A rare resident of a metropolis does not dream of owning a country house located in a quiet area, not far from a picturesque forest. No noisy neighbors, no stuffy streets, no constant buzz of traffic — the advantages of such a choice, indeed, are many. However, in such a situation, all communal chores fall on the shoulders of the owners. In particular, you will have to organize water heating in a private house on your own, otherwise, with the advent of cold weather, you will have to return to the apartment. Of course, the modern market offers many options for heating a home, but water technology belongs to the category of classic, time-tested, has proven its reliability and efficiency in the harshest conditions.
Benefits of choosing
Water heating of a country house has the following positive features:
- Installation is possible at any stage of the construction of the cottage, it is not necessary to plan still during the design, installation is allowed even in a finished and inhabited building.
- Water is the optimal heat carrier in every sense. It is characterized by a high degree of thermal conductivity, and a low price, and prevalence, and the highest heat capacity.
- Versatility. For this scheme, electric heating of a private house, and the use of gas fuel, and firewood, and fuel oil are suitable.
- Structural variety. The heating circuit involves various options for piping, the final scheme is selected in accordance with the area of \u200b\u200bthe building, the financial capabilities of the owners, requirements, and so on.
- Individual installation of shut-off valves on each battery ensures that the temperature can be controlled with high precision in each individual room, while the climatic conditions in neighboring rooms, as well as the parameters of the system, will not change.
Read more about the choice of coolant.
Features of the device and the choice of the circulation scheme
The heating system of a private house operates on a fairly simple principle. The boiler heats the coolant, whether it be water or a special solution, which reaches the radiators located in the heated rooms through the pipe system. As the coolant cools, it returns to the boiler, the cycle repeats.
Read also about the heating scheme of a one-story house with forced circulation.
Circulation is based on one of the following methods:
- The natural process is based on the difference in density between hot and cold water. In the process of heating, the density of the liquid decreases, the specific gravity decreases, and therefore it begins to move up the pipes. As it cools, on the contrary, the density increases, the solution tends to go down. The main advantage of this method is absolute autonomy, independence from electricity, as well as constructive simplicity. The main disadvantage is the increased consumption of materials, the circuit consists of a large number of pipes of impressive diameter. In addition, during installation, a slope of approximately 2 degrees must be maintained.
- Heating system of a one-story house with a circulation pump. Excess water, which inevitably forms during heating, is inside a special expansion tank, usually closed, which prevents the phenomenon of evaporation. Additionally, pressure gauges are required to control the pressure. The advantages of such a scheme are the minimum required volume of coolant, the small diameter of the pipes and their lower consumption. The main disadvantage is the dependence on electricity supply, which is often a problem for the private sector.
- Combination. The pump is installed in an already made circuit with natural circulation. This option works without a pump, but with its inclusion, power and efficiency increase significantly.
Number of circuits and wiring options
The water heating scheme of a private house, ideally, should be based on the creation of two circuits. This approach is much more convenient. The first circuit works for heating, that is, it delivers the coolant to the batteries, while the second ensures the delivery of hot water to consumption points, to the kitchen, to the bathroom.
However, if the tenants previously took care of installing a boiler or gas column, this condition is not necessary.
If we talk about wiring methods, then the following options are offered:
- A scheme with one pipe, through which the coolant enters each of the radiators. The advantage of this solution is simplicity, minimizing labor costs and reducing costs. Unfortunately, you will have to pay for simplicity by the lack of the ability to adjust the temperature of each battery individually.
- The scheme with two pipes is better in terms of operation, the temperature is adjusted accurately and quickly, all radiators heat up evenly.
- The collector scheme implies that the supply and removal of the coolant occur through different pipes, functioning as a single system thanks to the collectors. Such a circuit looks aesthetically pleasing and attractive, the temperature of each battery is adjusted individually.
Choosing a boiler
All types of modern water heating in a private house function thanks to the boiler. It is he who is the generator of thermal energy. Models operating on the following fuel are widely represented on the market:
- Gas. The most requested option. The reason for this is the low price of gas with significant efficiency, ease of operation and minimal noise. The disadvantage, in fact, is one — the need to obtain numerous permits in order to connect to the main gas pipeline.
- Electricity. The best option in terms of security in the house. For this unit, you do not need to choose a special place for installation, it occupies a minimum of space, does not emit combustion products. Unfortunately, the device is not cheap to operate, in addition, in rural areas the power network is often quite worn out, there are interruptions in the power supply, which also imposes certain restrictions on installation.
- Liquid fuel. The design is very similar to gas counterparts, with the exception of the type of burner. They need to equip a separate boiler room, they produce a lot of combustion products, which is why they require regular cleaning.
- solid fuel. Heating with their help is very cheap, in the private sector there are rarely problems with finding and purchasing firewood. The negative side is the need to regularly put fuel in the furnace, clean out the ashes.
- Combined heat sources are able to use several types of fuel at once, as a result of which they are considered the most reliable choice.
The power of the boiler can be selected based on the following scheme: for the southern regions, a kilowatt per 10 square meters of area is required, for the central ones — one and a half kilowatts, for the northern ones — two. However, experts recommend adding another 20-30 percent to the resulting value so that the equipment can cope with severe frosts.
Choosing a pipe material
Properly selected pipes will eliminate many problems during operation, guarantee a high level of system reliability:
- Previously popular steel options have recently been used infrequently. This is due to difficulties during installation, susceptibility to corrosion even in the presence of a protective coating.
- Metal-plastic is easy to install and durable, but its weak point is threaded connections and fittings, which can be deformed during sudden changes in the temperature of the coolant, which will cause loss of tightness and leakage.
- Copper. In every sense, an excellent option, but involving significant financial costs.
- Polypropylene is the golden mean. Strength, flexibility, resistance to corrosion and temperature fluctuations — the elements are distinguished by all these qualities.
It is also important to choose the right water radiator:
- Steel. The main advantage is the affordable price. Minus — susceptibility to corrosion, due to which the operational resource is significantly reduced.
- Aluminum. Corrosion resistant, heats up quickly but vulnerable to pressure drops. However, this phenomenon is more typical for systems in apartment buildings; an individual cottage is quite stable in this regard.
- Combination of metals. They combine the best qualities of steel and aluminum.
- Cast iron. Familiar to everyone since Soviet times. In fact, eternal, but heavy, requiring the use of powerful brackets during installation.
Do-it-yourself water heating of a private house is equipped according to the following scheme:
- The boiler is installed. A place for it should be chosen in such a way as to simplify piping as much as possible and reduce material costs. If a gas or electric option is installed, you need to remember about the convenience of connecting to a highway or wiring. The installation height plays a role only for schemes with natural circulation, the lower the return pipe enters, the better.
- Installation of water heating radiators in a private house. Batteries are placed under the windows, which contributes to better air exchange. During installation, it is necessary to strictly maintain the horizontal and minimum indents: 10 centimeters — from the window sill, 6 — from the floor. Ideally, you should immediately install shut-off valves for emergency shutdown and air bleeding.
- Pipe laying, installation of auxiliary devices. This process begins directly from the heating boiler based on a pre-designed scheme, using connecting elements, including corners, fittings, tees and other things. You can equip your house with both open-type wiring (pipes are always in sight) and a closed circuit (details are hidden in niches). Together with the pipes, batteries are also connected, circulation pumps are mounted (if the technology suggests their presence), an expansion tank, filters, safety blocks, safety valves, and so on.
Thus, you can create a reliable, durable and efficient heating system on your own that will not let you down in the most severe frost!