Gewiss completes products with frames of various shapes, using glass, stone, leather for their manufacture
Socket Wessen with protective shutters and phosphor bronze contacts. Outdoor elements— made of ABS plastic
Switch Wessen with silver contacts equipped with backlight
coy. Base— heat-resistant electrical engineering —
Cozy light in the bedroom is provided not only by lamps, but also by electrical
The MK Electric socket with a degree of protection IP56 is not afraid of strong water jets. The lid also seals the plug
VimarVimarBTicinoTelephone and computer sockets Wessen. Connection with wires— respectively screw and through knife terminals, cutting through the insulation of the conductor
About 20 series of electrical installations
wares are manufactured by ABB
The MK Electric switches have a brass frame with a retro-style weave
The modern kitchen needs proper electrical control systems
Eltimo 020 S socket timer (Theben), 7-day program, 36 memory locations
Electronics in EUI Simon
Kitchen sockets and switches often have to be installed in the most inhospitable places, such as above the stove, where the temperature and humidity are high, and there is a high probability of splashing. Pay special attention to their IP index
Sockets Vimar with a built-in difautomatic device that reacts both to current leakage and to its large values \u200b\u200bin case of overload and short circuit
In the same style with electric ones, both television and audio signal sockets, and blinds control buttons are performed.
It is especially important to ensure the safety of the EDI installed in the nursery
Any picture can be under the glass frame
Siemens widely used for the manufacture of their products different types of wood. It’s stylish and eco-friendly
MK Electric switches on the wall in the nursery with their shape resemble a colorful blot
Connection diagrams for walk-through switches:
a, b— only the phase conductor is switched;
in— a neutral is connected to the switch, so there is a possibility of a short circuit; L— phase, N — neutral («working zero»)
There are sockets and switches in every apartment. Usually the owners choose them, guided by aesthetic appeal. Of course, it’s good if they fit well into the chosen interior style, but functionality is still much more important.— after all, not only the comfort of living depends on it, but also the fire safety of the home and the personal safety of its inhabitants.
Wiring products (EUI) are in every home. This is not only a variety of sockets and switches. Many of us use dimmers (dimmers), all kinds of sensors, thermostats, adapters, buzzers and other newfangled devices and devices.
Asking the price
Now there are a lot of proposals on the EUI market that allow us to make our home more comfortable, safer and «smarter»,— several dozen companies produce products designed for customers with different incomes. In terms of cost, their products can be classified into three price groups. ATthe first price of the simplest socket or switch does not exceed 75rub. These are products of such manufacturers as DKS, DEK, IEK (IEK), Kuntsevo-Electro, Universal, Elektrotekhnika VOS, Gusi Electric, Wessen (all— Russia), Alfa-Elektrik (Turkey), Anam, Shin Dong-A (both— Korea), El-Bi, Makel, Viko (all— Turkey), Kontakt (Poland), Vilma (Lithuania). Usually the series produced by them contain 20-30 items.
In the second price group, a single-gang switch or a single grounded socket costs 75-250rub. (more complex products, of course, are more expensive). We should mention the products of foreign companies ABB (Busch Jaeger), Berker, Kopp, Polo, Siemens (all— Germany) LegrandSchneiderElectric (Merlin Gerin) (both— France), BTicino, Gewiss, Vimar (all— Italy), Simon (Spain), Clipsal (Australia), Efapel (Portugal), Prodax (Hungary), Ensto (Finland), Metalka Majur (Serbia). Many companies from this list, without limiting production only to this group, produce both budget and expensive series.
ATthe third group includes exclusive products of BJC firms, Fontini (both— Spain), Gira, Jung, Merten (all— Germany), MK Electric (Great Britain), although the range of these manufacturers also includes EIM at very reasonable prices. Lovers of beauty can decorate their homes with real works of art by paying 1000-1750rub. for an outlet or switch. So, Fontini offers EUI in retro style. Their decorative elements are made of expensive woods, and the cases— made of porcelain, decorated with painting.
We are already accustomed to sockets with three pins (L, N and PE— respectively «phase», «working zero» and «protective earth») and with pathos we call them euro sockets, although there is no reason to introduce such a term. ATeach country has its own traditions, and in the UK and France, for example, electrical installation products look different than in Germany. But it so happened that Russia switched to the German standard. Andnot only it: its «range» covers almost all of Europe and many countries in Asia and Africa. At the same time, electrical appliances are supplied with appropriate plugs.— with two pins with a diameter of 4.8mm (that is, thicker than in domestic old designs) and two flat protective contacts on the sides (there are also “defenseless” options). There are also universal plugs in our country, suitable, among other things, for French sockets with a protruding grounding pin.
By the way, about the plug: often it «sits» so tightly that it is difficult to remove it. The ejector facilitates this task: sockets with such a mechanism are produced by Prodax (167rub.) and ABB (276rub.).
Electrical appliances of small power, consuming no more than 2.5And, they are completed with euro plugs (this term really exists)— two-pole, with pins with a diameter of 4mm. We still have “Soviet” plugs in use, however, it is undesirable to use them at high current strength, since they do not provide high-quality contact.
It would seem that what else can be improved in the field of ESI? Nevertheless, new items regularly appear on the market, featuring an original design and improved construction. The materials from which they are made are also varied. ATBasically, these are various types of plastic, in particular impact-resistant and fireproof polycarbonate (used for cases). Some manufacturers use ABS plastic, which is even more resistant to shock and heat loads: the products are smooth and shiny and look very attractive. Other companies (eg ABB, BJC) use Duroplast, which has increased mechanical strength. Its surface is almost impossible to scratch and does not age.— always looks like new. In an effort to attract buyers, many manufacturers make decorative items from non-traditional materials: metal, glass, porcelain, wood, stone, leather.
We distribute not only electricity, but also other resources (TV and audio signals, telephone communications) by connection points, we connect several computers to a local network. ATeach series of electrical installation products has sockets designed for this. As a rule, in one «seat»— mounting box— placed on one electrical outlet (communication— two). If this is not enough, you can use, say, Makel models (100rub.) or Vimar (170rub.), which have two nests.
It should be noted that EIM for flush mounting is usually designed according to the modular principle, combining four or five positions under one decorating frame. ATassortment of each company— many combinations of mechanisms and frames. But it is possible to replace the mechanisms, leaving the frame, or vice versa (for example, when updating the interior) only within the same series, less often— using a different series of one manufacturer.
Usually without problems there is a complete change of brand or series. Installation products of most companies are interchangeable. Just keep in mind that Korean products meet a different standard. Yes, and some English ones do not require round mounting boxes, but square or rectangular ones. You must also make sure that the boxes connected in a row have the same mounting pitch as the nests of the decorative frame.
Certificate of protection
In new houses, there is a third wire in the network and sockets that saves people from electric shock: if the electrical appliance is faulty and voltage hits the case, the current will simply go into the ground. However, there are many buildings with a two-wire network and old sockets. Replacing the EIM with modern ones, we will not get any benefit from the grounding contact: the wire for it is not connected, and it is strictly forbidden to connect it to the zero terminal (neutral). Trying to arrange a «three-wire» only in your apartment is also impossible— It is necessary to change the power supply scheme of the whole house.
Nevertheless, it is worth installing new European devices. Firstly, it solves the problem of compatibility with the thick pins of modern technology plugs. Secondly, the new EUI look more attractive. Andthirdly, their range is so extensive that it is easy to choose an outlet with the required functional features, made in the same style as the rest.
BUTRCD (residual current device) will help protect people from electric shock. It works not only in three-, but also in two-wire circuit. His rightful place— switchboard of the apartment. If the implementation of such a circuit solution is problematic, another option is possible.— socket with built-in RCD (as in models LegrandGira, Merten— 3-8 thousand rubles) or a difavtomat (this device combines the functions of an RCD and a circuit breaker that responds to high current). Difamats are produced, for example, by the company Vimar (8400rub.). Alternative— plug with built-in RCD («Astro-RCD», 600rub.). Atsome manufacturers (such as Merten) there are sockets with built-in protection against surges that occur in the network, in particular against lightning strikes.
When there is too much heat
The EUI sold in our country, with rare exceptions, comply with GOST R 51321.1-99 and GOST R 51324.1-99, which require, in particular, that the base of the product does not ignite at high temperatures (850 FROM). BUTits increase (and not always to such values) is quite probable for various reasons.
First— exceeding the rated current for which the product is designed. Second— Wrong choice of material from which the contacts are made. If, due to the sparking that occurs when the circuit is opened, an oxide film is easily formed on their surface, then an increase in electrical resistance leads to heating.
Self-respecting manufacturers (and not only such world-famous ones as BJC, but also domestic ones, in particular IEK and Wessen) supply contacts in switches with silver soldering, which undoubtedly affects the cost of products. ATbudget options, they are copper with a special coating. Optimal material for the contact group in sockets— Phosphor bronze. ATinexpensive products use brass, but it is not elastic enough to hold the pins of the plugs after several thousand inclusions (not only thick “European”, but also thin “Soviet”). There are also steel contact plates (often disguised with a yellow coating under brass), which is completely unacceptable.
Finally, the third reason for heating the product— loosening of screw clamps in the contact group. If, reading these lines, you are unsuccessfully trying to remember when you last tightened the screws in sockets and switches,— put down the magazine and pick up a screwdriver. Don’t tempt fate— Follow the above procedure as soon as possible. Just remember to turn off the power first.
Pay attention to the junction boxes (contrary to the name, the connections in them are not soldered, but screwed, or they are ordinary twists, which is much worse). Often they are plastered and covered with wallpaper, which cannot be done, since screw connections need periodic maintenance. This problem disappears when using spring terminals (ABB, Berker, BJC, Efapel, Gira, Jung, Legrand, MertenPolo, Schneider Electric, Siemens). The wire is simply inserted into the hole where it is pressed against the metal bus. In this case, poor-quality installation is excluded, moreover, such devices do not require maintenance.
The resistance of the EUI to adverse weather conditions is characterized by the IP index followed by two digits. The first (from 0 to 6) indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of solid bodies (in particular, dust particles); second (from 0 to 8)— from water penetration.
Room sockets and switches are generally IP 20 rated. Outdoor mounting requires IP 55 protection to prevent dust and water jets from any angle. Toproducts installed in bathrooms have special requirements. They are recommended to be placed no closer than 60cm from bathtubs, showers and sinks, and only models with degree of protection IPX4, connected via an isolating transformer.
BUTat a distance of 2.4m and more, it is allowed to mount any electrical appliances with an index of at least IPX1. Please note: if there is no marking, then most likely such a device corresponds to the IPX1 or IPX2 protection level (which is usually not indicated), even if it has some kind of protective cap.
According to the principle of operation, there are toggle switches (with a rocking mechanism), push-button, rotary, with adjustable lamp brightness, which automatically turn on the light when a person appears in the room, radio-controlled andetc. The most common— reversible, with two fixed positions. Consumers prefer devices with one large key or two or three keys.
Many manufacturers produce models with an indicator (they are equipped with a small neon light that confirms that the circuit is closed) or backlight (a decorative light source is on when the circuit is open; during the day it is almost invisible, but at night it is clearly visible in the dark).
Push switches— these are buttons, similar to those that are often «equipped» with table lamps and doorbells. There is only one difference: those designed for lamps work on the principle of «pressed— turned on, pressed— turned off», and for calls— close the line, only while we «press» on them. ABB offers a series model impulse (830rub.), equipped with a large round button with a luminous rim. Often samples of this type, made in the same style with the rest of the products of the series, do not differ from keyboards outwardly.
Rotary switches are suitable for fashion lovers of the 50s. 20th century If the interior of the house is decorated in a retro style, for example, elegant products will fit perfectly into it. Fontinimade of non-traditional materials (stone, porcelain).
A kind of «hello from the past»— rope switches that have survived to this day. Worth pulling for her— the light will light up, pull again— will go out. They are not popular now, although only they (according to GOST R 50571.11-96) are allowed to be installed on the wall next to the bathroom.
ATresidential buildings use not only single-pole switches that switch the phase conductor, but also two-pole ones (either for phase and neutral, or in general for different circuits). The pass switch deserves special attention (it is also called a switch).
Atit has three terminals, and it works like a railway switch: we clicked the button— the current went into one wire, transferred it to a different position— in another. It allows you to organize independent control of the lamp from two places: for example, you can turn on the light in the living room while in the hallway, and go into the bedroom— turn it off. Often, buyers install the switches themselves, since the circuits are simple. However, it is highly undesirable to assemble a circuit in which a neutral (other than a phase) is connected to the installation products.— there is a high probability of a short circuit in the circuit breaker itself. root cause— a spark, often formed when a circuit is opened, through which current flows. It develops into an arc, which is transferred after the moving contact from the phase conductor to zero,— here’s a short circuit for you.
We hide everything
Agree, any of us prefers that the mechanisms of installation products, along with wires, are hidden in the walls. But you have to pay for beauty by cutting grooves (straps) and round holes for mounting boxes. The latter are usually plastic— for example, from T.plast (Russia) (price— 5rub.). There are also rectangular— according to the Korean standard.
Mounting boxes are fixed in a concrete or brick wall using a mortar (gypsum, cement-sand) or an appropriate adhesive. It is undesirable to use alabaster, because when it dries, it increases in volume, making subsequent fine finishing difficult. ATwooden houses, boxes are placed on self-tapping screws. BUTfor hollow walls (for example, drywall) you need mounting boxes with screws and stops pressed against the slab from the back (T.plast, price— 7rub.)
Wiring products are held in the «glass» by spacer tabs or screws, the latter method is becoming increasingly common. Products designed for open wiring are also in demand,— It is presented in the range of many companies.
Some manufacturers (for example, Schneider Electric) have gone the other way— they design universal products that can be placed both in the wall and in a plastic box on it (for one or more positions). A special case of open wiring— cable channels, in which sockets and switches are most often fixed by simple snapping (DKS, Legrand).
The main rule of installation— installation of the switch in the gap of the phase conductor, and not zero. ATotherwise, even when the circuit is open, there is a voltage of 220B. For a person, it is a mortal danger if, due to damage to the insulation, current enters the case.
Many actively use dimmers (including for energy-saving lamps), but this is only the first step towards changing the usual appearance of electrical installation products. The choice is quite wide. Prefer not to approach the switch, but to act at a distance— then IR or radio control will suit you. Do you want to implement automation— install twilight sensors, timers and IR motion sensors. This is not about a «smart home», which most of our fellow citizens continue to consider something fantastic, but about its individual elements that can work independently. Today, they are available to millions of people and may well make their daily lives more comfortable. But this is a different generation of electrical devices that has appeared quite recently, and we will talk about it in another article.
The editors would like to thank the representative offices of Gewiss, Legrand, Siemens, Wessen and the Spanish House of Electrical Engineering, T J Electric for help in preparing the material.