Wastewater from a private house in the absence of access to the central sewer can not only be collected in a cesspool, but also disposed of using septic tanks.
These devices are available in different sizes and shapes.
But they can be made independently, for example, by taking already used containers — eurocubes.
What are eurocubes?
Eurocubes are cubic containers made of plastic and placed in a frame in the form of a metal mesh made of galvanized steel. The most common volume of such containers is 1 m³.
The primary purpose of these tanks is the transportation of various liquids, including technical ones: sodium hypochlorite, acids, alkalis, water, etc. In addition, such plastic containers are used a second time for various purposes, for example, for septic tanks. This is due to the positive properties of the macrocubes.
Advantages and disadvantages
Cubic plastic tanks — An excellent option for arranging local sewage due to a number of characteristics:
- light weight, which contributes to simple installation without the use of special equipment;
- low price;
- the possibility of using used products, which further reduces the cost of the finished structure;
- the stability of the walls of the eurocube to the effects of aggressive environments, which is especially important when arranging sewerage;
- the speed of preparing the tank for installation;
- the presence of a metal frame that reduces soil pressure and is durable, as it is made of galvanized steel;
- container tightness;
- ease of operation and maintenance.
But when choosing such tanks for the construction of a septic tank, it is necessary to take into account their disadvantages.
- Due to the lightness of plastic, the container can float under the action of groundwater. To avoid this, you need to prepare a concrete base to which to fix the Eurocube.
- The metal frame does not always cope with the pressure of the soil, which ultimately leads to deformation of the container. The prevention of this is to fill the space between the containers and the walls of the pit with concrete.
Otherwise, the septic tank, with a simple device and principle of operation, copes with its task quite effectively.
How does a septic tank from Eurocubes work and work?
To equip the wastewater treatment system, 2 containers are used, connected to each other by an overflow system.
- Waste water from the house enters the first tank. This is where large particles are deposited.
- Partially clarified water passes into the second compartment. It continues the process of sedimentation, as well as anaerobic decomposition of pollution.
- From the second container, water enters the soil post-treatment system. It can be filtration or absorption fields, a filtration well.
The processes taking place in the tanks themselves do not provide absolute purification. Therefore, it is necessary to equip soil filtration, after passing through which the effluents become safe for the environment. This is one of the nuances of arranging such wastewater treatment plants.
What should be considered during installation?
Both during the preparatory measures and during the installation of such a cleaning device, several general and particular rules must be observed.
- Any local waste disposal station must be located on the site in accordance with the regulations. The distance from the house to the septic tank should be at least 5 m, from drinking underground sources — 50 m, from surface water — 30 m, from trees and shrubs — 3 m.
- In addition to sanitary standards, it is also necessary to take into account the possibility of access to the station of a sewage truck to pump out the resulting sediment.
- When building a cesspool, care must be taken to install a ventilation riser.
- It is better to install containers on a concrete base, which has metal eyelets for attaching tanks with cables. This will save the septic tank from surfacing.
- When preparing the pit and trenches for pipes, the freezing point of the soil must be taken into account. Pipelines and their inlets must pass below this mark.
- Tanks are recommended to be additionally insulated.
- When choosing tanks, it must be taken into account that the tanks should not be as full as possible, otherwise cracks may occur in the walls under pressure.
In connection with the last factor, it is important to correctly calculate the volume of the septic tank.
Calculation of the volume of tanks for a cesspool
Eurocubes are standardly produced in a volume of 1000 liters, but there are containers of 800 and 1200 liters.
To determine which tanks are right for you, you need to make standard calculations.
- The required daily output can be determined by multiplying 200 liters by the number of residents.
- To calculate the required volume of chambers, the resulting performance value must be multiplied by 3, because the drains are on average three days in the septic tank.
- It is recommended to increase the volume by 10–20% to take into account the possible arrival of guests.
This is how the calculations of the size of a septic tank look like for a house in which there is no sanitary equipment that produces large volumes of effluents: baths, dishwashers and washing machines. But in practice, for a family of three, two tanks of 0.8 m³ are usually enough.
After the calculations, you can proceed to the purchase of materials and equipment.
What is needed to install a sewer system?
In addition to Eurocubes, for installing the system, you need to buy other material, as well as prepare tools.
- Plastic sewer pipes with a diameter of 100–110 mm for leading drains to a septic tank and connecting treatment stages, as well as a ventilation riser.
- Fittings for plastic pipes.
- Cement, sand, gravel for concrete preparation.
- Sand for filling the bottom of trenches
- Pipe cutting tools.
- Joint sealant.
- Insulation for wells, and, if necessary, for pipes.
- Fittings for connecting cubes.
You will also need materials for soil treatment equipment. The set will depend on which filter stage option you choose.
How to make a septic tank from eurocubes with your own hands: step-by-step installation instructions
After choosing a place for installing a septic tank and purchasing materials and tools, you can begin the installation process.
First you need to prepare trenches for pipes and a foundation pit for Eurocubes. The pit should be approximately 30–40 cm larger in width and length than the dimensions of the tanks. When deepening, it is necessary to take into account the concrete base and the insulation layer, as well as the zero temperature point.
After digging the pit, the bottom is leveled and poured with concrete. The concrete layer must also be even. At the same stage, it is necessary to install metal loops for attaching containers.
When digging and preparing trenches, it must also be taken into account that the pipes will run deeper than the zero temperature of the soil and pass at a slope of 2–3 cm per linear meter. At the bottom of the ditches, before laying the pipeline, a sand cushion is poured with observance of the slope.
While the concrete base dries, you can start preparing the eurocubes for installation.
Before installation, the tanks are connected together using fittings welded to metal frames. But pre-produce another preparation of cubes.
- Additionally, the factory drain holes of the tanks are covered with sealant.
- In the side walls of each container, holes are made for inlet and outlet pipes with a slope. This means that each subsequent hole in the path of flow must be lower than the previous one. Here it should be taken into account that the second container will be installed deeper than the first by 0.2 m, which will allow better use of its volume.
- A tee must be placed in each tank. If the fitting does not fit in the factory neck of the cube, then it must be temporarily enlarged. As a result, an inlet pipe will need to be connected to one hole of the tee. From the opposite opening of the fitting — the drains will merge into the compartment, and the third — should be directed to the upper edge of the tank for connection to the ventilation riser.
- They connect the pipes with a tee and with Eurocubes, and also install a branch pipe for an outlet pipe going to the soil aftertreatment.
- Treat joints with sealant.
- Repair and seal the top hole that was used to insert the tee.
Now you can strengthen the connection of the tanks with each other using fittings. Tanks are ready for installation.
After the completion of the preparatory work, they begin to install tanks and lay pipes.
- The septic tank is carefully lowered to the bottom of the pit.
- Secure the tanks to the concrete base with slings.
- Pipes are laid in trenches, checking the slope.
- Connect the pipelines to the septic tank, install a ventilation riser.
- Close the containers on all sides with insulation, for example, foam sheets.
- Fill the compartments with water.
- Gradually and carefully fill the space between the septic tank and the walls of the pit with concrete.
- Fall asleep pipes and a septic tank from above.
It will also be necessary to equip a soil filtration stage at the installation stage, and pour biological preparations into the septic tank. The wastewater disposal system is ready for operation.
Video on how to make a septic tank from eurocubes:
The sewage treatment station does not require frequent calls for a sewage truck, but once a year it is necessary to pump out the sediment from the tanks, the level of which can be checked with a wooden stick.
It is also necessary to periodically add preparations of microorganisms. Especially if there is a smell around the septic tank.
Otherwise, this inexpensive design does not require any care.
The cost of a septic tank from eurocubes
Cheapness is the main trump card of the waste disposal system, made of eurocubes. A used tank in good condition costs about 40–50$. You must also add shipping to the total amount, which depends on the distance of your site from the city and supplier, as well as the price for sand, cement, sealant, gravel and plastic pipes.
For digging a pit, you can hire equipment, which will increase the installation price, but save money.
As a result, you will get a good and inexpensive waste disposal device, which is especially suitable for small country houses.