Collector scheme of piping of the boiler room
The Logamatic 2107 controller from BUDERUS controls the heating circuit and water heating in the boiler
Control panel Diematic-m-Delta from DE DIETRICH
Scheme for piping a boiler room using a thermo-hydraulic distributor developed by DE DIETRICH
RVT controller2m Domino from MITSUBISHI provides weather-compensated control of direct and mixing circuits, as well as control of the DHW circuit
“HydroLOGO” modules for piping a boiler room according to the scheme of primary and secondary rings allow installation to be carried out quickly and cheaply
The use of automation allows you to optimize the operation of all components of the heating system
HONEYWELL Aquatrol 2000 Controller
Components for fast assembly strapping from BUDERUS
Family of heating curves. Lines with a large slope are used for buildings with a low degree of thermal insulation and vice versa
Logamatic 4211 control panel with removable MEC dialogue module2 by BUDERUS
Cabinet with automation devices from SCHNIDER ELECTRIC (France), which allow transferring control of heating circuits from one controller to another. It is used in systems with main and reserve boilers
The use of a thermo-hydraulic distributor allows to achieve optimal and balanced operation of the boiler and heating circuits
Logamatic 2107 control panelM from BUDERUS manages one direct heating circuit, a mixer circuit and DHW heating in a DHW cylinder
Kascon controller from KOMEXTHERM
Control of pumps of several circuits is only possible with modern automation
The ERT-01 weather-compensated control device from KOMEXTHERM is designed for installation in a control cabinet on a DIN rail
When planning a home heating device, only a few consider the possibility of operating boiler equipment with modern automation systems. BUTafter all, such systems are now widely used and are designed to increase the comfort of the home and significantly reduce the cost of heating it.
Advantages of automatic control
A modern boiler house cannot be imagined without automation systems that combine all the latest achievements in the field of heat flow management. It is noteworthy that for the majority of people, unfortunately, the main criterion for the quality of the heating system is still the principle of “heats or does not heat”. Andalthough it is completely inapplicable to automated heating systems, few people appreciate the importance of installing special automation in their boiler room, which would provide the maximum level of thermal comfort in the house.
To date, only a modern thermal control system can significantly reduce heating costs and at the same time create a favorable temperature background in the house. This is due to the optimization of the operation of all components of the heating equipment. Note that almost all boilers in their basic configuration have standard automation that controls the burner, receives signals from boiler safety devices, and also maintains the set temperature of the coolant. Please note: it is the “boiler” temperature, and not room temperature. That does not relieve the user of the need to constantly adjust this temperature depending on the need for heat.
By installing such imperfect equipment, you involuntarily doom yourself to eternal “chaining” to the thermostat knob: when the outside temperature drops, the water in the system will need to be heated more, and when it gets warmer outside- downgrade. AndYou can do these manipulations with the thermostat indefinitely. But if, when cold weather sets in, you have to “fire up” the boiler willy-nilly (otherwise living in the house becomes problematic), then when it gets warmer, as is often the case, it seems not necessary to lower the temperature of the boiler water. After all, as you know, steam does not break bones. Yes, and there are still among us lovers to open the window wider when the room gets too hot.
Naturally, such an approach to heat and energy saving will significantly hit the homeowner’s pocket in a short time. Andprimarily due to excessive fuel consumption. BUTAfter all, the upward trend in prices for the main energy carriers, which has clearly manifested itself in recent years, according to experts’ forecasts, will continue in the future. Of course, there can be no question of any thermal comfort with such methods of thermal control. According to experts, the user of a boiler that is not equipped with an automation system spends more than 210 hours of personal time per year only on setting the temperature of the coolant in the boiler!
Another thing- modern microprocessor control panels. They allow you to maintain different temperatures in several heating circuits at once. Such a circuit is understood as a part of the system that works with its own temperature and hydraulic characteristics and has the ability to adjust them. This is, say, a radiator heating circuit or one water heated floor circuit. For example, the R 33/4 Digi Comfort system from WOLF controls four independent circuits, and the Color Matic from VAILLANT has the ability to control the operation of fifteen at once, and the temperature of the coolant inside them directly depends on the weather outside. Systems with this principle of regulation are called weather-controlled or, as experts say, weather-dependent (we will talk about the principle of weather-dependent control below). To control the outside temperature in these systems, an outdoor sensor is used, which is installed on the outside of the building, on the north side. The controller (programmer) of the system is also fully responsible for the process of preparing hot water in the boiler.
ATsome systems are based on the principle of modular construction. It allows you to complete the system for a specific situation and customer requirements, as well as connect additional circuits and control their operation by installing the appropriate module.- without replacing the control panel as a whole, which provides significant cost savings.
Today, automation from many foreign companies is widely represented on the European market, for example, KOMEXTHERM (Czech Republic),
Separately, it should be said about automatic control systems offered by such manufacturers of heating equipment as VIESSMANN, WOLF, BUDERUS, VAILLANT, JUNKERS (all- Germany), DE DIETRICH (France), CTC (Sweden), and a number of others. The systems supplied by these companies today meet the latest concepts of “heat management” and are highly reliable. Such automation allows solving almost any tasks related to the regulation of thermal processes, and ensures the safe operation of the equipment. ToThe disadvantages of these systems include the relatively high cost- from
The implementation of automated weather-dependent heating is complicated by the fact that in modern practice it is necessary to manage not one heating circuit at home, but a system with several circuits. Let’s try to characterize them.
Water flow through the radiator and underfloor heating circuit can be variable. This happens when, for example, thermostatic valves with thermal heads are installed on radiators, the function of which is to change the flow rate of the coolant through them and, accordingly, through the entire heating circuit as a whole. In the same way, separate thermostats can be installed on the distribution manifold of the underfloor heating system.
The principle of weather-compensated regulation
Let us explain how the room temperature is maintained, taking into account changes in the street temperature. When setting up the controller, a so-called temperature curve is set, which reflects the dependence of the temperature of the coolant in the heating circuit on changes in weather conditions outside. This curve is a line, one point of which corresponds to +20
As a rule, to create the maximum level of thermal comfort, as well as to save fuel, a single outdoor sensor is not enough. Therefore, an additional sensor is often mounted inside the heated room. The presence of two sensors at once, both indoor and outdoor, allows you to accurately monitor and quickly adjust the temperature in the premises of the house.
Typically, the room temperature sensor is installed in a so-called reference room.- the temperature in it will correspond to your concept of a comfortable thermal background. This room should not be heated by direct sunlight and drafts. As a rule, nurseries and bedrooms are chosen as a reference. The installation of a room sensor makes it possible to switch on the self-adaptation mode, in which the heating curve is adjusted automatically to the respective room.- by the control panel microcomputer itself. In addition, often a room sensor is integrated into a thermostat, with which you can set the desired temperature and its average level throughout the house. Local temperature control in a single room is achieved by installing thermostatic valves with thermal heads on the radiators.
A very important aspect of using a thermostat is, again, fuel economy. Let us explain how it is carried out. For example, in the room where the sensor is installed, guests have gathered and the temperature has risen by 2
You should also pay attention to the fact that the installation of only one room thermostat, without an outside temperature sensor, significantly increases the inertia of the thermal control system. Changes in the thermal background will occur with a delay, since the automation will only start to operate when the temperature in the house, for example, drops, and this will happen later than the real cooling outside.
Modern controllers not only monitor the weather, but also have a fairly large number of functions, some of which- custom, and part- service. If the former stand guard over comfort, then the latter monitor the state of the system and ensure the correct and safe operation of the equipment.
Boiler room piping schemes and circuit control principles
In order to organize the operation of one or more heating circuits in a hydraulic system, they must be connected to a heat generator-boiler. This problem can be solved in different ways, experts call them boiler room piping schemes. Consider the most common of them, as well as the principles of organizing the corresponding management process with all their advantages and disadvantages.
Heating circuits according to the method of reaching the temperature in them are divided into direct and mixing. The temperature of the water in the direct circuit is reached only by the burner and depends on the duration of its operation. ATmixing temperature of the coolant is determined both by the operation of the burner and the position of the damper of the actuator- a mixer with a servo drive. By resorting to the first option, you can easily connect a low-temperature boiler with one radiator heating circuit and provide automated control of it depending on the outside temperature. This is quite simple and relatively inexpensive. If it is required to organize, in addition to heating, hot water supply, and without resorting to mixing units, two types of schemes are used. First- with a three-way valve, the second scheme- with two pumps.
The simplest is the scheme with a three-way switching valve equipped with a servo drive. The water from the boiler is sent to the tap, which, in turn, directs it either to the heating circuit or to the boiler heating circuit. Switching can be carried out both manually, which is usually laborious, and by command of the boiler control panel. The temperature of the water in the boiler is controlled automatically by means of a temperature sensor installed in it. As soon as the water cools below the required level, a command is given to switch the three-way valve. Please note that with such a piping and control scheme, heating is turned off during the heating of water in the boiler (that is, it is impossible to organize hot water supply control with mixed priority).
The collector circuit, as the name implies, involves the use of collectors for piping the boiler room, which are pipes with leads to the required number of circuits. This scheme, being quite simple, has become widespread due to the emergence of so-called quick-mount components. ATthey include pump-mixing groups currently produced by many manufacturers of heating equipment, including CTC, BUDERUS, DE DIETRICH, VIESSMANN, WOLF, VAILLANT, and MEIBES (Germany). These devices allow you to assemble a system with several heating circuits quite quickly (piping a boiler room takes a few days). However, it should be noted that such modules are mainly used for boiler houses of small capacity.- up to 85 kW. Nevertheless, they are extremely easy to install and significantly reduce the risk of error due to the notorious human factor, since they are assembled and tested for performance and tightness in the factory.
An interesting option for tying their boilers is offered by TELEDYANE LAARS (USA). This refers to the scheme of the primary and secondary rings, the principle of operation of which is as follows: boiler water constantly circulates through a small circuit (primary ring), from which other heat consumers (various circuits) take the coolant with the help of circulation pumps. The advantage of this scheme is the ability to connect a large number of secondary circuits while ensuring the nominal flow rate through the boiler and the relative simplicity of the design. To facilitate the process of installing a boiler house according to this scheme, ready-made kits are offered (for example, HydroLOGO, manufactured by the European company HydroMONTAZH).
DE DIETRICH (France) recommends using a thermo-hydraulic distributor for piping its boilers (abbreviated- TGR). When using it, a constant flow of coolant through the heating device is achieved.- regardless of the value of the water flow in the heating circuits, where this indicator may be different. ATas a result, it is possible to achieve optimal balanced operation of the boiler and heating circuits.
It is important to note that the automation of many manufacturers allows you to control the boiler and circuits in a variety of boiler room piping schemes. However, it is still better to entrust the search for the most suitable option and the selection of automation to a specialist.
User functions primarily include various heating programs that allow you to adapt the heating mode of the house to the rhythm of the life of its inhabitants (sleep and wakefulness, vacations, shift work). Similarly, programs for hot water supply are selected. If the user is not satisfied with any of the standard set offered by the manufacturer, you can create your own individual- both for heating and for hot water supply.
Good night mode. In almost all systems, it is possible to set the so-called night temperature. Scientists have proven that a sleeping person feels much more comfortable when the temperature in the room drops slightly (usually by 4
Low temperature systems. At the present level of development of heating technology, there is a tendency to switch to low-temperature heating mode. In other words- to reduce the operating temperature of heating devices. This leads to a more comfortable perception of thermal radiation by a person. The most important advantage of the low-temperature mode is the reduction in fuel consumption. The installation of automation also allows the heating system to be operated in low-temperature mode.
By the way, here it is necessary to separate such concepts as a low-temperature regime and a low-temperature boiler. Low temperature boiler- a device in which, due to the specific properties of the materials used in its manufacture, or thanks to original technical solutions, it is possible to maintain the flow temperature at a level of up to+40
Low-temperature heating mode can be obtained without using a low-temperature boiler, but this will require actuators- three- or four-way mixing valves with a servo, which will be discussed separately. ATin combination with them, the heating boiler will operate in a constant mode with a high temperature of the boiler water, and the temperature in the heating circuits will depend on the degree of opening of the mixing valve, in which hot water is mixed with cold, return water.
Priority system. Toone of the important functions of automatic control systems is the ability to organize the management of hot water supply. It can be priority, mixed and non-priority. The most common, priority method is not without drawbacks: during the consumption of hot water, the heating system is simply turned off. This usually does not cause the house to get colder. The mixed priority method allows you to use for heating the house that part of the boiler’s power that is not used for preparing hot water. However, with a lack of power, the entire resource is spent on the latter. BUTwhat is “non-priority hot water supply” can be understood from the name.
Disinfection. The software of many control panels allows thermal disinfection of the boiler once a week. This is done by raising the temperature in the boiler to 80
Frost protection. As soon as the outside temperature drops below a certain value, the automation will automatically start the boiler and maintain a certain temperature in the heating system to prevent it from defrosting.
“Smart House”. The latest models of controllers provide the possibility of both remote access to themselves via a telephone line or mobile communication of the GSM standard, and their integration into the “Smart Home” system. This option is available for devices from heating manufacturers such as VIESSMANN, BUDERUS, DE DIETRICH andetc. Such devices allow you to control the temperature in the house at a distance and learn about any problems in time.
In order to organize the operation of several heating circuits with different, not always constant temperatures, actuators are required. The most common are three- and four-way mixing taps (mixers). The principle of their operation is to regulate the temperature of the coolant in a separate heating circuit by mixing water from the boiler with water from the return line. Thus, the temperature of the heat carrier in the flow line of the circuit can vary from a minimum, for example, equal to room temperature, to a maximum, equal to the temperature of the boiler water, but not higher than it. The crane can be turned manually (butthen there is no need to talk about any automation of control!) Or with the help of a special engine- servo drive.
Usually several parameters of servos are indicated in the data sheet. These are the mains voltage, the maximum torque generated on the shaft, and the speed of the drive. The last indicator reflects the transition time of the servo from one extreme position to another. This is usually between 60 and 300 seconds. It should be borne in mind that a shorter reaction time of the servomotor does not at all guarantee a rapid temperature change in the heating circuit. Recall that all thermal processes are very inertial. It is for this reason that drives with a speed of less than 60 seconds are usually not used. Approximately this amount of time is required for the sensor installed on the supply pipe to respond to changes in the temperature of the coolant, the temperature of which cannot change instantly. ATThe service menu of many control panels has a setting that takes into account the speed of the servo. Tofor example, in the control panels of the Logamatic 4000 series from BUDERUS with a cost of
Mixing taps and their servo drives are produced by a number of manufacturers, for example
Fresh air. To reduce the amount of harmful emissions into the air, multifunctional automation is able to optimize the operation of the burner. ATIn the settings of modern controllers, the minimum burning time is set initially. This excludes the operation of the burner in the “start-stop” mode, which has a bad effect on both the resource of the equipment and the environment. The fact is that most harmful emissions are formed precisely at the moment of ignition. This is due to incomplete combustion of the fuel. The default minimum burner time is usually at least one minute. So, by purchasing a modern management system, you take care not only about your wallet, but also about your health.
Smooth start. An interesting feature is the so-called start unloading. ATthe moment of the first (cold) start-up of the boiler or after its long downtime, increased condensate formation is usually observed in the furnace. As a rule, this is a mixture of acids that adversely affect the internal elements of the device. It is to eliminate such an unpleasant phenomenon that many control systems allow starting unloading. Its essence lies in the fact that immediately at the moment the heating is turned on, the circulation pumps are not yet working, so the coolant in the boiler quickly heats up to 40–60
“Coast” pumps. In many modern systems, you can set the “run-out” time of the pumps. This function prevents possible overheating of the boiler. The fact is that in boilers (especially cast iron ones) there is an increase in the temperature of the boiler water after the burner is turned off. This is due to the heat exchange occurring inside the metal, directed from the surface facing the furnace, to the one that is washed by the coolant. The process will continue until the temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces are equal, and the boiler may overheat. That is why it is important not to stop the circulation pumps immediately, but to let them work for some more time.
An interesting way to solve this problem was proposed by BUDERUS specialists in the Logamatic 4000 series panels, creating the “use of residual heat” function. When the coolant is heated, the boiler does not reach the maximum temperature, but only a certain calculated temperature, at which the automation turns off the burner, and heating continues due to the effect described above. The released energy, of course, is not wasted, but is used to produce hot water in the boiler.
Summer Maintenance. Many control systems have a pump enable function. It is implemented, for example, in E6 series controllers from KROMSCHRODER (cost-
Refurbishment of boilers
After reading our article, someone will still have time to instruct the suppliers of the heating system to use a boiler with modern automation. BUTwhat about someone who already has a reliable imported boiler with a standard control panel or a domestic device without a control system at all, but wants to equip it with modern weather-compensated automation?
First of all, I would like to advise you to contact a company that sells boilers of your brand. Almost every major manufacturer of heating equipment has such automation in its assortment. But if one cannot be found, or if its parameters do not allow solving the tasks set by the customer, one has to select a system from another manufacturer.
There are two options for retrofitting boilers. The first involves automatic control of all system components. This achieves a high degree of automation and a significant reduction in fuel consumption. ToUnfortunately, it is not always possible to equip boilers according to the first option. Such modernization of systems with an atmospheric burner is difficult. For example, popular domestic AGV boilers are equipped with a burner with an “eternal” flame ignited manually, which makes it impossible to automate the combustion process. For such cases, a second equipment option is provided, which involves maintaining the temperature in the heating circuits automatically using actuators. With this option, the boiler will work with a constant, usually maximum, flow temperature and, as it were, “live its own life”, and the heating circuits controlled by the controller- his.
The produced controllers are designed for installation on all types of boiler equipment equipped with both blast and atmospheric burners. Of course, it should be noted that it is unlikely that it will be possible to re-equip the boiler on your own, such work must be entrusted to a specialist from a reliable company with experience in such upgrades.
ATconclusion, I would like to note that the acquisition of modern automation- this is not a tribute to fashion, but a profitable investment of money. For example, according to the company HydroMONTAZH, on liquid fuel boilers, modern automation allows you to save up to 30% of fuel and will pay off in just 1–3 years, especially at the current rate of growth in prices for basic energy sources.
The editors would like to thank HydroMONTAZH, RUSKLIMAT, TERMOSTUDIA, STK-GROUP, the BUDERUS representative office for their help in preparing the material.