Design radiators: we heat the apartment beautifully

Fol­low­ing the proverb “They meet by clothes …”, let’s start the review with design­er mod­els of radi­a­tors and heat­ed tow­el rails for bath­rooms. This seg­ment tra­di­tion­al­ly presents a large num­ber of Arbo­nia, Ker­mi, Cor­di­vari, Zehn­der prod­ucts of a wide vari­ety of shapes and col­ors, more­over, made of var­i­ous mate­ri­als. Mod­els with a stair­case-shaped body are pop­u­lar — a pair of ver­ti­cal pro­files on the sides, and between them a num­ber of hor­i­zon­tal pipes, as, for exam­ple, in the mod­els of the Basic-50 (Ker­mi) or Toga (Zehn­der) series. On such a radi­a­tor, you can hang wet tow­els or clothes. A sim­i­lar design option — bear­ing ver­ti­cal pro­files are locat­ed in the cen­ter, and hor­i­zon­tal pipes extend side­ways from them, like branch­es from a tree trunk (Yuc­ca (Zehn­der), Bab­u­la (Cor­di­vari), Zeta (Kimrsky heat­ing equip­ment plant) lines. Pipes can be round in cross sec­tion or flat, as in the Giu­ly (Cor­di­vari) series, locat­ed strict­ly sym­met­ri­cal­ly with respect to ver­ti­cal pro­files or placed in one direc­tion — there are many vari­eties of design radi­a­tors.

Much more inter­est­ing, how­ev­er, are tech­ni­cal inno­va­tions in “ordi­nary”, non-design­er devices. The largest num­ber of inno­va­tions in this seg­ment relates to the improve­ment of the geom­e­try of the hull so that it is bet­ter flowed around by air cur­rents. So, in the Rev­o­lu­tion (Roy­al Ther­mo) mod­els, the ribs have a wavy shape, so that the air does not stag­nate, its cir­cu­la­tion improves, and heat trans­fer increas­es by 5%. The Indi­go (Roy­al Ther­mo) mod­els fea­ture reverse con­vec­tion. The design of the upper part of the radi­a­tor forms a reverse flow of hot air, effec­tive­ly cut­ting off the cold from the win­dows. Improved and inter­nal details. For exam­ple, Ker­mi steel radi­a­tors use therm-x2 tech­nol­o­gy, which allows the coolant to flow sequen­tial­ly through the radi­a­tor pan­els. Thanks to this tech­nol­o­gy, effi­cien­cy is achieved, which until now was con­sid­ered unat­tain­able in the seg­ment of steel pan­el radi­a­tors. New types of radi­a­tors are also appear­ing, such as Ker­mi pan­el mod­els with an instal­la­tion height of 200 mm, which are suit­able for panoram­ic struc­tures, as well as veran­das, con­ser­va­to­ries and oth­er rooms with large win­dows or low win­dow sills.

Decorative radiators are distinguished by a variety of shapes and are quite capable of becoming a key element of the interior of the room.

Anoth­er improve­ment was pro­posed by Rifar man­u­fac­tur­ers. Their sec­tion­al radi­a­tors BASE 200/350/500, ALUM 350/500, FORZA 350/500, ALP 500 can be com­plet­ed with a tow­el hold­er. It turns out a com­fort­able and neat design.

We count the number of sections

With a sim­pli­fied heat engi­neer­ing cal­cu­la­tion, the heat con­sump­tion is 100 W per square meter of room area. To find out the required num­ber of radi­a­tor sec­tions, mul­ti­ply the footage of the room by 100 and divide the result by the amount of heat trans­fer from one sec­tion, depend­ing on the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant (it is indi­cat­ed in the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the radi­a­tor). So, if the area of ​​​​the room is 16 m², and the heat trans­fer of the sec­tion is 160 W, then the num­ber of sec­tions is 16 × 100/160 = 10 pieces. This cal­cu­la­tion method is not accu­rate, as it does not take into account a num­ber of para­me­ters: for exam­ple, the height of the ceil­ings or the way the radi­a­tor is con­nect­ed. There­fore, it is nec­es­sary that the final cal­cu­la­tion is per­formed by a spe­cial­ist.

Landmarks in the world of radiators

How to deter­mine which mod­els are suit­able for your house or apart­ment? First of all, they must meet a num­ber of require­ments that depend on the design of the heat­ing sys­tem: the type and pres­sure of the coolant, the con­nec­tion dia­grams for radi­a­tors
to the pipeline.

Radiators give off heat largely due to radiation, so it is not recommended to cover their front surface with decorative elements

The oper­at­ing pres­sure in the sys­tem can range from 1–3 atm in pri­vate cot­tages and up to 8–10 atm in apart­ment build­ings. In the lat­ter case, you need to be espe­cial­ly care­ful when choos­ing radi­a­tors, it is bet­ter to pur­chase mod­els with a mar­gin of safe­ty. For exam­ple, steel design radi­a­tors of the Kimrsky plant of ther­mal equip­ment are designed for a work­ing pres­sure of 15 atm and a test pres­sure of 22.5 atm, high-pres­sure Arbo­nia tubu­lar col­lec­tors are designed for a work­ing pres­sure of 16 atm, and Mono­lit (Rifar) series mod­els are designed for a work­ing pres­sure of 100 atm .

The coolant can be not only water, but also a mix­ture of var­i­ous liq­uids with a low freez­ing point (eth­yl­ene gly­col, propy­lene gly­col, etc.). Some of them can react chem­i­cal­ly with alu­minum and cause it to cor­rode. For low-freez­ing coolants, it is bet­ter to choose radi­a­tors in which liq­uid con­tact with alu­minum is exclud­ed. In this case, mod­els with both a steel case and a bimetal­lic one are suit­able, if the man­u­fac­tur­er indi­cates that the prod­ucts can be used with any chem­i­cal­ly aggres­sive coolants (for such bimetal­lic radi­a­tors, the col­lec­tor is com­plete­ly made of steel, so they are not infe­ri­or to all-steel mod­els in terms of dura­bil­i­ty).

The radi­a­tor con­nec­tion scheme deter­mines how pipelines sup­ply­ing and dis­charg­ing coolant are con­nect­ed to the device. Three schemes are usu­al­ly used: lat­er­al, diag­o­nal (hot coolant is sup­plied through the upper pipe in both cas­es) and low­er (both pipes are con­nect­ed at the bot­tom of the radi­a­tor). The low­er con­nec­tion option is less effi­cient from the point of view of heat engi­neer­ing (by about 15–20%). How­ev­er, the bot­tom con­nec­tion is more aes­thet­i­cal­ly pleas­ing. Both uni­ver­sal mod­els of radi­a­tors and those designed for only one con­nec­tion scheme (side or bot­tom) are pro­duced.

An important advantage of convectors is that they can be placed in a floor or wall niche without significant damage to the quality of work.

Are the design and mate­r­i­al of the radi­a­tor impor­tant? Until recent­ly, it was believed that steel or cast-iron tubu­lar appli­ances are opti­mal for urban apart­ment build­ings, and, say, pan­el or sec­tion­al alu­minum ones are not suit­able. But with the advent of radi­a­tors made using mod­ern tech­nolo­gies (for exam­ple, con­tact-butt weld­ing is used instead of the clas­sic inter­sec­tion­al assem­bly using a nip­ple and a gas­ket), this opin­ion is out­dat­ed. If the mod­el is designed for high work­ing pres­sure, then it can be used in urban envi­ron­ments, regard­less of the type of con­struc­tion. The same can be said about the mate­r­i­al.

Heat is provided by a convector

Con­vec­tors are used for floor instal­la­tion. In these devices relat­ed to radi­a­tors, the main heat trans­fer occurs due to the trans­fer of heat by hot air flows (con­vec­tion), while in the first, ther­mal radi­a­tion is added to con­vec­tion. By design, con­vec­tors are tubes with fins. A coolant flows through the pipes and heats the fins. A heat­ed air stream pass­es through them. The devices are usu­al­ly equipped with a pro­tec­tive cov­er. The main advan­tage of con­vec­tors is more effi­cient heat trans­fer (there­fore, the devices are com­pact), and the dis­ad­van­tage is that unwant­ed air flows (drafts) can form dur­ing oper­a­tion.

Go to the floor?

In most rooms, heat­ing radi­a­tors are tra­di­tion­al­ly installed in the win­dow sill. With this place­ment, good heat trans­fer is ensured, espe­cial­ly with an open win­dow, when cold street air is cut off by an ascend­ing warm stream. How­ev­er, today, dou­ble-glazed win­dows with good ther­mal insu­la­tion are main­ly used, with­out the influx of cold air from the win­dow, so the need to install radi­a­tors under the win­dows is no longer so obvi­ous. Heat­ing appli­ances are increas­ing­ly placed on the walls, in the floor and even inside the walls of the premis­es. More­over, if the lat­ter option (for exam­ple, sys­tem INSIDE (REGULUS) prod­ucts is still con­sid­ered exot­ic, then floor con­vec­tors have become quite wide­spread.
Like con­ven­tion­al con­vec­tors, floor mod­els are tubes with lamel­lar fins, placed in a long and nar­row met­al cas­ing from 9 to 20 cm high (depend­ing on the mod­el). From above the cas­ing is closed by a lat­tice. The device is mount­ed dur­ing the lay­ing of the sub­floor in such a way that sub­se­quent­ly the grate is flush with the floor cov­er­ing.

There are mod­els of floor con­vec­tors with both nat­ur­al con­vec­tion and forced con­vec­tion, which uses a built-in fan. Sys­tems of the first type are less wide­spread, since the design of floor con­vec­tors is not very con­ve­nient for nat­ur­al air exchange and they are less effi­cient in terms of heat trans­fer.

The main advan­tage of under­floor appli­ances is that radi­a­tors take up absolute­ly no usable space in the room. As they say, more space and less dust. The device can be mount­ed in any part of the room where there will be no car­pet­ing, fur­ni­ture and oth­er inte­ri­or items.

There are sev­er­al signs by which you can deter­mine the qual­i­ty of heat­ing radi­a­tors. These include the weight that affects the heat trans­fer of devices, met­al alloy, paint mate­r­i­al, the thick­ness of the man­u­fac­tured sec­tion. Of course, a non-spe­cial­ist is unlike­ly to be able to assess the qual­i­ty of the alloy. All reli­able infor­ma­tion about the char­ac­ter­is­tics of radi­a­tors and cer­tifi­cates of com­pli­ance with inter­na­tion­al stan­dards are indi­cat­ed in the tech­ni­cal data sheet of the prod­uct. But, unfor­tu­nate­ly, today there is no manda­to­ry state cer­ti­fi­ca­tion of radi­a­tors. Some man­u­fac­tur­ers receive cer­tifi­cates from dubi­ous orga­ni­za­tions that do not guar­an­tee the accu­ra­cy of the declared data. Buy­ing their prod­ucts is risky. More reli­able are domes­tic radi­a­tors cer­ti­fied accord­ing to GOST, for exam­ple, prod­ucts that are man­u­fac­tured under the Roy­al Ther­mo trade­mark, or accord­ing to ISO 9001, when it comes to prod­ucts made in Europe.

Iri­na Gold­enko­va

Object Sales Man­ag­er at Roy­al Ther­mo

Floor convectors

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