When designing a detached real estate for living, one of the points is its heating. The same question arises when buying a ready-made structure. In a private house, a single-circuit or multi-circuit heating system is installed. Others choose multi-circuit. It all depends on the size of the house, the type of system and the needs of the owner. The first option is more often used, since it is easy to install and requires fewer components. A boiler is used for heating, and water is used as a heat carrier.
The principle of operation of a single-circuit system
The single-circuit heating scheme installed in a private house consists of the following components:
- expansion tank.
In fact, the system is a serial connection of all the above equipment. The central node is the boiler. It heats the water, which then flows through the pipes to the radiators. Passing through all the elements, the coolant cools down. The cycle ends when the liquid enters the boiler again.
During design, it is important to remember that the first radiator will receive maximum heating. In this case, the water, getting into the next one, will cool down. On average, in the last battery, the coolant temperature ranges from 40 to 50 degrees, which does not allow one room to be fully heated.
This can be dealt with in two ways:
- increase the heat transfer of the last radiators by increasing the heat capacity;
- set a higher heating temperature on the boiler itself.
Important! These methods, although they seem like a simple solution, nevertheless lead to an increase in operating costs and costs in general.
Also, the desired effect can be achieved by installing a circulation pump that increases the speed of water movement. These components are powered by electricity. Although they seem like a great solution, at the same time in places where power outages often occur, they are not a good option.
Another great way out is the accelerating manifold, which is a tall straight pipe. The coolant, leaving it, accelerates, which allows you to quickly overcome the batteries. At the same time, the height of this component in relation to the top point of the first radiator must exceed 2.2 meters. Otherwise, its installation is meaningless. Therefore, in this way it is better to equip the heating system in a two-story house. The higher the pipe, the more efficient the work will be.
An expansion tank is installed on top of the collector, with the help of which the coolant is controlled. When heated, the liquid expands in volume. And the excess just gets into this tank. After the system cools down, it returns to it.
The specificity of the system is that there is no return line in it — the second half of the entire structure acts as it. This is precisely the main difference between a multi-circuit heating system and a single-circuit heating system in a private house.
Types of wiring
There are two ways to install a single-circuit system indoors:
So, horizontal wiring involves the use of a minimum number of pipes. The components are connected in series. This may cause air pockets. In addition, there is no way to regulate the heat flow.
Vertical wiring involves laying a central line through the attic, from which pipes extend to each radiator. This method allows you to deliver water to the batteries at the same temperature. The main feature is a common riser for radiators, regardless of the number of storeys of the building.
Single-circuit heating has a lot of advantages over multi-circuit heating:
- A single pipe runs throughout the entire room.
- This system makes it possible to lay pipes under the doorway, which reduces the cost.
- It is possible to install several boilers at once in case of problems with one of them.
- The ability to indicate the direction of the coolant flow, which will be more beneficial to the owner of the house.
However, some disadvantages can be identified:
- If the system is idle for a long time, it will take a long time to start up.
- During the heating of a two-story private house, hot water is first supplied upward. Getting down, it already has a temperature much lower. To increase heat transfer, you can install more radiators — the cost of the system will increase, and at the same time it will not have an aesthetic appearance.
- It is not possible to disconnect one floor from the system, and therefore, during the repair, heating must be completely abandoned.
- High heat loss.
Installation of a single-circuit heating system has its own characteristics. So, for example, the boiler is installed first. It can be located both in the basement and on the first floor. It is considered optimal to place it on the floor. In addition, it is desirable to tile the equipment. This option is reliable and aesthetic.
Then the chimney is discharged, connected by a corrugated pipe. Here it is necessary to choose the ideal diameters. Otherwise, substances formed during combustion may enter the room, which will be harmful to health.
Then radiators are installed at the selected places. Most often these are spans under the windows. Batteries are mounted either on brackets or on metal stands.
Only after that all the pipes are thrown and the connection takes place. In this case, it is imperative to install a Mayevsky crane to vent air and a shut-off valve. Pipes are attached to the rest of the heating system using threaded adapters.
Also, do not forget about the expansion tank. It should be located at the highest point of the system. The optimal height is 3 meters.
Important! It is necessary to make the project so that the branches of additional highways are only straight lines. Otherwise, it will greatly affect the heating efficiency.
Only after that the boiler is connected to the water supply and the drain pipe is connected.
Many experts also recommend putting filters in front of the place where water enters the heating circuit installed in a private house from the common system. It will be easier to change this component than to restore the system as a whole later.
The entire highway should have a slight slope — not less than 5 mm per 1 linear meter. If this is not done, air will collect in an elevated place, which will interfere with the normal flow of the coolant.
Before each device, it is desirable to install a shut-off valve. If repairs are needed, it will not be necessary to drain the water from the entire system. In addition, this element allows you to adjust the temperature of the system.
The drain valve is located at the lowest point of the structure.
Another important element is the synchronization of the electric boiler and pump. If one does not work, the second should also turn off.
Well, you can understand that the installation of a single-circuit heating system in a house has many nuances. If all of them are taken into account and each element is correctly connected, you will enjoy every heating season. If some points are not taken into account, serious problems may arise.