Having made a choice for yourself in favor of one or another type of solid fuel heating boiler, you need to have an idea of ​​\u200b\u200bhow to properly heat your own home solid fuel boiler. The options in this case may differ if we take into account the type of heating device. Currently used solid fuel units are conditionally divided into two groups, units with manual fuel supply and products equipped with automatic supply of fuel resources.

Let us dwell on how to heat boilers of various types and what fuel is best suited for home heating.

The principle of operation of solid fuel boilers

Solid fuel boilers, which are on sale today, are basically all equipped with control systems and fans that provide air to the combustion chamber. The control unit consists of a temperature sensor mounted on the heat exchanger. Signals about a decrease and increase in the temperature of the coolant cause the automation to work, which turns the air blower on or off. As a result, automation itself exercises control over the temperature regime, adjusting the intensity of combustion.

The combustion of boilers with the help of automation reduces human involvement to a minimum. After filling the fuel, the entire operation of the apparatus is controlled by automatic devices and mechanical devices. The device, having reached the optimal operating mode, goes into the smoldering mode. With a decrease in temperature and a decrease in the intensity of combustion, the pressurization system is turned on again. The process is monotonous and constant, thanks to which air is supplied to the combustion chamber and the output of combustion products through the chimney is improved.

If the fuel in the furnace is over, the automation will use the coolant collected in the heat accumulator. Such a scheme prevents the rapid cooling of the heating system and the decrease in the temperature of the coolant to critical values. In some cases, the autonomous heating system is supplemented by an electric boiler — a heating element, which is a backup source of heat when the main heating unit stops.

Important! Controlling the number of fuel fillings in the boiler is a task that a person still has to control. Knowing the power of the device and the needs of the heating system, it is possible to calculate the number of fuel tabs. Automation is only capable of maintaining the entire system in working condition for a short time, protecting the equipment from overheating and from a complete stop.


The principle of operation of solid fuel boilers is simple and straightforward. Competent piping allows not only to create normal conditions for the functioning of the heating device, but also to ensure the uninterrupted operation of the entire heating system in the house.

Choosing fuel for solid fuel boilers

The type of heater, the requirements put forward to the entire energy supply system, make it possible to determine how to heat a home solid fuel boiler, which fuel is better. The question of whether it is possible to heat the apparatus with different types of fuel cannot be answered unambiguously. It all depends on the type of heater. The principle of operation of the equipment determines the choice — coal, firewood, coke and pellets, to which there is access today.

The efficiency of the unit depends on what kind of fuel is used in the system and what quality. Moreover, the stock of fuel resource is made in large quantities, respectively, preparation for the heating season is associated with high costs.

The most common types of fuel used today in everyday life:

  • firewood;
  • coal, stone or brown;
  • pressed peat or wooden euro briquettes;
  • pellets.

If it is difficult to decide on the choice of what and how to heat the heating unit, the best option is to use peat briquettes or fire pellets. Such fuel is ready for use, has the necessary physical characteristics. The only disadvantage of this type of fuel is the high price.


Firewood is also distinguished by high technological characteristics. But here it is necessary to follow hard rule:

In order to heat at home, it is better to use only solid woods. They burn longer, have a high heat transfer. Try not to use pine wood for ignition. They have an increased tar content, which leads to rapid contamination of the combustion chamber of the apparatus and the heat exchanger. Firewood must be dry. Firewood with high humidity burns worse, in the process of burning a large amount of steam is released, which turns into condensate.

Coal is convenient, practical and beneficial in many ways. In addition to an affordable price, coal has high technological characteristics. This includes a long duration of combustion, and high heat transfer. During combustion, coal emits a minimum of harmful substances.

How to properly heat equipment of different types

Often the question arises of how to heat a particular heating apparatus. Pellet solid fuel boilers are becoming popular today due to their high efficiency. Despite the high cost of the fuel resource, such a device has an automated fuel supply. Due to its design, such equipment requires the least amount of maintenance.

For heaters of other types: pyrolysis, long-burning units and boilers in the classic version, a different approach is required in the organization of work. Heating appliances of each type have their own characteristics and specifics.

Let’s start with the fact that solid fuel boilers in the traditional, classic version are practically out of use today. In some households, you can still find wood-fired or coal-fired devices with minimal features and poor performance.

The most common today are pyrolysis boilers and long-burning units — high-tech devices that meet all the necessary requirements and safety standards. For heating devices of these types is characterized by high performance and efficiency. Long-burning heating devices have a high efficiency — 80%. Among solid fuel units, pyrolysis-type boilers have the highest efficiency — 85%.

This is interesting: How to heat the stove with coal?

Long-burning boiler furnace


It is possible to melt solid fuel equipment in two different ways, by burning through and in layers. Each option allows you to increase the burning time of one load. Firewood is laid in the firebox. For faster ignition, you need to add paper or wood chips. After the flame appears, the loading door is closed and the heater control unit is switched on.

Further, the process proceeds as follows. Firewood, coal or briquettes burn from top to bottom, giving off the maximum possible amount of heat. Burning in the furnace in this way can take a long time.

For reference: For some models, one download is enough for 24 hours (in standby mode up to 48 hours).

After turning on the unit, it is necessary to bring it to the optimal operating mode by setting a deliberately high heating temperature. After the equipment has reached the optimum temperature regime, it is possible to reduce the boiler power by setting the necessary temperature parameters.

Features of kindling a pyrolysis solid fuel boiler

Heating equipment based on pyrolysis is distinguished by the fact that it allows the use of almost any organic raw material with low humidity (no more than 20%) as fuel. Burning is carried out in stages. First, due to the high temperature, the decomposition of organic compounds in the fuel components, followed by the release of wood gas. This process is called pyrolysis. Further, already in the second combustion chamber, high-temperature combustion of a combustible gaseous substance occurs. This requires a constant supply of oxygen.

The process of operation of the pyrolysis type unit is easy to control by increasing or decreasing the air supply. The main advantage of such boilers is high efficiency and heat transfer with minimal loads. After combustion, there are practically no combustion products left in the furnace. Cleaning such a combustion chamber with such a heating device is much easier and more convenient than with other types of units.

What to pay attention to

The operation of any heating device on coal, wood and other semi-finished fuel products is inextricably linked with the ventilation system. The performance of the heating equipment, the technological parameters of the entire heating system in the house depend on the quality of ventilation and the condition of the chimney.

The hood must operate in accordance with established fire safety regulations.

Important! An improperly made hood will create a risk of harmful combustion products entering the living quarters. Insufficient traction will reduce the power of the device. Regular cleaning of the chimney will help to avoid the ignition of soot, which can cause a fire in house structures, create a fire hazard.

Properly made chimney, cleaning the heating device will ensure long-term operation of the solid fuel boiler at optimal operating conditions. Frequent change of one type of fuel to another can cause unstable operation of the heating unit, failures in the DHW system and heat supply. Each unit should have one, the main fuel, while other types can be used for a short time, if necessary.


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