Autonomous heating systems today are no longer something special for anyone. Thanks to the appearance on the market of new modern heating equipment, various auxiliary equipment and consumables, it has become possible to create efficient heating in residential buildings of any design.
Of particular interest among consumers is the possibility of equipping water heating systems in houses of wooden construction. Dachas, baths, country houses and cottages today are becoming the main objects in which, due to heating equipment, you can significantly increase the level of comfort. The possibility of using underfloor heating as the most efficient way of heating in houses and residential buildings, in this regard, is becoming a key issue today. Not always a building or a room meets the technological parameters for installing a water heating floor, however, practical experience and skills make it possible to find a successful engineering and technical solution to this issue. A flat, without screed, water-heated floor is a clear confirmation of this.
Flooring system of warm water floors. Features and advantages of the method
Warm water floors have already managed to prove in practice their effectiveness and efficiency. Using a similar method of heating, you can create the necessary comfort and coziness inside the living quarters. We are talking about country houses, baths and saunas. However, most often such buildings have a wooden structure, including floors. Hence, difficulties arise with the practical use of water floors as a heating system.
Traditionally, in capital stone buildings, where concrete floors are used, the heating water circuit for heating floors is laid in a concrete screed. In houses with wooden floors, this technology is not acceptable. The small height of the premises, the design features of the building do not allow to equip a warm floor in the usual design.
It’s important to know! For the inhabitants of a city apartment, for a country, wooden house, you should know. The weight of a concrete screed with a water circuit is 200-300 kg/m2. Therefore, the entire structure of the heating concrete surface can reach a decent mass. For a room of 15 sq. meters, such a screed will have a weight of 5-6 tons.
Will floors in apartments of multi-storey buildings and structures in wooden buildings withstand such a weight, without visible damage? Question!
If the question is closed with a concrete screed, what is the alternative in this case for those who want to make underfloor heating in their house. A flooring system in a wooden house for a water-heated floor will be a completely logical and optimal solution to the problem. In addition, this method has certain advantages. For example:
- the flooring system has a low weight, allowing you to work with any ceilings;
- the low height of the puff cake saves the useful height of the heated room;
- fast installation, allowing you to immediately start laying the finish coating;
- minimum technical requirements for the base.
Types of flooring system of warm water floors
Inhabitants of residential buildings built of wood can be recommended to install a water floor using a flooring method of two types:
- water floor laid on a wooden base;
- heating floors, laying of which is carried out on a polystyrene lining.
Each type has its own differences and features. In fact, both options have a similar design. Water heating circuits are mounted on a wooden or polystyrene base, in which there are special grooves for laying the pipeline. An important place in the floor structure is occupied by metal plates that distribute heat over the entire floor area in a heated room.
On a note: in a concrete screed, heat is transferred from the pipeline with the coolant circulating in it, directly to the concrete surface. Concrete has a high thermal conductivity, and the distribution of thermal energy is uniform.
The lining for heating pipes can be made of different materials. As for the topcoat, the options here are almost the same as in the case of concrete water floors. For a residential building and a dressing room in a bath, it is recommended to use a laminate or linoleum. In the shower room, in the bathroom or in the toilet, the flooring system can be successfully equipped with ceramic tiles.
Wooden floor heating. Laying methods
Usually wood is used as the main material in those houses and premises where most (if not all of the construction) is made of wooden parts and elements. The system can be assembled from modules or have a rack base. In the first case, ready-made modules are used, made of wood with already existing grooves for laying a water loop. With the help of rails and boards, a rack flooring system is mounted. In detail, the features of both ways of laying the flooring system are in a different way of laying water pipes.
Modular assembly, in contrast to the polystyrene version, is based on the integrated use of special boards (modules) made of chipboard. For this method, the main feature is the method of insulation of floors. Between the lags, the space is filled with polystyrene foam or mineral wool, insulating materials that block the heat from going down.
The rail system differs from the modular assembly in that not ready-made solid modules are used in the installation process, but separate rails and boards. With the help of these elements, a grid is created on the base, on which the water circuit is already being installed. All empty space in the lattice cells is filled with insulation. In the intervals between the loops of the heating circuit, metal plates must be laid.
The specifics of the wooden flooring of all modifications is as follows:
- Modules for wooden laying must be mounted directly on the logs, observing a step of 600 mm. The space between the lags is filled with insulation. The distance between the individual modules is 20 mm to eliminate the effects of thermal expansion. Between themselves, the finished modules are fastened with the help of special locks;
On a note: it is recommended to use the Scandinavian method of laying wooden modules. To achieve the integrity and strength of the entire wooden structure, wooden modules are fastened together with metal brackets.
- When installing a water floor in a lath way, attention must be paid to the preparation of the rough surface. Wooden slats are mounted at a distance that will be optimal for laying a water loop in a certain pattern;
- Laying of the water circuit pipe is carried out in accordance with the conditions of the project;
- The structure prepared and assembled from modules is covered with metal plates, pipes are laid in the grooves;
- Finishing floor coverings, which have a solid structure and a thickness of at least 10 mm, are laid on metal plates, having previously covered the plates with thin and soft sound insulation;
- Before installing ceramic tiles or laying laminate, the stacking structure is specially prepared. Plasterboard, plywood or chipboard slabs are laid on metal plates, fixed together to give the necessary rigidity. In the future, the laying of the finish coating is done in the usual way.
Polystyrene base for laying a warm water floor
In contrast to the wooden, type-setting construction, the polystyrene system for laying warm water floors looks somewhat simpler. Polystyrene or ordinary polystyrene, well known to all of us, has excellent heat-insulating and sound-proofing properties. The material retains its shape for a long time without losing its main technological characteristics.
Methods for laying heating floors using a polystyrene base are as follows:
First stage: Styrofoam slabs must be taken with a thickness of no more than 30 mm. In cases where it is necessary to use thicker foam sheets, another layer of foam is laid on the rough surface.
The second stage: before laying polystyrene, the rough surface is leveled to a perfectly even state. Elevation differences, flaws in the design and construction debris are eliminated.
The third stage: Plates with special grooves of various shapes, rotary and straight, are mounted on polystyrene, in accordance with the chosen scheme for laying the heating circuit. The trading network sells plates with a fixed pitch of 150 and 300 mm. Between themselves, the plates are fastened with special locks — clamps.
Fourth stage: an option using ready-made plates with existing bosses, you can focus on more complex pipeline laying patterns.
Fifth stage: again, metal plates are laid in the existing grooves, and the pipes of the water circuit should already be laid in them.
Then everything proceeds in the usual way. On top of the plates, it is necessary to lay the substrate and already proceed with the installation of the finish coating. Here, as in the case of a wooden flooring system, you can use laminate, linoleum, parquet board.
On a note: To equip the floor with ceramic tiles, a dry screed is made. Sheets of moisture-resistant drywall, chipboard or plywood do an excellent job in this case.
Consumables for floor heating systems
The installation process itself and the technology of flooring systems for underfloor heating equipment are not particularly difficult. Consumables are selected in the same way. Auxiliary equipment, a pumping and mixing complex, a collector, a flow meter, are the same as in the traditional technology of laying underfloor heating into a concrete floor. Particular attention at this stage deserves pipes, from which loops of water circuits are created.
On a note: for flooring systems, you can use any pipes designed specifically for use in heating systems «warm water floors». It can be metal, copper pipes, metal-plastic or polyethylene. The latter option is preferable, since it does not affect the total weight of the entire structure.
Polyethylene pipes are resistant to corrosion, perfectly hold the necessary working pressure and are resistant to high temperatures. However, it should be remembered that polyethylene consumables are designed for contact with a coolant whose temperature does not exceed 270C. Otherwise, the polystyrene backing may change due to exposure to high temperatures.
For country houses, polyethylene pipes are ideal, as they interact well with antifreeze poured into the heating system.
Expanded polystyrene plates provide a convenient layout of pipes. Special grooves on the top of the plates allow you to lay the pipeline with the required step. Usually the dimensions of such plates are 500×1000 mm.
Wooden modules are usually OSB or chipboard, in which channels for the water circuit are made. The modules look like ordinary wooden plates with dimensions that are determined by the selected pipeline laying step. Today, modules are produced with a width of 13.18 and 28 cm.
The most important element of flooring systems is metal heat-distributing plates. They are usually made of galvanized steel or aluminium. The plates have special grooves and stiffeners. The flat parts of the plate must fit snugly in the substrate and in the same way to the finish coating, thereby transferring heat from the coolant to the floor covering.
Despite the fact that there is nothing complicated in the installation of the flooring system, it still loses to concrete underfloor heating. However, in some cases, such systems are very convenient. Laying is not associated with heavy concrete work, it is easy to eliminate breakdowns and leaks in the water circuit. In addition, such a warm floor can, if desired, be quickly dismantled, changing housing or carrying out the reconstruction of premises.