A penny saves a ruble

A penny saves a rubleMul­ti­func­tion­al elec­tric­i­ty meter “Alpha”, designed for four tar­iff zones (morn­ing, after­noon, evening, night), with auto­mat­ic changeover to sum­mer and win­ter time. Direct meter cur­rent ranges: 20mA- 150BUT
A penny saves a rubleMotion Sen­sor Busch Watch­erA penny saves a rubleAuto­mat­ic switch AB-C‑0.2 ‑2.5UHLfour
A penny saves a rubleSmooth and remote light­ing con­trol device PPDUOBPKB
A penny saves a rubleRemote switch with time delay pro­gram from 30from to 10min. Acti­vat­ed by press­ing but­tons installed in the required places
A penny saves a rublePas­sive infrared sen­sors (motion detec­tors) with a view­ing angle of 180degrees and “vision” range up to 16m
A penny saves a rubleDim­mer with con­tin­u­ous­ly adjustable light­ing
A penny saves a rubleCom­fort infrared remote con­trol with Busch-Fer­n­con­trol mul­ti-mem­o­ry IR
A penny saves a rublePro­gram­ma­ble timer with week pro­gram (16F-250V)A penny saves a rubleTime relay with turn-on delay from 0.1from to 24hours. Rat­ed cur­rent- tenBUT

Numer­ous light­ing fix­tures have appeared in your new apart­ment or cot­tage. If you fol­low the gold­en rule of thrifty peo­ple, using them will not only sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce ener­gy costs, extend the life of the pow­er grid and lamps, make them safe to use, but also bring plea­sure to their own­er.

It is unlike­ly that any­one will argue with the fact that big mon­ey is earned by thrifty peo­ple. How­ev­er, being finan­cial­ly wealthy does not mean sur­round­ing your­self with a sea of ​​mean­ing­less abun­dance. ATthe world house of the far from poor Count Leo Tol­stoy did not have elec­tric light­ing and a tele­phone, already in the 90syears of the last cen­tu­ry avail­able to the writer’s con­tem­po­raries with mon­ey.

One of the rich­est peo­ple in the world, the late bil­lion­aire Paul Get­ty installed pay tele­phones in his house, which had to be used by those who want­ed to call guests. The wealthy home­own­er, hav­ing abol­ished the posi­tion of jan­i­tor, swept the paths him­self. No one has ever wast­ed his elec­tric­i­ty and water with­out spe­cial need.

Do you think that both the count and the bil­lion­aire were hoard­ers and misers, the spir­i­tu­al heirs of Gogol’s Plyushkin? Not at all. They were dri­ven only by the desire to per­son­al­ly pro­mote the idea of ​​fru­gal­i­ty.

Only a stu­pid and vul­gar per­son would light a hun­dred dol­lar bill and wash their hands with Hen­nessy cognac. Mean­while, an open faucet with ever-flow­ing water, use­less­ly turned on lights in emp­ty rooms, thou­sand-watt chan­de­liers where it is enough to use low-pow­er lamps, idling elec­tri­cal appli­ances,- all these are phe­nom­e­na of the same order, demon­strat­ing a lack of edu­ca­tion and a lack of cul­ture among the inhab­i­tants of such apart­ments.

In the homes of my wealthy Eng­lish acquain­tances, it is not cus­tom­ary to take a bath every day (tak­ing a show­er is faster and cheap­er), to reg­u­lar­ly use an elec­tric stove (gas is cheap­er), to wash clothes dur­ing the day (a machine pro­grammed for two in the morn­ing wash­es at a reduced rate). None of them burn elec­tric­i­ty out­side the house in vain, turn­ing on the lights in the gar­den and at the entrance to the estate only when nec­es­sary.

The scope of elec­tric­i­ty in every­day life is con­stant­ly expand­ing. ATIn our coun­try with an unsta­ble econ­o­my, elec­tric­i­ty bills are steadi­ly increas­ing. The prob­lem of ener­gy sav­ing is becom­ing a pri­or­i­ty both for the state and for indi­vid­ual users of elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions. AT1996In 2010, a gov­ern­ment deci­sion was made to intro­duce auto­mat­ed ener­gy sav­ing sys­tems. Mosen­er­go devel­oped and approved day and night (pref­er­en­tial) tar­iffs for elec­tric­i­ty con­sump­tion, indi­vid­u­als and legal enti­ties were invit­ed to install elec­tric­i­ty meters with a dou­ble tar­iff in homes and insti­tu­tions. It should be not­ed that new­ly built hous­es are equipped with two-tar­iff meters pro­duced in Mytishchi SEB‑2 (sin­gle-phase, pow­er load up to 50 amps) and SET‑4–2 (three-phase, load up to 60 amps), to which the device must be con­nect­ed to switch tar­iffs. So far, the prob­lem is being solved every­where in the field of oper­a­tion of light­ing devices, although they are not the main cur­rent col­lec­tors.

What can be done to reduce ener­gy con­sump­tion and, con­se­quent­ly, the cost of oper­at­ing elec­tri­cal net­works and light­ing fix­tures?

Elec­tri­cal engi­neers have a lot of ideas about this. A good solu­tion would be to cre­ate com­pact devices such as glass­es, which would increase the light sen­si­tiv­i­ty of the eye.

Imag­ine, it’s get­ting dark, you put on twi­light (night) vision gog­gles that do not lim­it your phys­i­cal activ­i­ty and allow you to con­tin­ue read­ing with­out an addi­tion­al light source. Bye, toUnfor­tu­nate­ly, such devices are bulky and are used pri­mar­i­ly for mil­i­tary pur­pos­es.

Anoth­er way- the use of lamps with increased light out­put with less ener­gy con­sump­tion. These real­ly do exist. Mer­cury flu­o­res­cent lamps 10–20Tue have light out­put 40–80 watts incan­des­cent lamps, their ser­vice life 6–8 times longer than usu­al. ATThey are sup­plied to Europe by almost all lead­ing man­u­fac­tur­ers of elec­tri­cal equip­ment, there are also domes­tic ana­logues. There is, how­ev­er, a nuance that can­not be ignored: mer­cury- an extreme­ly tox­ic met­al, and it is not rec­om­mend­ed to break such lamps. Even if lamps with mer­cury lamps in insti­tu­tions and on the street are pro­tect­ed from van­dals, the sub­se­quent dis­pos­al of such lamps is a dif­fi­cult task in our con­di­tions. As for halo­gen lamps, they are quite expen­sive and require the instal­la­tion of step-down trans­form­ers, which is not always con­ve­nient in prac­tice.

Final­ly, there is a third way to solve the prob­lem of ener­gy sav­ing, which elec­tri­cal engi­neers have cho­sen,- cre­ation of ener­gy sav­ing sys­tems and devel­op­ment and imple­men­ta­tion of light­ing con­trol and reg­u­la­tion devices.

Thir­tyyears ago in our coun­try, for the first time, a mechan­i­cal light switch-off device with an adjustable time delay was devel­oped and found prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tion- cir­cuit break­er AB-S‑0.2–2.5 UHL 4, which is still pro­duced by var­i­ous fac­to­ries in the CIS, in par­tic­u­lar by the soci­ety of the blind in Alma-Ata. Pressed the but­ton- the light turned on and after a spec­i­fied peri­od of time (usu­al­ly two min­utes) it auto­mat­i­cal­ly turned off. It is con­ve­nient if you move from room to room, adher­ing to the time set by the timer, for exam­ple, in a cot­tage, mov­ing from the hall­way, through the liv­ing room, up the stairs to the attic. It is incon­ve­nient if for some rea­son you are delayed on the way: the light will turn off at the most inop­por­tune moment (for exam­ple, on the stairs, where you were caught by a mobile phone ring­ing). How­ev­er, time-test­ed, cheap and reli­able.

With the intro­duc­tion of micro­proces­sor tech­nol­o­gy into every­day life, a more per­fect way to solve the prob­lem has appeared. FROMWith the help of micro­proces­sors, it became pos­si­ble to increase or decrease the volt­age (change the cur­rent strength accord­ing­ly) and thus reg­u­late the pow­er con­sump­tion. The sim­plest devices- dim­mers- allow you to smooth­ly or step­wise adjust the illu­mi­na­tion man­u­al­ly.

More com­plex devel­op­ments are based on the prin­ci­ple of secu­ri­ty sys­tems. If the sen­sor of the secu­ri­ty sys­tem, react­ing to human move­ments in the room, trans­mits an alarm sig­nal or turns on the siren, then a sim­i­lar sen­sor of the light­ing con­trol and reg­u­la­tion device, react­ing to an object mov­ing in a cer­tain direc­tion, auto­mat­i­cal­ly turns on and off or only turns off the light turned on by the per­son. This kind of con­trol devices is called pas­sive infrared motion sen­sors (detec­tors). The device acti­vates a pas­sive type sen­sor that reacts to the heat (infrared radi­a­tion) of the human body in a giv­en spa­tial vol­ume where a mov­ing object may be. The sen­sor also responds to the height of the object. There­fore, do not wor­ry that the light will turn on if your cat or dog runs along the cor­ri­dor.

For exam­ple, the Ger­man com­pa­ny BUSCH-JAEGER sup­plies a sen­sor 180 to EuropeUP in two ver­sions: stan­dard, in which all oper­a­tion para­me­ters are set at the fac­to­ry, and indi­vid­ual, in which the turn-on delay time, cir­cle diam­e­ter and height of the object detec­tion zone are set by the user him­self. Option­al­ly, you can install an infrared sen­sor with an extend­ed view­ing angle (up to2700), which allows him to “see” beyond the plane of the door. ATin this case, your path begins to be illu­mi­nat­ed even before you cross the thresh­old of the room,- as soon as you open the front door.

This expan­sion of the mon­i­tor­ing func­tion pro­vides the inhab­i­tants of the house with a new lev­el of com­fort, not to men­tion increased secu­ri­ty. Domes­tic devel­op­ers of a sim­i­lar light­ing con­trol device PUO‑1 from NGOs“ORION” took a dif­fer­ent path: they used an active microwave sen­sor, sim­i­lar to that used in secu­ri­ty sys­tems. The device allows you to turn on and off the light­ing in zone 10m, for exam­ple, when approach­ing the porch of the house.

Light­ing chang­ers are equipped with a portable remote con­trol, sim­i­lar to tele­vi­sion. FROMremote con­trol, you can adjust the lev­el of illu­mi­na­tion, turn on and off the light both in the room itself and in the rooms adja­cent to it in accor­dance with the auto­mat­ic func­tions embed­ded in the con­trol micro­proces­sor.

Domes­tic devel­op­ments of these devices are con­ve­nient in that they are designed for instal­la­tion in box­es of stan­dard Sovi­et switch­es and do not require the use of a sep­a­rate neu­tral con­duc­tor. Installed as an exper­i­ment in apart­ment build­ings in North­ern Buto­vo, they receive only pos­i­tive feed­back. The device for smooth and remote con­trol of light­ing PPDUO BPKB man­u­fac­tured by the Lyu­bert­sy plant “PLASTMASS” is designed for man­u­al and remote switch­ing on and off of light­ing devices and smooth con­trol of the bright­ness of incan­des­cent lamps at a dis­tance of up to 5m. Remote switch-reg­u­la­tor of elec­tric light­ing devices DVR-1BUTI pro­duced by NGOs“ORION” has no West­ern ana­logues: it is designed for con­tact­less (withdis­tances to 10cm) and remote (withremote con­trol) turn­ing on and off light­ing devices and smooth con­trol of incan­des­cent lamps from a dis­tance of up to 5m. The non-con­tact adjust­ment method ensures the clean­li­ness and steril­i­ty of the switch key, which means a lot if, for exam­ple, there is a sick per­son in the house.

Of inter­est is a sys­tem with a remote con­trol Busch-Fer­n­con­trol IR, offer­ing a range of unique fea­tures. ATFirst of all, it gives the user the abil­i­ty to mem­o­rize the bright­ness of sev­er­al light sources. The sys­tem con­sists of sev­er­al wall-mount­ed infrared receivers and a sin­gle remote con­trol. Switch­es, adjustable volt­age sock­ets, ceil­ing light con­trols, and flu­o­res­cent lamp switch­es are sup­plied with receivers. How con­ve­nient- turn on the table lamp where you like and con­trol it from the remote con­trol! You can pro­gram light­ing options in the rooms of your home and vary them with the touch of just one but­ton!

Recent­ly, a sig­nif­i­cant num­ber of import­ed con­trol devices have appeared on the Euro­pean mar­ket. Pro­to­zoa- dim­mers made in Chi­na- allow you to change the lev­el of illu­mi­na­tion in three steps or turn off the light in three touch­es. The imper­fec­tion of the design of dim­mers reduces their ser­vice life to two years, while they can fail at any time. The con­trol devices of the French com­pa­ny LEGRAND, in par­tic­u­lar remote dim­mers for the max­i­mum total pow­er of light sources (halo­gen, flu­o­res­cent lamps and incan­des­cent lamps) from 1kW up to 25kW. They allow both cen­tral­ized remote con­trol of light­ing from a com­mand dim­mer, and local con­trol using push­but­tons or elec­tron­ic switch­es. Both con­trol schemes pro­vide for the pos­si­bil­i­ty of stor­ing cer­tain val­ues ​​of con­trolled para­me­ters in mem­o­ry.

Com­plex import­ed micro­proces­sor sys­tems are cer­tain­ly more reli­able, although not cheap, but they, like their domes­tic coun­ter­parts, have a draw­back. Imag­ine that your shoelace came undone in the hall­way and you had to bend down to tie it. The light will imme­di­ate­ly be extin­guished, because your behav­ior is not pro­grammed into the device’s micro­proces­sor pro­gram. To re-ignite it, you have to wave your hand to the height of the pro­grammed min­i­mum human height.

Anoth­er type of con­troller- auto­mat­ic twi­light switch­es based on the design of which- pho­to­cell. Domes­tic device for step­wise switch­ing on and off of light­ing PVO‑1 BUTI pro­duced by NPO“ORION” is designed to auto­mat­i­cal­ly turn on and off the rows of lamps in the build­ing, depend­ing on the nat­ur­al light. Sim­i­lar switch­es with pro­gram­ma­ble func­tions and dif­fer­ent illu­mi­na­tion ranges are sup­plied to Europe by South Kore­an, Ger­man, French, Swedish and oth­er com­pa­nies. The LEGRAND twi­light switch reg­u­lates the illu­mi­na­tion from 5 to 25lux, and when using a pho­to­cell with a spe­cial paper screen- up to 600 lux.

I already fore­see the ques­tion: why are we talk­ing exclu­sive­ly about light­ing fix­tures?

But what if the for­get­ful host­ess leaves the iron or elec­tric stove on and flies away for a week to warm up under the rays of the Cypri­ot sun?

In the best case, upon her return, an unus­able elec­tri­cal appli­ance and a sol­id bill for the spent elec­tric­i­ty are wait­ing for her, at worst … Well, let’s not dra­ma­tize the sit­u­a­tion. The prob­lem is real­ly seri­ous, and the best minds of the world’s lead­ing com­pa­nies pro­duc­ing elec­tri­cal goods are fight­ing over it.

Firm SIEMENS- one of those who pur­sue the goal of putting the work of all elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions in the house under the con­trol of the com­put­er. This oppor­tu­ni­ty came as a result of the rev­o­lu­tion in the field of inter­nal wiring of build­ings.- cre­ation of the instal­la­tion bus InstabusEIB. Where the pos­si­bil­i­ties of hid­den wiring approach their lim­its, the use of a SIEMENS instal­la­tion rail allows you not only to save ener­gy, increase the com­fort of use and increase the tech­ni­cal capa­bil­i­ties of your elec­tri­cal net­work, but also take it under com­put­er con­trol. So far, the devel­op­ment of com­put­er mon­i­tor­ing of the pow­er grid is in the exper­i­men­tal stage. But even the ear­li­est imple­men­ta­tion of the sys­tem SIEMENS in oper­a­tion does not promise that it will be cheap. How­ev­er, those who have some­thing to save will do the right thing if they install the sys­tem at home. The miser, as you know, pays twice.

While West­ern experts are exper­i­ment­ing, domes­tic crafts­men offer, albeit not so advanced, but quite real ways to pro­tect the house from the neg­li­gence of for­get­ful house­wives. Andin an iron, and in an elec­tric stove, and in any device with a heat­ing ele­ment, sen­sors that respond to chang­ing volt­age para­me­ters and heat­ing time can be mount­ed, which are enough to be con­nect­ed to pro­tec­tive shut­down devices after their sim­ple refine­ment (at the same time, the RCD does not need to be struc­tural­ly changed), so that in In the event of an emer­gency, a par­tic­u­lar device was switched off. Anoth­er domes­tic idea is to bring the sen­sors from the includ­ed elec­tri­cal appli­ances to the con­trol pan­el of the secu­ri­ty sys­tem, with the help of which the own­er of the house and his fam­i­ly mem­bers arm the dwelling, unlock and lock the door. A sen­sor sig­nal­ing that the iron or elec­tric fire­place is not turned off will not allow the door to be closed (an addi­tion­al func­tion is being intro­duced into the secu­ri­ty sys­tem pro­gram) and will force the for­get­ful user to return and turn off the appli­ance.

So, there is no sim­ple rad­i­cal rem­e­dy for the for­get­ful­ness of house­wives? Calm down, there are such means: tra­di­tion­al time relays and pro­gram­ma­ble timers. Time relays installed direct­ly into the sock­et come with a clos­ing delay, an open­ing delay, pulse (to turn on and off any load at a giv­en fre­quen­cy, for exam­ple, the same light­ing), mul­ti­func­tion­al. The sim­plest timers allow you to con­nect the load for a giv­en time. They are installed both on switch­boards and on sock­ets. More com­plex LEGRAND timers allow you to set from8 to 58pro­grams for a peri­od of up to a week with the dis­play of their con­tent on the score­board or on the liq­uid crys­tal dis­play. Timers can be pro­grammed to turn off any elec­tri­cal appli­ances that are left unat­tend­ed.

How­ev­er, it’s time to cool down the ardor of fan­ta­sy and return to the earth, where in prac­tice we are con­stant­ly faced with think­ing at the lev­el of a hand-wound elec­tric fireplace-“goat”, with the help of which the own­er, sim­mer­ing in warmth, plunges the sur­round­ing dwellings into twi­light. The answer in this case is stan­dard: “Maybe notLet’s burn down.” Liv­ing on the “maybe”, thought­less spend­ing of water, gas and light in the absence of indi­vid­ual meters is still pos­si­ble, but isn’t this what we all suf­fer from? AndAre we so rich as not to buy even expen­sive, but extreme­ly nec­es­sary and use­ful devices for con­trol­ling and reg­u­lat­ing light­ing? It seems that the answer sug­gests itself: if Count Tol­stoy, who received the high­est fees in EU at that time for his writ­ings, saved mon­ey, then what can we say about us?

Remem­ber the episode from the immor­tal book of I.Ilfa and E.Petrov “12chairs.” Why was Vasisu­aly Lokhankin whipped by the ten­ants? That’s right, for the sys­tem­at­ic non-extin­guish­ing of the light in the toi­let. Still, at the dawn of domes­tic social­ism, the peo­ple were advanced, it was lat­er spoiled by free cheese (read: water, gas, light), which, as we know, hap­pens only in a mouse­trap. Let’s think about this and take anoth­er step towards the pin­na­cle of progress: we will install at least one of the above-described light­ing con­trol and reg­u­la­tion devices in our house in order to right­ful­ly say: “We are not Lokhank­ins! We are not Lokhank­ins!”

The edi­tors would like to thank TFSELECTROTECNIC for help in orga­niz­ing the shoot­ing, as well as the man­ag­er C.BUT.Ptashkin and elec­tri­cal engi­neer A.AT.Kuzilin for the infor­ma­tion pro­vid­ed.

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