Among the many types of heating devices used to create the required temperature in the room, the quartz heater has been known to the consumer for several decades, during which this unit has undergone many changes and improvements that have made it as technological and safe as possible.
In order to have a sufficient understanding of these devices when choosing a unit for specific conditions, we will consider the unit in more detail, dividing the review into sections:
1. Device and principle of operation.
2. Types of quartz heaters, their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages:
3. Safety precautions.
Device and principle of operation
A quartz heater is an electrical appliance, one of three types of infrared emitting device, using heating elements that emit heat and invisible ultraviolet for heating, while a halogen heater uses a lamp that emits heat and white light.
Thus, these two kinds of infrared heating devices differ from each other only in the heating element. It would seem that by replacing halogen lamps with quartz ones in the case, a quartz device can be obtained from a halogen heater. However, not everything is so simple, since quartz heaters are divided into types that have a common principle of operation, but are different in design and design.
Types of quartz heating devices
Quartz heaters got their name from the material of the same name, from which, depending on the type of device, lamp bulbs or panels of heating devices are made — quartz.
According to the constructive device, these units are divided into lamp and monolithic, according to the design — into stationary and portable. Each type has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, which determine the scope, degree of perfection and, accordingly, the price of the device. Let’s consider these types in more detail.
Tube Quartz Heaters
The design feature of these devices is reflected in the name of the type — lamp, in which special lamps with a quartz glass body are used as a heating element, emitting heat and ultraviolet, placed in a body with a reflector to direct the radiation.
Quartz lamp device
The heating element of the quartz heater consists of a spiral made of an alloy of nickel with chromium — nichrome and placed in a quartz glass case.
This type of device reaches its maximum heating power in just 30 seconds after turning on the network and cools down just as quickly after turning off the device. Consequently, the material of the bulb (tube) of the lamp is exposed to thermal shock both when the device is turned on and when it is turned off. That is why the body of the heating element (lamp) is made of quartz glass, capable of withstanding instantaneous heating or cooling by 1000 degrees, and the nichrome spiral in the quartz tube is in vacuum to prevent burnout when heated.
The diameter of quartz glass tubes can be in the range of 8 — 16 mm, the minimum / maximum length of the flask is 100 mm / 1000 mm, the supply voltage is 220/230, 110, 12, 24 and 400 V.
On average, one lamp quartz heater is designed to heat 18 cubic meters. the volume of the room, and when buying, you need to proceed from these figures. As for the power consumption, such a unit with a thermostat, when used as the main and only heating device, consumes 2.5–3.5 kW per day for heating this volume.
When buying a quartz heater and calculating the required power, it is convenient to use the approximate formula for calculating the calculation — 1 kW per 10 square meters. area.
Execution of lamp quartz heaters
By execution, electric quartz heaters are made portable or designed for installation on a wall and even a ceiling.
Portable devices are considered more practical and functional, but they lose to wall and ceiling devices in terms of ease of use — there is always the possibility of accidental tipping of the device or damage to the portable electrical cable. However, installation of wall-mounted or ceiling-mounted devices requires certain installation skills and safety precautions at the installation site and the operating area of the device. In addition, at the end of the heating season, stationary units are unclaimed, and their periodic installation and dismantling is inconvenient.
Advantages and disadvantages of a lamp quartz heater
Due to many advantages, improved models of these units are widely used in everyday life, consumers continue to use even outdated samples.
Let’s list these advantages:
- ease of operation and daily care;
- shutdown function in case of accidental overturning or overheating;
- the possibility of independent replacement of heating elements;
- compactness and light weight — mobility;
- almost instantaneous output to a given power;
- no effect on indoor humidity;
- harm to humans is minimal — only in case of violation of the rules of operation;
- availability of the entire range of cost models.
Despite the constant improvement of heating devices of this type, they still have disadvantages:
- sensitive, albeit tied to the power of the device, electricity consumption;
- lack of autonomy — dependence on the availability of electricity in the network;
- the fragility of quartz lamps, a high probability of failure if accidentally dropped;
- fire hazard (with directed use near flammable objects);
- danger of electrical injury (factor of any electrical appliance);
- danger of thermal burns from accidental contact with the lamp.
Monolithic quartz heaters
This type of quartz infrared heaters differs from lamp ones in design and manufacturing technology; for the short name of the type, the abbreviation MKTEN is used — a monolithic quartz heat-electric heater.
The device is manufactured as follows. First, a heating element is made — a metal tube bent by a snake with sealed ends, into which a nichrome spiral is placed and quartz sand is poured. The ends of the spiral are brought out from the ends of the tube in the form of contacts.
This «snake» tube is laid flat in a flat shape of given dimensions with the contacts of the nichrome thread outside its walls, after which the mold is filled with a plastic mixture of quartz sand with marble chips based on a binder — white clay. The contents of the mold are compacted and sent to the oven for drying, resulting in a flat monolithic artificial stone decorative panel with a heating element inside, evenly heated when passing through the nichrome filament of electricity and giving off heat to the environment through the effect of convection.
When molding the plates, technologies are used to create aesthetically attractive panels that fit into the existing interior of the room. When buying such a heater, the dimensions and power are selected based on the individual needs of the consumer.
For ease of use and automatic maintenance of the temperature in the room, many of these heaters are equipped with a thermostat. If there is no thermostat in the standard configuration of the device, then it is technically possible to install it on the device additionally.
In terms of efficiency, a monolithic quartz heater is significantly superior to lamp heaters — for heating 16 — 17 sq. m. area during the day, a monolithic device consumes approximately 0.5 kW of electricity.
Important! When the panel is turned off, its cooling due to the presence of quartz sand in the composition of the plate occurs very slowly — approximately 2 degrees per hour, which means that the soft heating of the room continues for several more hours.
Types of monolithic heaters by design
A monolithic quartz heater can also be portable or permanently mounted on a base.
Portable panels, despite their significant weight (10 — 12 kg), are easy to move thanks to the wheels available in the design. In this case, the weight of the device is not a disadvantage — the unit is more difficult to overturn.
The standard plate size is 610x340x25 mm, which does not create problems when moving between rooms, even in small apartments.
Mounting the MKTEN on the wall is, as a rule, not technically difficult, if you follow the instructions for installing the device. But mounting such a unit to the ceiling for safety reasons should be avoided, since the significant weight of the device imposes increased requirements on the fasteners and load-bearing characteristics of the base, an error in the implementation of which is fraught with a fall of the device and injury.
Advantages and disadvantages of monolithic quartz heating elements
The list of positive characteristics of monolithic heating panels is much wider than that of lamp heaters. In order to make the right choice when buying a device, we list these advantages:
- thermal safety (maximum panel temperature +95 degrees);
- ease of daily care;
- resistance to mechanical damage;
- no harm to health when used;
- price affordability;
- a large selection of artistic solutions.
However, MKTEN also has disadvantages:
- lack of autonomy;
- the impossibility of repairing or replacing heating elements;
- concomitant convection dust content of certain areas of the room.
The list of negatives is very modest, which is even more surprising after reading the really low prices.
Safety precautions for the operation of quartz heaters
For long-term operation and avoidance of injuries when using heaters, the following safety requirements must be met:
- The device must be grounded.
- Cleaning of devices in the switched on or hot state is prohibited.
- It is unacceptable to pull the electric cable to move the heater.
- Do not touch the heating elements while the device is in operation.
- Prolonged stay in close proximity to the included quartz lamps is fraught with burns.
Compliance with the rules for the use of heating electrical appliances, set out in the instruction manual for the device, and the general safety rules for handling electrical appliances will preserve your health and extend the life of even the most modern equipment.