How to get the necessary electrical power for a modern cottage? Which authorities should be contacted to complete all the required documentation? What can and should be done to ensure that the required amount of electricity flows freely into the house? We provide answers to these difficult questions with the help of energy experts.
Where do people usually start when they want to build a house? With the choice of place of future residence. It is clear that I want to have a forest, a river, and a field nearby. Many make a purchase of land, guided by emotions. And only then they face the problem of communication. It turns out that the local electricity supplier is able to allocate the permitted power, sufficient only to light a country house, but not a modern country cottage. Problems arise due to the fact that future developers have a poor idea of legislation, standards, building codes and rules, and often reason «in terms»: they say, «electrician
Gordian node of power supply
Pillar transformers today are the best way to supply electricity to several cottages when connected to the main networks. They are «hardy» and require minimal maintenance. Before purchasing a site and building a new home, you should find out if there are utilities in the nearest district. Electric networks are in the first place here, because without electricity you can’t build a house, you can’t pump water and you can’t read a book.
A simple answer is given to this complex question if you have been taken care of and built a cottage village with the necessary engineering support. AT
Most buy plots either «in the field» or in long-established communities
There are several scenarios for bringing electricity to the cottage:
— existing «settlement» (conditionally) network with voltage up to 0.4 kW in good condition and allows you to connect to it without problems up to 30 kW of power from the nearest support.
— there is a power grid, but the power of the substation has been exhausted, and it is working at its limit. Power quality is poor — voltage during days and peak hours does not reach 220 B, and your house will most likely not be the first from the substation. More than 3 kW for lighting and TV operation will not be allocated to you, and if they do, you will have to change the wires to others with a larger cross section.
— a neighbor recently built a substation for himself, in which there is a 250 kVA transformer, and they will gladly let you connect.
- The worst
— the nearest substation is more than a kilometer away, and it is inefficient to conduct a low-voltage power line from it — there will be insufficient voltage at the «end». As a rule, the only way out of the current situation — expensive construction of own substation.
In the first case, consider that you are lucky and feel free to buy a plot or build a house, starting the procedure for processing property documents. AT
From our point of view, it is better if the property is in the hands of municipalities or distribution networks (the latter is quite rare due to the complexity of legal registration). They can conclude an agreement with you directly, without the mediation of a neighbor. «Networks» carry out preventive maintenance, repairs, and no one except them will have the right to approach the transformer box, even if it is located on someone’s (for example, your) territory.
Electricity throughout the country is produced and supplied by the monopolist RAO UES. AT
Consider the structure of the main electricity supplier in your region using the example of Mosenergo. JSC provides electricity through 14 power grid branches, within which 45 regional power grids are allocated. Moreover, if the municipal networks themselves charge tariff money, then Mosenergo does this through its division
Power grid branches: Moscow Cable (MKS), Southern, Western and other networks are responsible for the power supply of Moscow through power lines (TL) with a voltage above 10
Today, due to the high rates of domestic and industrial construction, there has been a shortage of electric power in the entire region, there have been overloads or dry-outs of the supply center. Therefore, OJSCs have to take measures to limit consumption or build new capacities, depending on the financial possibilities, which are determined by electricity tariffs.
For us, ordinary consumers, this translates into the need to obtain permission for the requested capacity from its owner Mosenergo through a branch. Even if the local network is operated by a municipal organization, it does not dispose of electrical energy, but only issues technical conditions for connecting your home to distribution networks.
The hard way of the owner
Becoming (being) the full owner of the site and real estate, you can proceed with the official procedure for obtaining energy supply for your existing or future home. We do not consider unofficial ways, namely the theft of electricity or verbal agreements with neighbors.
The path from preparing a package of documents to turning on the electrical installation at home is divided (enlarged) into several stages:
- allocation of capacities and issuance by the power supply organization of technical conditions for connection;
- designing an electrical installation at home by a licensed design and construction organization;
- coordination of the project with the owners of the land (substation), communications, energy supply organization and the State Energy Supervision Authority;
- execution of work on the project of an electrical installation company hired by you, which has the appropriate licenses and work experience. You can ask about it in the energy supply organization;
- testing and drawing up an “Acceptance Certificate” by an inspector of the State Energy Supervision Department;
- sealing of electric meters, signing of the Agreement on the use of electricity with Energosbyt and turning on the power supply at home.
Legal norms of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (last changes on January 10, March 26, 2003) Part two. Section IV. Separate types of obligations. Chapter 30 Paragraph 6. Energy supply, articles 539-547.
Under articles 539-540. Energy contract. Under the power supply agreement, the power supply organization (Energosbyt) undertakes to supply the subscriber (you) through the connected network with electricity, and the consumer pays for the received energy, observe the consumption regime stipulated by the contract and ensure the safety of operation of the electrical networks under its control, the serviceability of the equipment. Thus, the law spells out your responsibility for the electrical installation of the house, the personal network and the substation. The contract with a civilian (domestic consumption) starts from the moment the subscriber is first actually switched on.
Under article 541. Quantity of energy. The energy supply organization is obliged to supply you with energy through the network in the amount stipulated by the energy supply agreement, and in compliance with the supply regime agreed by the parties. Moreover, the «household» consumer has the right to use this energy in the amount he needs. That is, it can turn on all the electricity in the house so as not to exceed the specified power, or it can sit in the dark. If the supplied power is not enough according to the contract, you have the right to make claims to the power grids
Under article 542. Energy quality. According to the paragraphs of this article, the quality of the supplied electricity, at least the voltage and frequency of the current, must comply with the requirements established by state standards, rules or stipulated by the power supply contract.
In case of violation of the quality requirements by the power supply organization, you have the right to refuse to pay for such energy. It is enough just to take measurements in the presence of witnesses, and preferably a notary, and fix the fact of low voltage. However, then you are not entitled to use the energy released in violation of the quality conditions. Otherwise, the power supply organization may demand reimbursement for the cost of what the subscriber unreasonably saved due to its use (clause 2, article 1105 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation), that is, you still have to pay for electricity, but less.
But you also have the right, in case of violation by the energy supplying organization of the conditions on the quality of energy, to call it to account under Article 547 of the Civil Code, according to which, in the event of non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment of obligations under the contract, the party that violated the contract is obliged to compensate for the actual damage caused by this (paragraph 2 of article 15). If power engineers, as a result of regulation of consumption modes, allowed a break in the supply of energy to the subscriber, they are responsible for this if there is fault. That is, you will not be paid for disconnecting during natural disasters, hurricanes, or for a fallen branch. It turns out that the article on liability has two sides. The first is in your favor: an energy-saving organization will pay for the proven fact of damage to your property
From this it follows that you are directly responsible for changing the electrical installation of the house, connecting new (more powerful) appliances that are not specified in the project, equipment malfunction, which, as a rule, leads to excessive consumption of electricity
And, finally, article 545 states that the subscriber has the right to transfer the energy received by him from the power supply organization to another person only with her consent. In other words, if the state of the networks allows or you have built your own substation, you can make a branch to a neighbor with the permission of the power grids. However, «silent» connection to a neighbor is prohibited.
Before designing, it is necessary to obtain a technical assignment from the local power grid for connecting the electrical installation of the house to the network. The future consumer, who is also a developer, must clearly understand what kind of electrical appliances (boiler, underfloor heating, snow melting system, water heaters, pumps, household appliances) will consume energy in the house, what should be the power of the electrical installation to ensure their normal operation. AT
Letter and documents. The terms of reference are drawn up in the form of a letter addressed to the chief engineer of this energy supply organization (or an official representing municipal networks, as a director’s option) with a request to issue technical conditions for connecting a certain power indicating the category of electricity supply at home.
The letter must be accompanied by legal documents. This is a situational plan for the location of your site and a house on the ground, a certificate of ownership of this land plot with a permit to build a house, agreed with many organizations. Signatures of representatives of Gorgaz, Rostelecom, Vodokanal and the Power Grids themselves, indicating the presence or absence of these companies near or on the territory of your communications area. AT
Will they give or not? At the stage of the terms of reference, the power grid has the right to officially (before that there were only conversations) either to allocate a connection point, or to give specific recommendations in the form of technical specifications, which must be done to solve the problem. AT
It happens that, according to technical conditions, it is necessary to replace existing wires with wires with a larger cross section (so you can bring more electricity to you). But if there is no reserve power at the substation, the only way out is to change the transformer to a more powerful one. It is paid by the newly connected subscriber. To
In other words, no one will provide you with the required electricity in advance, it simply may not be available. This is typical for old dacha cooperatives and settlements, where even the existing facilities are not able to cover modern needs. AT
It turns out that the normal functioning of the technique is impossible. It is unrealistic to agree with comrades in misfortune and «throw in» for the purchase of an additional step-down transformer and the pulling of new wires of a larger cross section. Therefore, the financial burden falls on the shoulders of the newly built members of the cooperative (garden partnership), the aforementioned newly connected network subscribers. One of the editorial staff of the magazine told a touching story about how the power supply company gave him a written permission to connect to the network on the condition that he buys 7 km of wire of a certain brand with a total cost of about $
Specialist comments. Similar stories can be told by many who have encountered the «arbitrariness» of the electricity grid, who are trying to solve the problems of replacing and buying basic equipment, while electricity tariffs include depreciation charges. We asked for comment Gennady Vladimirovich Kuznetsov, Head of the Distribution Grid Service, Mosenergo.
«Firstly, seven kilometers of wire, at first glance, are overstated requirements, since stretching wires rated for voltages up to 0.4
Secondly, if the requirements of the power grid branch of the JSC seem excessive, you should contact the General Directorate of Mosenergo. Relatively speaking, it is always worth contacting a higher organization and talking about your problem. Moreover, you can ask to technically substantiate the requirements or pay a third-party design organization that will make the calculation, take measurements at the points and show that the power grid specialists are wrong or vice versa.
Thirdly, this approach should not be called arbitrariness. AT
Unfortunately, in the region controlled by Mosenergo, unlike other territories of the Russian Federation, there is no way to pay us for the allocation of capacity, that is, to sponsor modernization. Therefore, ways to get power
on the admission of the object into operation
Finally, imagine a situation where the only way to get a power of 35
The problem is the very placement of the transformer substation and the equipment included in its set. As a rule, transformer substations in rural areas look like a kiosk mounted on poles, to which a staircase leads. The installation of such substations requires a special land allotment. It is also practiced to install power transformers on special masts and in separate buildings. If new houses are being built on the territory of the village, and land allocation for the substation is not provided, the customer will face the need to resolve this issue with the participation of a local architect. It is not a fact that he will enter the position of a house builder … And he will have to give personal land for this.
In world practice, in such cases, compact pole transformers (mini-substations) are used, the power of which allows connecting from one to four cottages to the main networks. These transformers are installed on ordinary (wooden or reinforced concrete) supports, they look aesthetically pleasing. They are «hardy»: allow overload up to 40% at peak load; equipped with built-in protective automation and, most importantly, do not require maintenance. Such transformers are produced by large electrical companies such as ABB, Siemens. According to N. P. Nikitsky, director of the JSC «Royal Electricity Network», in the settlements surrounding the town of Korolev, transformers of this type with a capacity of 43 kVA by the American company Howard have been used experimentally for three years. The cost of American-made pole transformers is $
The same power pole transformers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Russian production cost half as much. The main difference between analogues produced in Russia and the CIS is that they require constant maintenance, frequent maintenance, for which the local power grid must have both qualified electricians and the necessary materials. Therefore, not all power supply organizations agree to conclude service contracts with homeowners for individual Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian transformers. In addition to paying for services under the contract, the customer has to pay for the installation of a special support for them, installation of protective automation, and commissioning. AT
The process of building a network goes through the same stages as the electrical installation of a house: application, design, coordination in Energonadzor, signing with Energosbyt, connection. After the construction and equipment of the substation, an Act on the delimitation of property with power grids is drawn up
Electrical installation at home
Project. The design of a power line, external and internal electrical installation of a house should be entrusted to organizations that have a license to perform this type of work, issued by the State Energy Supervision Authority or the State Construction Committee of the Russian Federation. There are no chances for the «leftist» drafts to be approved by the official authorities. It is best to have your developer act as a general contractor and do the project for you himself or through subcontractors. But often the design, construction and installation of equipment is carried out by different organizations. Then it makes sense to contact the local power grid and ask to recommend a company to create a project (this can be done by phone call). In the future, the specified company will deal with the issue of coordinating the finished project documentation in the local power grid and in the State Energy Supervision Authority. At this stage, as a rule, there are no big difficulties, except for your requests. The average cost of a cottage power supply project with an electrical installation with a capacity of 5-30
In each case, different organizations apply visas to the project, including:
- power supply organization, all municipal services of the city, town or village (if any, from Gorgaz to landscaping);
- in a controversial case
— interested firms and individuals who may disagree with the fact that you will be integrated into the existing network (for example, a neighbor applied before you and agreed on the project, so you will need to agree with him);
- at the end, the project is signed by the inspector of Energonadzor.
The difficulty lies in visiting the above institutions and entities that receive the population on different days and hours and «respect» the classic bureaucratic red tape. You can speed up the process only in an informal way (consult firms specializing in coordination about it).
Installation and testing of electrical installations. Visiting «craftsmen» from the south, as a rule, perform electrical work in violation of technology, after which professionals have to redo a lot for them. Installation and adjustment works under the project must be carried out by construction and installation organizations that have a license for this. FROM
After the installation of the electrical installation in the house, outbuildings and on the estate, it is necessary to present the technical passports of the installed electrical equipment to the laboratories accredited by the Energy Supervision Authority certified by the State Standard. Based on these documents and test results, the owner of the house is issued a Certificate of Compliance of the electrical installation with the requirements for it and permission to use electrothermal devices (electric flow boilers, convectors and radiators, electric stoves, heated floors, etc.). This is where problems can start. As a rule, when buying wires, electrical fittings, devices, people either forget to ask the sellers for certificates and passports of products, or receive (on the market) documents that do not meet the standards. You will need this certificate to apply for insurance with insurance companies.
Inspection. Then you call the inspector of Energy Supervision at home, and he, on the basis of the Certificate of Conformity, must draw up an Act of allowing the electrical installation to be connected to the network. FROM
Energy supply contract. The power grid and the owner of the house are then required to conclude an Electricity Agreement. At this stage, a representative of Energosbyt visits you and draws up an Act on the acceptance of metering devices and seals them. Since his task is local and he can only find fault with the design of the shield and the compliance with the installed capacities, his «services» are inexpensive, if not completely free. AT
It is appropriate to ask how much it will cost a private customer to lay or pull a power line to his house. The cost of services of construction and installation organizations depends on the complexity of the project, on what equipment is installed, and … on the number of organizations involved in the documentation approval process. Among them
Previously, the supervisory function was in the hands of divisions of RAO UES. Today it was handed over to the state supervising body — Gosenergonadzor. In regional branches and sites, work with individuals is carried out by inspectors of Energonadzor. They go to the facilities both for the purpose of drawing up an Act on the suitability of the electrical installation, and for supervision. The inspector has the right to fine an individual for violating the PUE (Electrical Installation Rules) and operating rules in the amount of 5-10 minimum wages in accordance with Article 9.11 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation.
The editors would like to thank JSC MOSENERGO and the directorate of JSC Royal Electricity Grid for their help in preparing the material.
Source: Ideas for Your Home Magazine#68