Since ancient times, mankind has been using a wide variety of methods and means for heating residential premises. With technological progress, gas, electricity, and other types of fuel came into our everyday life, thanks to which it became possible to heat buildings of various purposes with high efficiency. However, air heating can be put in this row with exact certainty — a technology that has been almost 2000 years old.
Nowadays, with the advent of new types of heating equipment, air systems have lost their relevance. Basically, such a heating scheme is used on an industrial scale, where they have large technical buildings and structures. Heating plays a crucial role for many of us. We always try to equip our houses and apartments with the most efficient heating scheme, using gas and electric boilers for domestic purposes. Air heating is not deservedly forgotten, although it has a number of undeniable advantages that are worth dwelling on for review.
Heating with air — the principle of operation
Heating with the use of air mass entering the premises is based on the principle of thermoregulation. In other words, air heated or cooled to a certain temperature is supplied directly into the premises. Those. thus, both interior space heating and air conditioning can be carried out.
The main element of the system is a heater — a channel-type furnace equipped with a gas burner. In the process of gas combustion, heat is generated, which enters the heat exchanger, and after that, the masses heated to a certain temperature enter the air space of the heated room. The air heating system must be equipped with a network of air ducts and a channel for the release of toxic combustion products to the outside.
Due to the constant supply of fresh air, the furnace receives an influx of oxygen, which is one of the main components of the fuel mass. Mixing in the combustion chamber with combustible gas, oxygen increases the intensity of combustion, thereby increasing the temperature of the fuel mass. In the old systems used by the ancient Romans, the main problem was the entry of harmful combustion products into the heated rooms along with the warm air.
Important! During the operation of a channel-type furnace, the amount of carbon monoxide in the composition of the air entering the interior exceeds the norm by 10-15%. For example, you can take a home fireplace or stove, which, in case of poor operation of the hood, during the combustion of fuel in large quantities emit combustion products dangerous to the human body.
Autonomous heating structures, built on the principle of heating air masses, have found their application in the heating system of large industrial buildings and facilities. With the advent of compact and easy-to-use air heaters that use gas, solid or liquid fuel, it has become possible to use such heating systems in everyday life. An ordinary, traditional air heater, which is commonly called a heat generator, has a combustion chamber, a heat exchanger of a recuperative type, a burner and a pressure group.
Installation of air heating stoves in private and country houses is quite justified and cost-effective. This heating scheme is not suitable for an apartment, due to the need to lay a large number of bulky air ducts, the presence of technical noise and a high fire hazard.
Modern heating complexes are mainly built on a similar principle, however, in most designs, direct heating of the air mass is not provided. Heating is carried out with the help of heat generators, of which there are quite a lot today. Such units have recuperative heat exchangers in their design, due to which high-temperature flue gases are separated from heated air. Such a technological feature of modern air heating systems is to supply clean air heated to the required temperature into the premises.
The products of combustion in this case go through the chimney. Well-established operation of the hood and a clean chimney ensure the safety of the entire heating system of this type during operation.
Advantages and disadvantages of the air heating system
Due to its advantages, air heating has become widespread in Western countries. In the UK, and then in the USA and Canada, where it was customary to equip most private households with duct-type stoves, over time it became traditional to equip residential buildings with autonomous heating systems. Such heating systems are very convenient for heating large interior spaces. In addition, the installation of air ducts in large stone buildings is much easier than laying water heating communications.
The main advantage of such a scheme is the combination of two important components for housing, heating and ventilation at once. This allows you to significantly save the homeowner’s money for laying these communications.
The benefits of space heating with hot air include:
- the absence of an intermediate coolant in the structure, which greatly simplifies operation;
- lack of airing, problems of air congestion, which are constant companions of water systems;
- the ability to adjust the temperature in any room;
- the absence of batteries provides ample opportunities for creating an original interior interior.
Important! New heat generators have a high heat transfer coefficient, while consuming a minimum amount of fuel. Modern models of heat generators are equipped with an air filtration function and humidifiers, thanks to which the air inside residential premises undergoes additional sanitization and meets optimal physical parameters.
Speaking about the advantages of this heating system, it should be noted that the main heating zone in a residential building is not concentrated directly around stoves and convectors. Heat circulates evenly throughout the house. Due to the absence of sudden temperature changes in a room equipped with air heating, there is no condensate. New models of heat generators are designed to be installed even in an apartment, which can be re-equipped in accordance with the project.
As for the shortcomings, this heating system simply does not have any.
The only negative, which has far-reaching consequences, is that if air heating is abandoned, many elements of the system included in house structures will remain.
It is necessary to design the system together with the development of a residential building project, since many elements (ventilation shafts, ducts and air ducts) are an integral part of the house structures.
Features of air heating at home
Unlike our traditional water heating schemes, which are highly susceptible to being defrosted in winter, air heating does not have such disadvantages. Thermal generators are easy to start at any time of the year. The main thing is that there would be fuel for combustion and constant access to fresh air. Such devices are ideal for country houses that do not need constant heating.
In addition, a working heater does not emit absolutely no toxic substances. Heated to a temperature of 45-700With air in the process of heat exchange spreads throughout the volume of the heated living space. Thanks to recirculation, it is possible to use the same air mass for heating. In some cases, autonomous systems are equipped with other options that allow the supply of outside air. The presence of an external unit in the system creates conditions for cooling the interior during a hot period.
Automatic thermostats maintain the necessary temperature balance in the house. An autonomous home heating system using a duct-type heater simultaneously performs ventilation functions.
Important! The existing myth that air heating greatly dries out the surrounding space inside a dwelling is fundamentally wrong. In modern systems, dust is captured on a special filter, and for humidification, there are special devices — air humidifiers. Feed grates must be installed near places where people often stay.
Varieties of air heating
As with other heating systems, air heating has varieties. Direct-flow, the simplest and most common system in past centuries, involves the usual combustion of fuel in a furnace installed in the basement. The fuel can be wood, stone or charcoal. The heated air mass rises by gravity through the channels equipped in the walls, spreads through the cavities in the floor. The exit of the exhaust air mass was carried out simply through the holes in the roof.
Heating in the room in this case was carried out indirectly, from the heated walls and floor. The figure — the diagram shows the usual air heating system, practiced by our ancestors.
Air heating in the garage is the main article.
Such a system did not differ in efficiency. Most of the thermal energy was spent on heating in the depth of the building structures. Due to the temperature difference inside and outside, the necessary thrust was created.
Another, more modern type of air heating is a recirculation system. The principle of operation is based on the use of clean fuel, the amount of combustion products of which is negligible. Air heated by gas burners or electrical incandescent appliances enters through air ducts to the highest point of the building. As a result of heat exchange, the cooled air is replaced by new heated air masses and enters the thermal heater again.
The figure shows a schematic diagram of the operation of a recirculating air heating system.
The heating season that everyone is looking forward to can be started at any time with an air heating system. The recirculation type is called gravitational due to the fact that the whole process occurs naturally due to the laws of physics and gravitational forces. This method of heating a residential building is the simplest, most economical and convenient to use. Unlike a direct-flow heating system, which is beneficial to use only at home, recirculation systems are ideal for heating large industrial buildings and structures.
Economic component of air heating
The main effect that is achieved through the use of air heating is complete autonomy. The presence of any fuel can ensure the operation of the system and achieve the desired result. When operating without a coolant, practical heat losses are minimized. High efficiency is achieved due to minimal fuel consumption and a large thermal effect.
There is no need for system maintenance. There is no need to carry out regular pressure testing of the heating system. It is enough to monitor the condition of the chimney and periodically clean it.