Today, many housing infrastructure facilities use autonomous gas heating for life support. If for city apartments this possibility is limited by technical limits, then for the private sector autonomous heating is one of the key aspects of housing comfort.
Gas-heating equipment can provide high-quality and efficient heating of residential premises in autonomous mode. Hot water gas boilers are exactly the type of heating equipment, thanks to which you can create the necessary comfort and coziness not only in a private house, but also in mini-hotels, country houses and cottages.
The technical capabilities of this type of equipment are able to fully satisfy the needs for heating and hot water supply.
Gas boiler — general idea
A water-heating gas boiler is a type of high-power household boiler equipment, designed to simultaneously solve two problems — heating a large area of \u200b\u200bthe interior and providing a normal amount of domestic hot water (hot water supply). This type of heating equipment is used in autonomous heating systems in which water circulation is forced.
On a note: for operation of the boiler, natural or liquefied gas is used with the amount of heat during combustion of 33 MJ / m3 at ambient temperature 200C and atmospheric pressure of 745-765 mm Hg. Art.
During operation, the household boiler is able to heat the coolant to a temperature of 95 degrees. Celsius, creating a working pressure in the system of 0.6 MPa. A water-heating autonomous gas boiler or solid fuel has a high power, which is usually measured in megawatts. The models on the market today have different capacities. Boilers for a private house usually have a power in the range of 0.4 — 1 MW. Industrial units are capable of heating large areas, up to 30-40 thousand square meters. m., with a capacity of 1.5-4 MW. Due to their design and principle of operation, water heating boilers have one of the highest efficiency — up to 92%.
The main advantages of hot water gas units are as follows:
- quick access to optimal operating modes — 2-4 hours;
- ease of installation;
- ease of operation and maintenance;
- environmental friendliness.
The main advantage of boilers of this type is the low cost of thermal energy, which is an order of magnitude lower than that of other heating appliances. The main scope of application is the provision of hot water supply and heating of residential facilities located far from the heating plant. Usually hot water boilers are installed at facilities where the installation of an autonomous boiler house is technically impractical and economically unprofitable.
In other words, hot water boilers are high-tech devices in which a large amount of thermal energy is generated by burning blue fuel. The resulting heat is used to heat water — a heat carrier that circulates in the heating circuit. Circulating in the pipeline of the heating circuit, the water heats the heating radiators, which then give off heat to the room air. The pressure created in the system ensures the necessary supply of coolant to the farthest sections of the heating circuit and heating the premises to a comfortable temperature.
The main point that you need to pay attention to before installing a hot water boiler is uninterrupted water supply. The good technical condition of the plumbing is a key aspect of the normal operation of gas heating equipment.
Types of hot water boilers used in various fields
The classification of this type of heating equipment is based on the following criteria:
- type of fuel used;
- type of allocation;
- main destination.
According to the type of fuel used, boilers are divided into gas appliances, liquid fuel, solid fuel and combined units. Of the listed equipment, it is gas boilers that have the highest technical characteristics.
By appointment, water-heating units are divided into industrial and domestic.
The first type is used for heating industrial buildings, the operation of such equipment requires special knowledge and experience, the operation of industrial boilers is clearly regulated by regime cards and instructions.
On a note. As a rule, the power of industrial boilers is estimated at tens of megawatts (10-50 MW), steam is used as a coolant in industrial heating systems, therefore such equipment is more often called steam boilers.
The second type is household hot water boilers, which are heating equipment of limited capacity. Such boilers are used for heating household and residential premises of small size, limited area. They use ordinary water as a heat carrier.
According to the type of execution or placement, gas water heaters are divided into wall-mounted (mounted) and floor models. The hinged version of the gas boiler implies a low power device. Such devices are installed in apartments or small private houses. Floor boilers have more power and, therefore, large dimensions. For the installation of a floor-standing water-heating unit, a special room is required — a boiler room, which must be equipped with ventilation without fail.
The main purpose of the water heating device is due to the method of heating boiler water. Boilers with a flow heating method provide the desired water temperature by heating the heating circuit located in the combustion chamber. Other models are equipped with storage tanks in which water is heated indirectly. Devices equipped with storage tanks have a shorter resource and are mainly used for hot water supply and heating of apartments and country houses of a small area. The number of water intake points in this case is also limited. Therefore, the greater the flow of hot water from the DHW system, the greater the capacity and power should have an additional indirect heating boiler used if the gas boiler is single-circuit.
Important! In household boilers that work for heating and for providing housing with hot water, most of the power is spent on heating water. Therefore, when choosing a boiler model, it is necessary to take into account the reserve power reserve, thanks to which there will be enough hot water in the house, and home heating will become as efficient as possible in any weather.
At the moment, a significant part of the models on the market are double-circuit hot water boilers (not to be confused with a two-pipe heating system). Single-circuit units are less common.
The popularity of models of gas boilers with a double-circuit coolant supply system lies in their high efficiency and uniform distribution of the coolant over the entire heated area of the building. The ability to simultaneously provide hot water and heating in the house, while consuming a minimum amount of fuel, is the main advantage of double-circuit gas water heating boilers, modern models of which are equipped with circulators — devices that improve the circulation of the coolant in the pipeline system.
Design of hot water boilers
Today, the heating equipment market is saturated with various models of hot water boilers, which have a similar design and differ only in the power of the heating elements and, accordingly, in performance. The model range is represented by products of both domestic and foreign manufacturers.
In terms of design features — nothing new. Typically, a gas water heating boiler has a durable steel or cast iron body, finished with heat-insulating materials. The design is based on a gas burner and a heat exchanger used to heat the water that then enters the system.
Equipping modern models
Two types of gas burners are installed in water heaters:
The performance and, accordingly, the functionality of the boiler depend on the type of burner and the quality of its work. The reason that the gas boiler does not heat the water enough is that the gas pressure has dropped in the gas supply system, as a result of which the necessary supply to the combustion chamber is not ensured. As a result, the low intensity of combustion of the gaseous fuel mass and the low heating temperature of the heat exchanger.
Atmospheric burners naturally mix household gas with air, while pressurized ones are equipped for this purpose with fans — superchargers. Mixing of gas with air occurs under pressure. The fuel mass enters the furnace under high pressure, as a result of which the intensity of its combustion and the efficiency of heating the coolant are improved. The fuel in this case is burned completely, increasing the efficiency of the heater.
In addition, forced draft burners that provide the necessary gas pressure in the system are more reliable in operation.
The design of the hot water boiler consists of the following elements:
- support frame (for floor type);
- block of convective, radiation heating surface;
- block with spare parts and accessories (shutoff valves, valves and gates).
The boiler is installed on a support frame or mounted on a wall, after which the air duct, water and gas are connected. The installation is completed with the installation of instrumentation, shut-off valves and the installation of safety valves. As a rule, all hot water boilers are equipped with an explosion valve, which is installed on the back of the appliance. The main task of this device is to prevent the destruction of the heating circuit due to overheating and excess operating pressure in the combustion chamber.
An important component of the boiler is pumping equipment, the required performance of which is determined by calculation with reference to the heated area and boiler power.
In the process of installing the boiler, it is also necessary to equip a smoke exhauster through which the products of combustion of fuel will be removed from the combustion chamber. The parameters of the smoke exhauster are also determined by calculation at the stage of development of the heating system project. An incorrect calculation of the characteristics of the smoke exhauster is fraught not only with deposits of soot on its walls and a decrease in the efficiency of the boiler, but also with a dangerous deterioration in the functioning of ventilation and a high concentration of carbon monoxide in the room.
In conclusion, a few words about what you should additionally pay attention to when choosing a unit. Having determined the required power and having an idea about the conditions for its future operation, it is also necessary to study the possibilities and degree of reliability of automation, on the operation of which not only the efficiency of the heating and hot water systems, but also the safety of the inhabitants of residential premises depends.