Boiler room automation

Col­lec­tor scheme of pip­ing of the boil­er room
The Loga­mat­ic 2107 con­troller from BUDERUS con­trols the heat­ing cir­cuit and water heat­ing in the boil­er
Con­trol pan­el Diemat­ic-m-Delta from DE DIETRICH
Scheme for pip­ing a boil­er room using a ther­mo-hydraulic dis­trib­u­tor devel­oped by DE DIETRICH
RVT con­troller2m Domi­no from MITSUBISHI pro­vides weath­er-com­pen­sat­ed con­trol of direct and mix­ing cir­cuits, as well as con­trol of the DHW cir­cuit
“HydroL­O­GO” mod­ules for pip­ing a boil­er room accord­ing to the scheme of pri­ma­ry and sec­ondary rings allow instal­la­tion to be car­ried out quick­ly and cheap­ly
The use of automa­tion allows you to opti­mize the oper­a­tion of all com­po­nents of the heat­ing sys­tem
Room ther­mostats
HONEYWELL Aqua­trol 2000 Con­troller
Com­po­nents for fast assem­bly strap­ping from BUDERUS
Fam­i­ly of heat­ing curves. Lines with a large slope are used for build­ings with a low degree of ther­mal insu­la­tion and vice ver­sa
Loga­mat­ic 4211 con­trol pan­el with remov­able MEC dia­logue mod­ule2 by BUDERUS
Cab­i­net with automa­tion devices from SCHNIDER ELECTRIC (France), which allow trans­fer­ring con­trol of heat­ing cir­cuits from one con­troller to anoth­er. It is used in sys­tems with main and reserve boil­ers

The use of a ther­mo-hydraulic dis­trib­u­tor allows to achieve opti­mal and bal­anced oper­a­tion of the boil­er and heat­ing cir­cuits
Loga­mat­ic 2107 con­trol pan­elM from BUDERUS man­ages one direct heat­ing cir­cuit, a mix­er cir­cuit and DHW heat­ing in a DHW cylin­der
Kas­con con­troller from KOMEXTHERM
Con­trol of pumps of sev­er­al cir­cuits is only pos­si­ble with mod­ern automa­tion
The ERT-01 weath­er-com­pen­sat­ed con­trol device from KOMEXTHERM is designed for instal­la­tion in a con­trol cab­i­net on a DIN rail

When plan­ning a home heat­ing device, only a few con­sid­er the pos­si­bil­i­ty of oper­at­ing boil­er equip­ment with mod­ern automa­tion sys­tems. BUTafter all, such sys­tems are now wide­ly used and are designed to increase the com­fort of the home and sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the cost of heat­ing it.

Advantages of automatic control

A mod­ern boil­er house can­not be imag­ined with­out automa­tion sys­tems that com­bine all the lat­est achieve­ments in the field of heat flow man­age­ment. It is note­wor­thy that for the major­i­ty of peo­ple, unfor­tu­nate­ly, the main cri­te­ri­on for the qual­i­ty of the heat­ing sys­tem is still the prin­ci­ple of “heats or does not heat”. Andalthough it is com­plete­ly inap­plic­a­ble to auto­mat­ed heat­ing sys­tems, few peo­ple appre­ci­ate the impor­tance of installing spe­cial automa­tion in their boil­er room, which would pro­vide the max­i­mum lev­el of ther­mal com­fort in the house.

To date, only a mod­ern ther­mal con­trol sys­tem can sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce heat­ing costs and at the same time cre­ate a favor­able tem­per­a­ture back­ground in the house. This is due to the opti­miza­tion of the oper­a­tion of all com­po­nents of the heat­ing equip­ment. Note that almost all boil­ers in their basic con­fig­u­ra­tion have stan­dard automa­tion that con­trols the burn­er, receives sig­nals from boil­er safe­ty devices, and also main­tains the set tem­per­a­ture of the coolant. Please note: it is the “boil­er” tem­per­a­ture, and not room tem­per­a­ture. That does not relieve the user of the need to con­stant­ly adjust this tem­per­a­ture depend­ing on the need for heat.

By installing such imper­fect equip­ment, you invol­un­tar­i­ly doom your­self to eter­nal “chain­ing” to the ther­mo­stat knob: when the out­side tem­per­a­ture drops, the water in the sys­tem will need to be heat­ed more, and when it gets warmer out­side- down­grade. AndYou can do these manip­u­la­tions with the ther­mo­stat indef­i­nite­ly. But if, when cold weath­er sets in, you have to “fire up” the boil­er willy-nil­ly (oth­er­wise liv­ing in the house becomes prob­lem­at­ic), then when it gets warmer, as is often the case, it seems not nec­es­sary to low­er the tem­per­a­ture of the boil­er water. After all, as you know, steam does not break bones. Yes, and there are still among us lovers to open the win­dow wider when the room gets too hot.

Nat­u­ral­ly, such an approach to heat and ener­gy sav­ing will sig­nif­i­cant­ly hit the home­own­er’s pock­et in a short time. Andpri­mar­i­ly due to exces­sive fuel con­sump­tion. BUTAfter all, the upward trend in prices for the main ener­gy car­ri­ers, which has clear­ly man­i­fest­ed itself in recent years, accord­ing to experts’ fore­casts, will con­tin­ue in the future. Of course, there can be no ques­tion of any ther­mal com­fort with such meth­ods of ther­mal con­trol. Accord­ing to experts, the user of a boil­er that is not equipped with an automa­tion sys­tem spends more than 210 hours of per­son­al time per year only on set­ting the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in the boil­er!

Anoth­er thing- mod­ern micro­proces­sor con­trol pan­els. They allow you to main­tain dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­tures in sev­er­al heat­ing cir­cuits at once. Such a cir­cuit is under­stood as a part of the sys­tem that works with its own tem­per­a­ture and hydraulic char­ac­ter­is­tics and has the abil­i­ty to adjust them. This is, say, a radi­a­tor heat­ing cir­cuit or one water heat­ed floor cir­cuit. For exam­ple, the R 33/4 Digi Com­fort sys­tem from WOLF con­trols four inde­pen­dent cir­cuits, and the Col­or Mat­ic from VAILLANT has the abil­i­ty to con­trol the oper­a­tion of fif­teen at once, and the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant inside them direct­ly depends on the weath­er out­side. Sys­tems with this prin­ci­ple of reg­u­la­tion are called weath­er-con­trolled or, as experts say, weath­er-depen­dent (we will talk about the prin­ci­ple of weath­er-depen­dent con­trol below). To con­trol the out­side tem­per­a­ture in these sys­tems, an out­door sen­sor is used, which is installed on the out­side of the build­ing, on the north side. The con­troller (pro­gram­mer) of the sys­tem is also ful­ly respon­si­ble for the process of prepar­ing hot water in the boil­er.

ATsome sys­tems are based on the prin­ci­ple of mod­u­lar con­struc­tion. It allows you to com­plete the sys­tem for a spe­cif­ic sit­u­a­tion and cus­tomer require­ments, as well as con­nect addi­tion­al cir­cuits and con­trol their oper­a­tion by installing the appro­pri­ate mod­ule.- with­out replac­ing the con­trol pan­el as a whole, which pro­vides sig­nif­i­cant cost sav­ings.

Today, automa­tion from many for­eign com­pa­nies is wide­ly rep­re­sent­ed on the Euro­pean mar­ket, for exam­ple, KOMEXTHERM (Czech Repub­lic), SIEMENSKROMSCHRODER (Ger­many), ROCA (Spain), MITSUBISHI (Japan), COSTER (Italy), HONEYWELL (USA), and some oth­er com­pa­nies.

Sep­a­rate­ly, it should be said about auto­mat­ic con­trol sys­tems offered by such man­u­fac­tur­ers of heat­ing equip­ment as VIESSMANN, WOLF, BUDERUS, VAILLANT, JUNKERS (all- Ger­many), DE DIETRICH (France), CTC (Swe­den), and a num­ber of oth­ers. The sys­tems sup­plied by these com­pa­nies today meet the lat­est con­cepts of “heat man­age­ment” and are high­ly reli­able. Such automa­tion allows solv­ing almost any tasks relat­ed to the reg­u­la­tion of ther­mal process­es, and ensures the safe oper­a­tion of the equip­ment. ToThe dis­ad­van­tages of these sys­tems include the rel­a­tive­ly high cost- from 650–700 to 2000–2500 and more.

Heat­ing cir­cuits

The imple­men­ta­tion of auto­mat­ed weath­er-depen­dent heat­ing is com­pli­cat­ed by the fact that in mod­ern prac­tice it is nec­es­sary to man­age not one heat­ing cir­cuit at home, but a sys­tem with sev­er­al cir­cuits. Let’s try to char­ac­ter­ize them.

Almost always there is a radi­a­tor heat­ing cir­cuit. In order to effec­tive­ly man­age it, it is nec­es­sary to main­tain the tem­per­a­ture of the sup­ply line with­in 50–85C. Some­times sev­er­al such cir­cuits are installed, for exam­ple, on dif­fer­ent floors of the house, and the tem­per­a­ture in them can also be dif­fer­ent.

If inde­pen­dent elec­tric or gas water heaters are not installed, then, as a rule, high-tem­per­a­ture (up to 70–85C) hot water boil­er heat­ing cir­cuit. The tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in it must be con­stant.

Require­ments for com­fort are con­stant­ly grow­ing, and today many con­sumers order the addi­tion­al instal­la­tion of one or more con­tours of water heat­ed floors. it- low tem­per­a­ture sys­tems with vari­able flow tem­per­a­ture (30–55FROM).

If there is a pool, you prob­a­bly want to have warm water in it. For this, a spe­cial cir­cuit of the water heat­ing sys­tem in the pool can be mount­ed. It is high-tem­per­a­ture, with a con­stant coolant tem­per­a­ture of 70–85FROM.

Sim­i­lar­ly to pool heat­ing, a sup­ply air heat­ing cir­cuit is arranged in the ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem heat exchang­er. But, accord­ing to the project, the coolant tem­per­a­ture here does not have to be con­stant.

Water flow through the radi­a­tor and under­floor heat­ing cir­cuit can be vari­able. This hap­pens when, for exam­ple, ther­mo­sta­t­ic valves with ther­mal heads are installed on radi­a­tors, the func­tion of which is to change the flow rate of the coolant through them and, accord­ing­ly, through the entire heat­ing cir­cuit as a whole. In the same way, sep­a­rate ther­mostats can be installed on the dis­tri­b­u­tion man­i­fold of the under­floor heat­ing sys­tem.

The principle of weather-compensated regulation

Let us explain how the room tem­per­a­ture is main­tained, tak­ing into account changes in the street tem­per­a­ture. When set­ting up the con­troller, a so-called tem­per­a­ture curve is set, which reflects the depen­dence of the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in the heat­ing cir­cuit on changes in weath­er con­di­tions out­side. This curve is a line, one point of which cor­re­sponds to +20C out­side (at the same time, the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in the heat­ing cir­cuit is also +20C, since it is con­sid­ered that under such con­di­tions there is no need for heat­ing). Sec­ond pointis the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant (say, 70C), at which even on the cold­est day of the heat­ing sea­son the tem­per­a­ture in the room will remain set (for exam­ple, 23FROM). ATIf the build­ing is not suf­fi­cient­ly insu­lat­ed, a slight­ly high­er coolant tem­per­a­ture in the heat­ing cir­cuit will be required to com­pen­sate for heat loss­es. Accord­ing­ly, the slope of the curve will be steep. Andon the con­trary, if every­thing is in order with the ther­mal insu­la­tion of the house. In the man­u­fac­ture of the con­troller, many sim­i­lar curves are entered into the mem­o­ry of the device, so that you can then choose from the entire fam­i­ly a suit­able line specif­i­cal­ly for the con­di­tions of your home.

As a rule, to cre­ate the max­i­mum lev­el of ther­mal com­fort, as well as to save fuel, a sin­gle out­door sen­sor is not enough. There­fore, an addi­tion­al sen­sor is often mount­ed inside the heat­ed room. The pres­ence of two sen­sors at once, both indoor and out­door, allows you to accu­rate­ly mon­i­tor and quick­ly adjust the tem­per­a­ture in the premis­es of the house.

Typ­i­cal­ly, the room tem­per­a­ture sen­sor is installed in a so-called ref­er­ence room.- the tem­per­a­ture in it will cor­re­spond to your con­cept of a com­fort­able ther­mal back­ground. This room should not be heat­ed by direct sun­light and drafts. As a rule, nurs­eries and bed­rooms are cho­sen as a ref­er­ence. The instal­la­tion of a room sen­sor makes it pos­si­ble to switch on the self-adap­ta­tion mode, in which the heat­ing curve is adjust­ed auto­mat­i­cal­ly to the respec­tive room.- by the con­trol pan­el micro­com­put­er itself. In addi­tion, often a room sen­sor is inte­grat­ed into a ther­mo­stat, with which you can set the desired tem­per­a­ture and its aver­age lev­el through­out the house. Local tem­per­a­ture con­trol in a sin­gle room is achieved by installing ther­mo­sta­t­ic valves with ther­mal heads on the radi­a­tors.

A very impor­tant aspect of using a ther­mo­stat is, again, fuel econ­o­my. Let us explain how it is car­ried out. For exam­ple, in the room where the sen­sor is installed, guests have gath­ered and the tem­per­a­ture has risen by 2C due to the nat­ur­al heat gen­er­a­tion of peo­ple. The con­trol pan­el detects these changes and gives a com­mand to reduce the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in this cir­cuit, although the out­door sen­sor may require just the oppo­site. Reduc­ing the heat con­sump­tion for heat­ing this room nat­u­ral­ly saves fuel. But there are also prob­lems here. Flood­ing a room with a ther­mo­stat, flood­ing a fire­place, or leav­ing a win­dow open for a long time can cause tem­per­a­ture changes through­out the house. To take into account such fac­tors, many sys­tems pro­vide for the pos­si­bil­i­ty of amend­ing the con­trol algo­rithm by set­ting the coef­fi­cient of influ­ence of the room sen­sor on the nature of the heat­ing curve. But in gen­er­al, experts sim­ply do not rec­om­mend installing room tem­per­a­ture mea­sur­ing devices near fire­places, front doors, win­dows, and oth­er sources of heat or cold that can intro­duce an error in the mea­sure­ment results.

You should also pay atten­tion to the fact that the instal­la­tion of only one room ther­mo­stat, with­out an out­side tem­per­a­ture sen­sor, sig­nif­i­cant­ly increas­es the iner­tia of the ther­mal con­trol sys­tem. Changes in the ther­mal back­ground will occur with a delay, since the automa­tion will only start to oper­ate when the tem­per­a­ture in the house, for exam­ple, drops, and this will hap­pen lat­er than the real cool­ing out­side.

Mod­ern con­trollers not only mon­i­tor the weath­er, but also have a fair­ly large num­ber of func­tions, some of which- cus­tom, and part- ser­vice. If the for­mer stand guard over com­fort, then the lat­ter mon­i­tor the state of the sys­tem and ensure the cor­rect and safe oper­a­tion of the equip­ment.

Boil­er room pip­ing schemes and cir­cuit con­trol prin­ci­ples

In order to orga­nize the oper­a­tion of one or more heat­ing cir­cuits in a hydraulic sys­tem, they must be con­nect­ed to a heat gen­er­a­tor-boil­er. This prob­lem can be solved in dif­fer­ent ways, experts call them boil­er room pip­ing schemes. Con­sid­er the most com­mon of them, as well as the prin­ci­ples of orga­niz­ing the cor­re­spond­ing man­age­ment process with all their advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages.

Heat­ing cir­cuits accord­ing to the method of reach­ing the tem­per­a­ture in them are divid­ed into direct and mix­ing. The tem­per­a­ture of the water in the direct cir­cuit is reached only by the burn­er and depends on the dura­tion of its oper­a­tion. ATmix­ing tem­per­a­ture of the coolant is deter­mined both by the oper­a­tion of the burn­er and the posi­tion of the damper of the actu­a­tor- a mix­er with a ser­vo dri­ve. By resort­ing to the first option, you can eas­i­ly con­nect a low-tem­per­a­ture boil­er with one radi­a­tor heat­ing cir­cuit and pro­vide auto­mat­ed con­trol of it depend­ing on the out­side tem­per­a­ture. This is quite sim­ple and rel­a­tive­ly inex­pen­sive. If it is required to orga­nize, in addi­tion to heat­ing, hot water sup­ply, and with­out resort­ing to mix­ing units, two types of schemes are used. First- with a three-way valve, the sec­ond scheme- with two pumps.

The sim­plest is the scheme with a three-way switch­ing valve equipped with a ser­vo dri­ve. The water from the boil­er is sent to the tap, which, in turn, directs it either to the heat­ing cir­cuit or to the boil­er heat­ing cir­cuit. Switch­ing can be car­ried out both man­u­al­ly, which is usu­al­ly labo­ri­ous, and by com­mand of the boil­er con­trol pan­el. The tem­per­a­ture of the water in the boil­er is con­trolled auto­mat­i­cal­ly by means of a tem­per­a­ture sen­sor installed in it. As soon as the water cools below the required lev­el, a com­mand is giv­en to switch the three-way valve. Please note that with such a pip­ing and con­trol scheme, heat­ing is turned off dur­ing the heat­ing of water in the boil­er (that is, it is impos­si­ble to orga­nize hot water sup­ply con­trol with mixed pri­or­i­ty).

The col­lec­tor cir­cuit, as the name implies, involves the use of col­lec­tors for pip­ing the boil­er room, which are pipes with leads to the required num­ber of cir­cuits. This scheme, being quite sim­ple, has become wide­spread due to the emer­gence of so-called quick-mount com­po­nents. ATthey include pump-mix­ing groups cur­rent­ly pro­duced by many man­u­fac­tur­ers of heat­ing equip­ment, includ­ing CTC, BUDERUS, DE DIETRICH, VIESSMANN, WOLF, VAILLANT, and MEIBES (Ger­many). These devices allow you to assem­ble a sys­tem with sev­er­al heat­ing cir­cuits quite quick­ly (pip­ing a boil­er room takes a few days). How­ev­er, it should be not­ed that such mod­ules are main­ly used for boil­er hous­es of small capac­i­ty.- up to 85 kW. Nev­er­the­less, they are extreme­ly easy to install and sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the risk of error due to the noto­ri­ous human fac­tor, since they are assem­bled and test­ed for per­for­mance and tight­ness in the fac­to­ry.

An inter­est­ing option for tying their boil­ers is offered by TELEDYANE LAARS (USA). This refers to the scheme of the pri­ma­ry and sec­ondary rings, the prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of which is as fol­lows: boil­er water con­stant­ly cir­cu­lates through a small cir­cuit (pri­ma­ry ring), from which oth­er heat con­sumers (var­i­ous cir­cuits) take the coolant with the help of cir­cu­la­tion pumps. The advan­tage of this scheme is the abil­i­ty to con­nect a large num­ber of sec­ondary cir­cuits while ensur­ing the nom­i­nal flow rate through the boil­er and the rel­a­tive sim­plic­i­ty of the design. To facil­i­tate the process of installing a boil­er house accord­ing to this scheme, ready-made kits are offered (for exam­ple, HydroL­O­GO, man­u­fac­tured by the Euro­pean com­pa­ny HydroMON­TAZH).

DE DIETRICH (France) rec­om­mends using a ther­mo-hydraulic dis­trib­u­tor for pip­ing its boil­ers (abbre­vi­at­ed- TGR). When using it, a con­stant flow of coolant through the heat­ing device is achieved.- regard­less of the val­ue of the water flow in the heat­ing cir­cuits, where this indi­ca­tor may be dif­fer­ent. ATas a result, it is pos­si­ble to achieve opti­mal bal­anced oper­a­tion of the boil­er and heat­ing cir­cuits.

It is impor­tant to note that the automa­tion of many man­u­fac­tur­ers allows you to con­trol the boil­er and cir­cuits in a vari­ety of boil­er room pip­ing schemes. How­ev­er, it is still bet­ter to entrust the search for the most suit­able option and the selec­tion of automa­tion to a spe­cial­ist.

Custom Functions

User func­tions pri­mar­i­ly include var­i­ous heat­ing pro­grams that allow you to adapt the heat­ing mode of the house to the rhythm of the life of its inhab­i­tants (sleep and wake­ful­ness, vaca­tions, shift work). Sim­i­lar­ly, pro­grams for hot water sup­ply are select­ed. If the user is not sat­is­fied with any of the stan­dard set offered by the man­u­fac­tur­er, you can cre­ate your own indi­vid­ual- both for heat­ing and for hot water sup­ply.

Good night mode. In almost all sys­tems, it is pos­si­ble to set the so-called night tem­per­a­ture. Sci­en­tists have proven that a sleep­ing per­son feels much more com­fort­able when the tem­per­a­ture in the room drops slight­ly (usu­al­ly by 4C) rel­a­tive to day­time room tem­per­a­ture (obvi­ous­ly, such a reac­tion was formed in humans dur­ing evo­lu­tion and reflects their adap­ta­tion to nat­ur­al tem­per­a­ture changes dur­ing the day and night). ATAt the same time, all ther­mal process­es are iner­tial, and if, for exam­ple, you set the start time of the dai­ly pro­gram at the time of your awak­en­ing, then, get­ting out of bed, you will feel some dis­com­fort due to the fact that the room has not had time to warm up after the night. To over­come this short­com­ing, many mod­ern con­trollers use a room pre-heat­ing mode (some­times called soft exit from night mode), accord­ing to which, a few hours before you get up, the tem­per­a­ture in the house begins to grad­u­al­ly increase. For exam­ple, con­trollers of the Diemat­ic fam­i­ly from DE DIETRICH or the Loga­mat­ic 4000 from BUDERUS have a sim­i­lar func­tion.

Low tem­per­a­ture sys­tems. At the present lev­el of devel­op­ment of heat­ing tech­nol­o­gy, there is a ten­den­cy to switch to low-tem­per­a­ture heat­ing mode. In oth­er words- to reduce the oper­at­ing tem­per­a­ture of heat­ing devices. This leads to a more com­fort­able per­cep­tion of ther­mal radi­a­tion by a per­son. The most impor­tant advan­tage of the low-tem­per­a­ture mode is the reduc­tion in fuel con­sump­tion. The instal­la­tion of automa­tion also allows the heat­ing sys­tem to be oper­at­ed in low-tem­per­a­ture mode.

By the way, here it is nec­es­sary to sep­a­rate such con­cepts as a low-tem­per­a­ture regime and a low-tem­per­a­ture boil­er. Low tem­per­a­ture boil­er- a device in which, due to the spe­cif­ic prop­er­ties of the mate­ri­als used in its man­u­fac­ture, or thanks to orig­i­nal tech­ni­cal solu­tions, it is pos­si­ble to main­tain the flow tem­per­a­ture at a lev­el of up to+40C (as, for exam­ple, with iroVIT VKO boil­ers from VAILLANT) and even less- before+thir­tyC (for boil­ers GT 210 from DE DIETRICH). In this case, the return line tem­per­a­ture is not reg­u­lat­ed at all.

Low-tem­per­a­ture heat­ing mode can be obtained with­out using a low-tem­per­a­ture boil­er, but this will require actu­a­tors- three- or four-way mix­ing valves with a ser­vo, which will be dis­cussed sep­a­rate­ly. ATin com­bi­na­tion with them, the heat­ing boil­er will oper­ate in a con­stant mode with a high tem­per­a­ture of the boil­er water, and the tem­per­a­ture in the heat­ing cir­cuits will depend on the degree of open­ing of the mix­ing valve, in which hot water is mixed with cold, return water.

Pri­or­i­ty sys­tem. Toone of the impor­tant func­tions of auto­mat­ic con­trol sys­tems is the abil­i­ty to orga­nize the man­age­ment of hot water sup­ply. It can be pri­or­i­ty, mixed and non-pri­or­i­ty. The most com­mon, pri­or­i­ty method is not with­out draw­backs: dur­ing the con­sump­tion of hot water, the heat­ing sys­tem is sim­ply turned off. This usu­al­ly does not cause the house to get cold­er. The mixed pri­or­i­ty method allows you to use for heat­ing the house that part of the boil­er’s pow­er that is not used for prepar­ing hot water. How­ev­er, with a lack of pow­er, the entire resource is spent on the lat­ter. BUTwhat is “non-pri­or­i­ty hot water sup­ply” can be under­stood from the name.

Dis­in­fec­tion. The soft­ware of many con­trol pan­els allows ther­mal dis­in­fec­tion of the boil­er once a week. This is done by rais­ing the tem­per­a­ture in the boil­er to 80C for 20–30 min­utes. This pro­ce­dure elim­i­nates the pos­si­ble pres­ence of legionel­losis bac­te­ria in the water, which caus­es pneu­mo­nia.

Frost pro­tec­tion. As soon as the out­side tem­per­a­ture drops below a cer­tain val­ue, the automa­tion will auto­mat­i­cal­ly start the boil­er and main­tain a cer­tain tem­per­a­ture in the heat­ing sys­tem to pre­vent it from defrost­ing.

“Smart House”. The lat­est mod­els of con­trollers pro­vide the pos­si­bil­i­ty of both remote access to them­selves via a tele­phone line or mobile com­mu­ni­ca­tion of the GSM stan­dard, and their inte­gra­tion into the “Smart Home” sys­tem. This option is avail­able for devices from heat­ing man­u­fac­tur­ers such as VIESSMANN, BUDERUS, DE DIETRICH andetc. Such devices allow you to con­trol the tem­per­a­ture in the house at a dis­tance and learn about any prob­lems in time.

Exec­u­tive devices

In order to orga­nize the oper­a­tion of sev­er­al heat­ing cir­cuits with dif­fer­ent, not always con­stant tem­per­a­tures, actu­a­tors are required. The most com­mon are three- and four-way mix­ing taps (mix­ers). The prin­ci­ple of their oper­a­tion is to reg­u­late the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in a sep­a­rate heat­ing cir­cuit by mix­ing water from the boil­er with water from the return line. Thus, the tem­per­a­ture of the heat car­ri­er in the flow line of the cir­cuit can vary from a min­i­mum, for exam­ple, equal to room tem­per­a­ture, to a max­i­mum, equal to the tem­per­a­ture of the boil­er water, but not high­er than it. The crane can be turned man­u­al­ly (butthen there is no need to talk about any automa­tion of con­trol!) Or with the help of a spe­cial engine- ser­vo dri­ve.

Usu­al­ly sev­er­al para­me­ters of ser­vos are indi­cat­ed in the data sheet. These are the mains volt­age, the max­i­mum torque gen­er­at­ed on the shaft, and the speed of the dri­ve. The last indi­ca­tor reflects the tran­si­tion time of the ser­vo from one extreme posi­tion to anoth­er. This is usu­al­ly between 60 and 300 sec­onds. It should be borne in mind that a short­er reac­tion time of the ser­vo­mo­tor does not at all guar­an­tee a rapid tem­per­a­ture change in the heat­ing cir­cuit. Recall that all ther­mal process­es are very iner­tial. It is for this rea­son that dri­ves with a speed of less than 60 sec­onds are usu­al­ly not used. Approx­i­mate­ly this amount of time is required for the sen­sor installed on the sup­ply pipe to respond to changes in the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant, the tem­per­a­ture of which can­not change instant­ly. ATThe ser­vice menu of many con­trol pan­els has a set­ting that takes into account the speed of the ser­vo. Tofor exam­ple, in the con­trol pan­els of the Loga­mat­ic 4000 series from BUDERUS with a cost of 1270 in the basic con­fig­u­ra­tion, the open­ing time of the three-way mix­ing valve is direct­ly set in sec­onds. This indi­ca­tor char­ac­ter­izes the response of a par­tic­u­lar ser­vo dri­ve and is reflect­ed in the data sheet.

Mix­ing taps and their ser­vo dri­ves are pro­duced by a num­ber of man­u­fac­tur­ers, for exam­ple ROCA, KOMEXTHERM, WOLF. The faucet body can be made of both cast iron and brass. Andboth mate­ri­als are well suit­ed for use in heat­ing sys­tems. Faucets of the Swedish com­pa­ny ESBE have proven them­selves per­fect­ly. 3‑way mix­ing valve diam­e­ter 32mm, man­u­fac­tured by this com­pa­ny, can be pur­chased for 60–70, the ser­vo dri­ve to it will cost already 150–170.

Service functions

Fresh air. To reduce the amount of harm­ful emis­sions into the air, mul­ti­func­tion­al automa­tion is able to opti­mize the oper­a­tion of the burn­er. ATIn the set­tings of mod­ern con­trollers, the min­i­mum burn­ing time is set ini­tial­ly. This excludes the oper­a­tion of the burn­er in the “start-stop” mode, which has a bad effect on both the resource of the equip­ment and the envi­ron­ment. The fact is that most harm­ful emis­sions are formed pre­cise­ly at the moment of igni­tion. This is due to incom­plete com­bus­tion of the fuel. The default min­i­mum burn­er time is usu­al­ly at least one minute. So, by pur­chas­ing a mod­ern man­age­ment sys­tem, you take care not only about your wal­let, but also about your health.

Smooth start. An inter­est­ing fea­ture is the so-called start unload­ing. ATthe moment of the first (cold) start-up of the boil­er or after its long down­time, increased con­den­sate for­ma­tion is usu­al­ly observed in the fur­nace. As a rule, this is a mix­ture of acids that adverse­ly affect the inter­nal ele­ments of the device. It is to elim­i­nate such an unpleas­ant phe­nom­e­non that many con­trol sys­tems allow start­ing unload­ing. Its essence lies in the fact that imme­di­ate­ly at the moment the heat­ing is turned on, the cir­cu­la­tion pumps are not yet work­ing, so the coolant in the boil­er quick­ly heats up to 40–60C. It is this range that is con­sid­ered safe in terms of the for­ma­tion of con­den­sate, which means that the time of the harm­ful effects of the lat­ter is sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced. After reach­ing the desired tem­per­a­ture, the heat­ing cir­cuit pumps are turned on and the sys­tem starts to work in the spec­i­fied mode.

“Coast” pumps. In many mod­ern sys­tems, you can set the “run-out” time of the pumps. This func­tion pre­vents pos­si­ble over­heat­ing of the boil­er. The fact is that in boil­ers (espe­cial­ly cast iron ones) there is an increase in the tem­per­a­ture of the boil­er water after the burn­er is turned off. This is due to the heat exchange occur­ring inside the met­al, direct­ed from the sur­face fac­ing the fur­nace, to the one that is washed by the coolant. The process will con­tin­ue until the tem­per­a­tures of the inner and out­er sur­faces are equal, and the boil­er may over­heat. That is why it is impor­tant not to stop the cir­cu­la­tion pumps imme­di­ate­ly, but to let them work for some more time.

An inter­est­ing way to solve this prob­lem was pro­posed by BUDERUS spe­cial­ists in the Loga­mat­ic 4000 series pan­els, cre­at­ing the “use of resid­ual heat” func­tion. When the coolant is heat­ed, the boil­er does not reach the max­i­mum tem­per­a­ture, but only a cer­tain cal­cu­lat­ed tem­per­a­ture, at which the automa­tion turns off the burn­er, and heat­ing con­tin­ues due to the effect described above. The released ener­gy, of course, is not wast­ed, but is used to pro­duce hot water in the boil­er.

Sum­mer Main­te­nance. Many con­trol sys­tems have a pump enable func­tion. It is imple­ment­ed, for exam­ple, in E6 series con­trollers from KROMSCHRODER (cost- 382), in con­trol pan­els Vitotron­ic from VIESSMANN, Digi Com­fort from WOLF and many oth­ers. A cir­cu­la­tion pump that has not been work­ing for a long time can jam, which is why in the sum­mer, dur­ing a long peri­od of inac­tiv­i­ty, it is advis­able to turn them on for a while.

Refurbishment of boilers

After read­ing our arti­cle, some­one will still have time to instruct the sup­pli­ers of the heat­ing sys­tem to use a boil­er with mod­ern automa­tion. BUTwhat about some­one who already has a reli­able import­ed boil­er with a stan­dard con­trol pan­el or a domes­tic device with­out a con­trol sys­tem at all, but wants to equip it with mod­ern weath­er-com­pen­sat­ed automa­tion?

First of all, I would like to advise you to con­tact a com­pa­ny that sells boil­ers of your brand. Almost every major man­u­fac­tur­er of heat­ing equip­ment has such automa­tion in its assort­ment. But if one can­not be found, or if its para­me­ters do not allow solv­ing the tasks set by the cus­tomer, one has to select a sys­tem from anoth­er man­u­fac­tur­er.

There are two options for retro­fitting boil­ers. The first involves auto­mat­ic con­trol of all sys­tem com­po­nents. This achieves a high degree of automa­tion and a sig­nif­i­cant reduc­tion in fuel con­sump­tion. ToUnfor­tu­nate­ly, it is not always pos­si­ble to equip boil­ers accord­ing to the first option. Such mod­ern­iza­tion of sys­tems with an atmos­pher­ic burn­er is dif­fi­cult. For exam­ple, pop­u­lar domes­tic AGV boil­ers are equipped with a burn­er with an “eter­nal” flame ignit­ed man­u­al­ly, which makes it impos­si­ble to auto­mate the com­bus­tion process. For such cas­es, a sec­ond equip­ment option is pro­vid­ed, which involves main­tain­ing the tem­per­a­ture in the heat­ing cir­cuits auto­mat­i­cal­ly using actu­a­tors. With this option, the boil­er will work with a con­stant, usu­al­ly max­i­mum, flow tem­per­a­ture and, as it were, “live its own life”, and the heat­ing cir­cuits con­trolled by the con­troller- his.

The pro­duced con­trollers are designed for instal­la­tion on all types of boil­er equip­ment equipped with both blast and atmos­pher­ic burn­ers. Of course, it should be not­ed that it is unlike­ly that it will be pos­si­ble to re-equip the boil­er on your own, such work must be entrust­ed to a spe­cial­ist from a reli­able com­pa­ny with expe­ri­ence in such upgrades.

ATcon­clu­sion, I would like to note that the acqui­si­tion of mod­ern automa­tion- this is not a trib­ute to fash­ion, but a prof­itable invest­ment of mon­ey. For exam­ple, accord­ing to the com­pa­ny HydroMON­TAZH, on liq­uid fuel boil­ers, mod­ern automa­tion allows you to save up to 30% of fuel and will pay off in just 1–3 years, espe­cial­ly at the cur­rent rate of growth in prices for basic ener­gy sources.

The edi­tors would like to thank HydroMON­TAZH, RUSKLIMAT, TERMOSTUDIA, STK-GROUP, the BUDERUS rep­re­sen­ta­tive office for their help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

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