Central heating in an apartment building, cottage, private or country house and other buildings is designed for their high-quality heating. This happens with the help of one thermal center, in which heat generators or heat exchangers are located. They can be located both inside the building, for example, in a boiler room or heating point, or outside it, for example, in a central heating station, a thermal power plant or a thermal power plant.
Central heating is divided into water, steam and air. In recent years, combined heating has also become widespread.
Central heating device of an apartment building
For heating apartment buildings, water central heating is most often used, consisting of the following elements:
- Entrance valves that cut off the house from the heating main. With their help, the pipeline is divided into the outer and inner parts. The employees of the thermal service are responsible for the serviceability of the first. Responsibility for the interior lies with the utilities.
- Inserts of pipes of hot heat supply on supply and return pipelines. With their help, water is distributed to heated towel rails located in the apartments.
- A heating elevator, with the help of which, the water temperature is regulated in the system. This is possible due to the fact that in it hot water is mixed with the already cooled water from the return. The volume of the latter depends on the diameter of the passage opening of the elevator. It can be changed, which allows you to adjust the temperature of the water in the heating systems of apartments.
- House valves required to cut off an apartment building from the heating main during the unheated period.
- Dumps — valves with the help of which, in case of repair, water is drained from the system.
Attention: Central heating in a multi-storey building provides for the presence of special spills inside the building, which are pipes through which the coolant enters the vertical risers. If you live in an old Soviet five-story building, then in the basement there will be lower spills, from which risers come, connecting to each other in the attic or in the upper part of the building.
But this type of connection has a significant drawback. There is a high probability of freezing of the central heating coolant of an apartment building in winter if the water circulation is stopped. To avoid this, attention should be paid to their high-quality insulation. Air vents are usually located in the upper part of the building to discharge excess air. Quite often they are represented by the Mayevsky crane.
If you live in a nine-story building, then the spill will not be in the basement, but in the attic. This arrangement makes it possible to almost immediately distribute water through the risers when heating is started. There are no problems with air getting into the risers. This is a big advantage of the top spill over the bottom one.
See also: how to conduct heating in an apartment with your own hands?
Heating in-house appliances and temperature conditions
The type of batteries installed in the apartments depends on the year the building was built. If it was built in the Soviet era, then one of the following types of radiators will be installed in the apartments:
- Steel convectors, having a metal case, in which there are coils of the DU-20 pipe and connected by a cross section.
- Cast iron sectional batteries, which have not only a solid weight, but also a significant heat transfer. Each radiator has up to 150 watts. Their disadvantages include the risk of leaks and unattractive appearance.
The size of radiators or sections in them depends on which floor the apartment is located on and what type of coolant circulation in the house. For example, if it is upper, then the coolant, reaching the first floor, will lose its temperature. This means that in order for the heating of an apartment building to be efficient, in an apartment, if it is located on the lower floors, the number of sections should be increased or larger radiators should be installed.
In modern multi-storey buildings, bimetallic radiators are usually mounted. Of course, if the heating system is water. Attention: Such radiators are made of aluminum and have excellent heat dissipation, which is approximately 200 watts per battery. But the cost of such radiators is quite high. But their effectiveness is also high. To a fairly common question — to install bimetallic batteries or not, the owner of the apartment must answer on his own, deciding for himself whether he is ready to «fork out» so that he has warmth.
The temperature regime in the apartments is indicated in the current regulation of SNiP. In the presence of central heating, it is:
- bathroom — 25 degrees;
- living rooms and bedroom — 20 degrees;
- kitchen — 22 degrees;
- corner rooms — 22 degrees.
The maximum water temperature in the pipes of the heating system is also set. It should not exceed 95 degrees.
Centralized heating of an apartment building allows you to effectively warm the room, but at the same time, the temperature in the apartment is completely dependent on the operation of the boiler room and other external factors. In this, this system is significantly inferior to individual heating, which is devoid of this drawback.
Central heating in a private house
The presence of central heating in a private house is quite common. It has a lot of advantages. The concept of central heating implies the presence of a heat carrier generator, the function of which is taken over by the central boiler room.
The connection of heating occurs after the conclusion of an appropriate agreement between the owner of the building and the organization providing this service. There are three options for connecting central heating to a private house:
- dependent direct-flow circuit;
- independent scheme;
- dependent scheme with the installation of an elevator.
Each home heating scheme presented above has its own advantages and disadvantages, which must be taken into account.
Quite often, for heating private houses, it is an independent scheme that is used. It is ideal in cases where for some reason it is not possible to increase the pressure in the heating system. Most often this happens for constructive reasons. In particular, if a residential building has a heating system consisting of plastic pipes, an independent circuit using a circulation pump will be required. In the house, the system can be filled from the water supply or from the heating plant using a special shut-off valve. But it must have an expansion tank.
Central heating of a country or private house can also be carried out using a dependent scheme. But it requires the installation of a transitional device. This function is performed by an individual heating point with an elevator unit. The latter is designed to transfer heat energy. Indeed, in the central heating system, the temperature of the coolant is approximately + 150 degrees, while in the house itself, it should not be more than + 90 degrees.
Attention: It is the elevator that is responsible for lowering the temperature. It is worth noting that despite the temperature of +150 degrees, the water in the central system does not boil. This is prevented by high pressure.
The elevator is necessary to transfer heat from the main heating system. It, due to the presence of an injection nozzle, makes the speed of water movement in the home heating system much faster. Due to its presence, the water will be heated due to the ongoing partial mixing with the coolant from the central heating system, the temperature of which is very high. The elevator has a steel body with a mixing chamber inside it. It is also equipped with a nozzle, in the form of a narrowing hole.
Rapid mixing of water in the heating system of the house occurs due to its high speed at the outlet of the nozzle. Its rarefaction occurs behind the jet. Already cooled water from the return heating system enters this rarefied space.
In the presence of an elevator, it is also possible to control the amount of hot water consumed. This is due to the ability to adjust the cross section of the nozzle. Management occurs by overlapping part of the hole with a “needle”, which has the form of a cone with a slight slope on top. It moves with the help of a special mechanism equipped with a control handle brought out to the outside. In proportion to the temperature of heating water, its consumption also changes when passing through the nozzle.
Also, the elevator simultaneously performs the role of a temperature controller, a mixer and a pump. These devices are quiet and reliable. Thanks to them, the dependent water circulation scheme is very popular.
Dependent once-through scheme
The simplest scheme for the central heating of a country house is a dependent direct-flow. This system does not have mixers, expansion tank, mixer and other additional elements. It consists only of pipes and radiators. The system, even at high pressure and temperature, perfectly ensures the safety of the elements. But it also has a significant drawback. The temperature in a private house is completely dependent on the central boiler room.
Attention: Plastic pipes, which are now in solid demand, should not be used with a dependent flow pattern.
Experts believe that of the three systems listed above, with the help of which central heating is produced in a cottage or in a private house, the most universal is the dependent one, which has an elevator. This is due to the fact that it does not require the use of a priming pump.
Despite the presence of some disadvantages, it is central heating that is the most common. With its help, you can effectively heat an apartment or a private house, even in severe frosts.