Portable uninterruptible power supplies weighing 10-20kg are used to connect one or two energy-consuming
power devices, and stationary ones are able to supply electricity to the whole house
P4-PRO starter (MOBILEN) can be used to power an arc welding machine
Output power of MOBILEN inverters— 75-5000Tue «SOLAR TECHNOLOGY»
A variant of the combined uninterruptible power supply system. ATin case of minor interruptions, the lack of electricity is compensated by acid-
lead batteries. If there is no electricity in the network for a long time, the inverter will automatically start the diesel generator
Ellipse ASR UPS for computers and other equipment
Protection Center (MGE-UPS) includes UPS, surge protector and 8 outlets
Powerware (EATON) UPS series for home office computer protection
Modern UPSs typically use a maintenance-free sealed lead-
acid gel battery
Projectors in home theater systems are recommended to be equipped with a UPS, as their microprocessors are designed to smoothly turn off the current.
It is impossible to imagine the life of a modern person without a variety of electrical appliances that surround him literally at every step. However, the obvious benefits of progress come at the price of increasing reliance on centralized power distribution systems.
The owners of many country mansions are forced to solve the problem of an unstable supply of electricity to their homes. It affects everyone, including owners of cottages located in the most prestigious villages. Any interruptions in power supply disrupt the usual course of life of the population and are perceived as an emergency. Citizens are literally cut off from all the benefits of civilization: the TV, telephone do not work, “global warming” in the refrigerator has a detrimental effect on the products stored there … Even short-term power failures can lead to unpleasant consequences. This is especially true for computers and other devices that may suffer from a sudden «doomsday». There are cases when, due to power outages, the processors of washing machines and dishwashers failed. In general, the more complex and expensive the equipment, the more likely it is that due to the whims of the energy supply, it will be hopelessly damaged.
Another problem that owners of cars, garages and suburban areas especially often face is that the possibility of connecting to the main power supply networks does not exist everywhere. Meanwhile, sometimes there is a need to connect electrical appliances in the «field» conditions. How to be in a similar situation?
The simplest option that will help once and for all solve the problem of energy supply,— duplicate the operation of the power system with personal power supplies. These devices will help out the owners when it is necessary to organize the work of electrical appliances in places where there are no power grids. BUTThe most advanced uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) will protect computers and household appliances during an emergency power outage. Other advantages of such devices (compared, for example, with gasoline and diesel generators) are small size, environmental safety and ease of use. So, UPS do not pollute the air with exhaust and operate silently. The cost of portable models with small capacity batteries— 1-1.5 thousand rubles, and the prices for powerful and stationary UPSs can reach several tens and even hundreds of thousands of rubles.
Source literally and figuratively
Here is what the block diagram of an uninterruptible power supply looks like. Tomains, an inverter (1) is connected, which provides a stable output voltage of 220B. It feeds the house network (2). Toa battery pack (3) is also connected to it. For all power sources, batteries are used, which are characterized by the output voltage, capacity and other parameters (they will be discussed later). In addition to batteries, devices may include an electronic control unit that allows the device to operate as a UPS in automatic mode, an output voltage stabilizer, and an automatic charger.
When choosing a source of energy supply, clearly define the range of tasks that you are going to solve with its help. If you need it to connect power tools in the garden, as well as a power source for emergency lighting and starting cars or snowblowers, then a portable UPS, such as the MP series, is suitable. P4 PRO (MOBILEN, Russia), EFOY (SFC, Germany). These models differ from each other in battery capacity, maximum starting current, generated current voltage, weight and full charge time.
Battery capacity. The amount of charge that the battery can give during operation. Measured in ampere-hours (Ah). The larger the capacity, the longer the devices connected to the battery will be able to work. Large capacitance is especially important when connecting powerful devices that require a lot of energy for a long time. This applies, for example, to circular saws, electric welding andt.n. If the device is used to protect computers and similar equipment from power failures, the capacity of the batteries is usually not too important.
The maximum value of the starting current. It is measured in amperes (A). It is taken into account if you are going to use the device to start car engines. Portable power supplies are capable of generating an inrush current of 200-1400A. Iif the current is 200And it is suitable for starting engines of garden equipment, motorcycles and small cars, then a current of 1400And it is suitable for engines of trucks, including diesel ones.
Model MP 747 (MOBILEN) has a mass of only 7.1kg
Weight. An important indicator for portable devices, especially considering that some of them weigh 15-20kg.This heaviness is due to the design of batteries intended for indoor use. ATIn such cases, lead-acid batteries with a sealed case and a gel electrolyte are used. They cost more than acid-based alkaline batteries, but they have many advantages. Firstly (and most importantly), such batteries do not emit harmful gas during operation. Therefore, they can be placed indoors without risk to health. These batteries are convenient in that they can work in any position (not only when installed vertically), are resistant to low temperatures, do not require electrolyte topping up and are easy to maintain. But safety comes at the price of increasing the mass of the device. Therefore, if the device is supposed to be used «a little, but often» and in different places in the garden, it may make sense to choose a model with a small mass (4-5kg).
Output voltage. Most models give a direct current voltage of 12C. Electronics and appliances require AC 220 to powerB. To be able to connect them, you need additional devices— inverters, or current converters. Their main characteristic— rated output power (from tens of watts to several kilowatts).
For online security
Uninterruptible power supplies are used when the power supply is unstable. Such a device remains constantly connected to the network, and devices sensitive to power failures are connected to it, in turn. With normal mains voltage, the inverter works to recharge the battery or “in the background” (in this case, the energy consumed by it is minimal and amounts to 20-50Tue). But as soon as the supplied voltage drops below a critical level, the inverter automatically starts to compensate for the lack of power at the expense of the battery resources.
Desktop Backup System BK325-RS (APC) Uninterruptible power supplies are also used to compensate for peak loads during power consumption. If, for example, the in-house system is designed for a consumption of 2.5 kW, the simultaneous connection of several powerful devices can lead to the fuses (plugs) being turned off. The UPS monitors these fluctuations in consumption and, if necessary, compensates for the lack of electricity with the reserve accumulated in the batteries. Among the manufacturers of household UPSs on the market, the most notable are APC, XANTREX, STATPOWER, HEART, EATON (all— USA) and «IRBIS-T» (Russia).
ATDepending on the design of the electronic control circuit, two types of UPS can be distinguished: Offline and Online. Devices of the Offline type, which are simple in design, switch to power supply from batteries only when there is a power outage or a sharp drop in mains voltage. Online type devices provide an AC output with optimum frequency and sine waveform characteristics. This technique provides the best protection for the devices connected to it, but it is also not cheap. The average cost of a system with a capacity of about 1.5 kW, designed for a day of autonomous operation, is 70 thousand rubles FROMAs power increases, so does the price. For example, the SW 4548E (XANTREX) (4.5 kW) provides power for 16h and costs about 200 thousand rubles.
Uninterruptible power supplies for country houses are often made in a stationary version, and therefore take up a lot of space. The batteries in them have a large capacity, which allows you to maintain the supply of electricity for many hours.
An important parameter for a UPS is the time it takes to automatically switch power from mains to batteries. Offline-type household devices provide switching in an average of 30-40ms (milliseconds) and the Online UPS reduces this time to 2ms. A personal computer is usually able to withstand a «pause» of up to 50-100ms, so that most UPSs can ensure its performance.
For autonomous power supply for a long time, a combined system consisting of a UPS and a gas generator is often used. In the event of a power outage, the UPS begins to consume battery life. If the power supply is not restored within the set time, the UPS will automatically start the generator. Such autonomous systems are able to work until the fuel in the tank runs out. The cost of the complex— from 120 thousand rubles. (half of the amount will be the cost of the generator). If necessary, you can increase the capacity of the complex by adding additional batteries.
There are other, more promising options for autonomous power sources. For example, a set of a stationary UPS and an autonomous source of electricity (solar battery, wind generator andt.P.). Having once paid for a set of autonomous equipment, the owner of the house saves himself from regular communication with the supplier of main electricity, the steady increase in its cost, interruptions and power surges. Similar projects have already been implemented and are working quite successfully not only abroad, but also in Russia. We plan to talk about them in one of the next issues of the magazine.
battery of batteries
«SOLAR TECHNOLOGY» A serious problem for many owners of stationary UPS is the weight and dimensions of these devices. Suffice it to say that in some cases the total mass of such UPSs reaches several tons! Perhaps, for their placement, it will be necessary to make a separate foundation, such as, for example, for a stone oven. To store batteries, it is best to use a room with a constant positive temperature and low humidity (for example, a warm and well-ventilated basement). Sometimes they are placed in a separate utility building. Most modern battery models tolerate cooling down to -20 quite well.C, worse— Dampness, especially moisture condensate that forms, which leads to current leakage and rapid battery discharge. For their storage, specially made metal racks are most often used that can withstand the necessary load.
The editors would like to thank MOBILEN, the EATON representative office and the SOLAR TECHNIQUE engineering center for their help in preparing the material.