The heating systems of private houses are usually filled with water. In the case when in sub-zero weather the house stands for a long time without heating, it freezes and increases in volume, which leads to the failure of pipes and all equipment. Anticipating this, the owners of the facilities use special anti-freezes of various types for the heating systems of private houses. These fluids are effective and easy to use. However, they have their own advantages and disadvantages.
Antifreeze liquid for the heating system — what is it?
Antifreeze liquid usually consists of several components:
- ethylene glycol and/or propylene glycol;
- inhibitor additives that slow down the processes of corrosion, oxidation, etc.
Such mixtures clearly differ from the usual pure water in such characteristics as fluidity and thermal conductivity. That is why they need special operating conditions.
The use of antifreeze is considered an ideal solution for regions with a cold climate. In addition, it is perfect for use in homes where the room is not heated for some time. Antifreeze fluid has a high viscosity. The property can be eliminated by adding pure water in permitted proportions. This allows you to save a significant amount of coolant, and hence money. In addition, circulation pumps will work much longer, as they will not work at full capacity.
- there is no need to drain the coolant from the system when it is turned off for a significant period;
- all components of the heating system remain filled with liquid, which prevents direct access of oxygen, and, accordingly, corrosion;
- additional additives inhibit the formation of corrosion and scale;
- the freezing temperature of the coolant is in the range from ‑30 to ‑65 — it all depends on the amount of added water;
- heating can be started without any unpleasant surprises in the form of a cracked pipe and other things.
Important! Anti-freeze helps extend the life of the heating system components.
Despite the positive aspects, non-freezing liquid has some disadvantages:
- high price;
- the heat capacity and thermal conductivity are lower than those of water, as a result — reduced heat transfer and rapid cooling of the system;
- increased viscosity, which directly affects the operation of the boiler and increases the energy consumption spent on pumps;
- some of the components that make up the composition act like a poison on a person, therefore safety precautions and the tightness of the system are especially important;
- can only be used with special boilers and not in all types of systems.
Important! Before using antifreeze, the expansion tank is checked at the very beginning. Often this component of the system has to be changed to a larger one, since the expansion parameters of antifreeze are higher compared to water.
Features of use
The filling of the new coolant is carried out only after the old one has been completely removed. In addition, it is important to check all seams for integrity. If necessary, worn parts are replaced.
The mixture is diluted with water and immediately poured into the system so that the concentration remains at the desired level.
Before starting the heating system, it is necessary to take into account several main factors:
- More viscous antifreeze is more difficult to circulate. Therefore, it is necessary to change the old pump in advance or change its operating parameters in order to create sufficient pressure.
- The liquid has a reduced heat capacity. To obtain the calculated heat transfer from the radiator, it is necessary to increase the temperature of the coolant.
- The boiler must operate with a power reserve of at least 20%.
- It is necessary to replace all parts that contain zinc.
- The first launch is carried out at minimum values with a gradual increase in performance.
- Can only be used in closed systems due to the presence of toxic substances.
Gas boilers are considered the best boilers for non-freezing. If we talk about electric ones, then there is a danger of their overheating of the heater.
Important! All rules for the use of antifreeze must be fully observed. Otherwise, it can lead to damage to the main components of the system, clogged filters and even poisoning the body.
How to calculate the right amount?
To purchase the required amount of antifreeze, you need to know the exact capacity of the system. This information may be possessed by specialists who created the project or performed the installation. If the data is lost, you can still find out the parameters, although you need to spend some time.
First you need to measure the total length of the lines and distribute them according to the diameter. After that, the area of the flow section is calculated. All this is multiplied by the total length. The volume of water in the radiators is added (data can be found in the relevant technical documentation). The required total volume of the coolant will be obtained.
The required amount of anti-freeze can be found at the time of purchase. The ratio with which antifreeze should be diluted with water is indicated on the package.
The use of antifreeze in the home heating system allows you to forget about the danger of freezing coolant and future repairs. The use of antifreeze has its advantages and disadvantages, which must be taken into account when choosing and during operation.