of which can be the most serious. Not to mention that an improperly adjusted and installed system becomes the main cause of excessive fuel consumption, which will significantly affect your budget.