Before putting a solid fuel boiler into operation, each owner of a private house should familiarize himself with how to clean the device, how often such a procedure is necessary. Cleaning solid fuel boilers is a laborious process, however, if the operating conditions of the boiler are observed, the requirements for fuel, you can avoid the frequent repetition of such a process.
Consider the reasons that contribute to the pollution of the heating unit, the consequences of clogging and what constitutes the cleaning of a solid fuel boiler, which places of the boiler are to be cleaned.
Almost any unit that is associated with the combustion process, as a result of its work, releases not only thermal energy and carbon monoxide, but also a lot of combustion products. During long-term operation of the unit on solid fuel in the operating mode, soot and flying ash particles accumulate in large quantities on the walls of the furnace, in the smoke channels. A similar situation is typical for all types of solid fuel equipment, with the exception of pyrolysis devices, where dry firewood, briquettes burn out completely, turning into combustible gas.
Accumulation of combustion products in the working area of the unit and in the chimney occurs gradually, and if the mechanism is not cleaned regularly, soot deposits can become significant. The thickness of the soot layer on the heat exchanger body, just a couple of millimeters, significantly affects the performance of the heating device. Heating of the coolant takes much longer. The power of the main equipment drops by 20-30%, respectively, the consumption of the fuel mass increases.
In addition to soot, the products of combustion are also resins emitted by organic compounds, regardless of the type. The resin accumulated on the inner walls of the combustion chamber contributes to the development of corrosive processes that destroy the main parts of the solid fuel unit.
From rich and many years of experience, it has been established that the most common causes of soot and tar accumulation in the furnace and in the chimney are:
- low quality fuel;
- high humidity of fuel raw materials;
- the heating mechanism often operates at low temperatures;
- flaws and miscalculations in the piping of the boiler.
On a note: The intensity of deposits of combustion products depends on the type of fuel and its physical properties. To operate the unit on coal or wood, the most affordable materials are used today. Fossil coal and wood. Any organic fuel, when burned, leaves ash and ashes. The drier the fuel mass, the lower the volume of residual products during the combustion process. In many ways, the intensity of combustion depends on the type of solid fuel boiler. The low moisture content of the raw materials, the additional supply of oxygen and the principle of operation contribute to an increase in the intensity of combustion.
Older models use the simplest direct combustion method, which leaves a significant amount of ash, ash and soot. All this settles on the walls of the combustion chamber, is deposited on the heat exchanger and in the chimney. New models are high-tech devices, the combustion process has been brought to optimal parameters, so less ash remains in the ash pan, soot in most cases escapes along with carbon monoxide through the chimney. Cleaning the chimney from soot is one of the main conditions for the safety of the heating unit in a private house.
Important! The accumulation of soot on the walls of the chimney can lead to a dangerous situation. Soot, is the smallest, microscopic particles of charcoal, which at high temperature and intensive air supply can ignite. It is not uncommon for a chimney that is red-hot as a result of burning soot to cause ignition of the roof, attic floors. It is characteristic that this problem is characteristic of solid fuel boilers with forced draft.
How to clean a solid fuel boiler. Cleaning methods
You can clean the solid fuel boiler with scrapers and wire brushes. Usually such devices are included with the main equipment. In each individual case, a cleaning method is used that corresponds to the design features of the boiler. The following areas need to be cleaned:
- walls of the combustion chamber;
- surface of the heat exchanger;
- inner walls of the chimney.
All the places listed for cleaning are those structural elements of the boiler where heat exchange takes place and the water jacket is located.
There are three ways to clean the boiler:
- steam method;
- with the help of chemicals.
Each of the proposed methods has its own characteristics and key points. Mechanical cleaning uses a special set of tools. Poker, shovel, brushes, scrapers and metal brushes.
Important! Before starting to clean the unit, it must be cooled down.
Soot and ash are removed from the combustion chamber manually, through simple manipulations. Volatile and solid fragments of burnt fuel are removed quite simply. The situation is more complicated with hardened resin and tar. How to clean your own heater from these components? The solution is that for this purpose it is necessary to warm up the device. Tar and tar become soft and are easier to remove from the surface with brushes and scrapers. Upon completion, it is necessary to warm up the unit to the optimum temperature so that the remnants of tar and tar burn out completely.
With the help of a steam generator, the boiler is steam cleaned from tar, tar and microscopic soot particles. The chemical method is designed for the use of various chemical compounds and acid-based reagents. The inner surface of the furnace and the surface of the heat exchanger are treated with chemicals that corrode deposits. Usually, dissolved chalk and soda ash are used to clean wood-fired pyrolysis units.
The cleaning agent is chosen based on financial considerations and the degree of contamination of the boiler. In each case, if the requirements are met, a positive result can be achieved.
How often should heaters be cleaned?
In order for your unit to constantly work at optimal modes, give out the necessary power, boiler cleaning should become regular. Using normal and high-quality fuel, you can do this event once a month.
On a note: when using low quality fuel raw materials, the boiler should be cleaned more often, once every two, three weeks. If the operating parameters deteriorate, unscheduled cleaning of the equipment can be carried out.
To prevent severe clogging, it is necessary to regularly inspect the solid fuel boiler. When different types of fuel are used, the device operates at low temperatures, the unit will have to be cleaned once a week.