Choosing the right electric boiler power for an apartment or house

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Before buy­ing any heat­ing equip­ment, each client spec­i­fies the main char­ac­ter­is­tics of the device and how they meet the required require­ments. The main such indi­ca­tor can be safe­ly called the pow­er of the elec­tric boil­er. Know­ing it, every­one will imme­di­ate­ly deter­mine whether the mod­el is suit­able for his needs or not. In order to oper­ate at least with approx­i­mate fig­ures, you need to cal­cu­late them in advance. It is also impor­tant to under­stand what fac­tors they depend on.

Power selection depending on the quadrature

The sim­plest method is to cal­cu­late the required pow­er of an elec­tric boil­er, based on the area of ​​u200bu200bthe room that is planned to be heat­ed. So, in areas where the cli­mate is mild, it is nec­es­sary to use a pro­por­tion of 100 W per 1 sq. m. In the south­ern or north­ern regions, the indi­ca­tors may dif­fer by 20 units.

Of course, this approach is not cor­rect. But in order not to freeze in win­ter, it is bet­ter to buy an instal­la­tion with high per­for­mance. How to cor­rect­ly cal­cu­late the pow­er of an elec­tric boil­er, hav­ing only an area? Very sim­ple. True, for this it is still nec­es­sary to know the spe­cif­ic coef­fi­cient in order to cal­cu­late the region. For warm lat­i­tudes, it is 0.7. Aver­ages use 1.2. And north­ern — 2.

Impor­tant! Be sure to remem­ber that in case of an incor­rect def­i­n­i­tion, excess elec­tric­i­ty will be con­sumed. This can sig­nif­i­cant­ly increase oper­at­ing costs.

To cal­cu­late the pow­er of the instal­la­tion, you need to sub­sti­tute the val­ues ​​u200bu200bin the for­mu­la: W u003d S * K, where

W is the cal­cu­lat­ed para­me­ter of the equip­ment;

S is the area of ​​the room to be heat­ed;

K is the coef­fi­cient.

The approach is not ide­al. But at the same time, he takes into account the real cli­mat­ic con­di­tions, which direct­ly affect the rate of cool­ing of the build­ing.
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Often there are sit­u­a­tions when the own­er of a house or apart­ment has installed a high-capac­i­ty boil­er. And yet the room is still cold. Despite the fact that the use of what equip­ment is pro­vid­ed — an elec­tric or gas boil­er.

First of all, it depends on the impos­si­bil­i­ty of con­tain­ing the ener­gy inside the struc­ture.

Power selection depending on heat loss

So, it is already clear that the pow­er of the elec­tric boil­er is select­ed, not only based on the exist­ing quad­ra­ture. Since this indi­ca­tor does not cov­er the sit­u­a­tion com­plete­ly, for which the own­er of the house or apart­ment may pay in the future.

When choos­ing a unit, it is nec­es­sary to take into account heat loss­es. So, for exam­ple, if a build­ing has obvi­ous ele­ments through which ener­gy escapes — panoram­ic win­dows are installed, there are gaps in the doors — it will be dif­fi­cult to heat such a struc­ture, regard­less of the instal­la­tion. Espe­cial­ly if low pow­er elec­tric boil­ers are used.

It is impor­tant to under­stand that the unit must gen­er­ate more heat than the room los­es. At the same time, it must be borne in mind that ener­gy leaves the house con­stant­ly, which means that the equip­ment will always work. This is def­i­nite­ly unac­cept­able. Any heater must rest. There­fore, it is nec­es­sary to cal­cu­late the pow­er of the boil­er with a mar­gin. The thing is that with con­stant work, the instal­la­tion will quick­ly fail. And this is quite unpleas­ant, espe­cial­ly when it’s cold out­side.

Before buy­ing a boil­er, you need to deter­mine the heat loss of the build­ing, as this will direct­ly affect the resource con­sumed, or rather, its quan­ti­ty. You will need the fol­low­ing infor­ma­tion:

  • the mate­r­i­al from which the walls and ceil­ings are made;
  • their thick­ness;
  • win­dow area and num­ber of cham­bers.

All raw mate­ri­als have dif­fer­ent ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty. It can be seen in the cor­re­spond­ing table:


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In order to deter­mine the num­bers we need, it is nec­es­sary to take the thick­ness and divide by the ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty coef­fi­cient of a par­tic­u­lar raw mate­r­i­al. Each com­po­nent is cal­cu­lat­ed sep­a­rate­ly. After that, all the num­bers must be added.

Then, as we find out the indi­vid­ual ele­ments, the cal­cu­lat­ed over­all indi­ca­tor is tak­en. To do this, you need to mul­ti­ply the area of ​​u200bu200bthe heat­ed room by the tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence in the house and on the street. The result obtained is divid­ed by the total ther­mal resis­tance. In this case, the delta is tak­en for max­i­mum per­for­mance.

This approach will allow you to cal­cu­late the most accu­rate para­me­ters for the equip­ment. There­fore, do not be lazy once again, but use this par­tic­u­lar method. Of course, you need to spend much more time on it, but the result will be as close to the truth as pos­si­ble.

Power selection depending on the coolant

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In order to choose the right elec­tric boil­er, it is also impor­tant to remem­ber the coolant with which the heat­ing will be car­ried out. To cal­cu­late we need to know:

  • its vol­ume;
  • what kind of liq­uid;
  • wiring dia­gram.

It should be not­ed that the last fac­tor can be called insignif­i­cant. Nev­er­the­less, he is still able to slight­ly change the over­all pic­ture.

But the first — vol­ume — is an impor­tant para­me­ter. For exam­ple, when cal­cu­lat­ing the most accu­rate pow­er that an elec­tric boil­er should have, the heat accu­mu­la­tor was not tak­en into account. And such a tank con­tains a lot of liq­uid — an aver­age of at least 300 liters. As a result, the sys­tem will not per­form well.

Impor­tant! To heat one liter of water, an elec­tric boil­er con­sumes 0.001 kW of ener­gy per hour.

The unit rais­es the liq­uid tem­per­a­ture to a user-set lev­el. Let’s take 40 degrees as an exam­ple. So, in the case of the first start-up, the coolant will warm up to a max­i­mum of 20 units Cel­sius. After reach­ing the set goal, the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion will turn off auto­mat­i­cal­ly. Or an exter­nal sen­sor will do it. First of all, it depends on the “stuff­ing” and the mod­el.

It should be under­stood that if there is a lot of liq­uid in the sys­tem along with a heat accu­mu­la­tor and at the same time the equip­ment per­for­mance is low, it will always have to work. And this is unac­cept­able. Be sure to know that the use of antifreeze in the heat­ing sys­tem also cre­ates unnec­es­sary work for the unit. After all, such mix­tures have a low­er ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty. And this will increase ener­gy con­sump­tion and dura­tion of work, which is not a pos­i­tive thing.

When cal­cu­lat­ing the pow­er of the boil­er, it is nec­es­sary to take into account heat loss­es. In addi­tion, it is nec­es­sary to check with a spe­cial­ist whether this or that mod­el can cope with the avail­able amount of coolant. Of course, all cal­cu­la­tions can be car­ried out quick­ly and as sim­ply as pos­si­ble, but then prob­lems will most like­ly appear dur­ing the use of the unit.

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