Electrician in the bathroom: safety

Electrician in the bathroom: safety
Electrician in the bathroom: safety

Electrician in the bathroom: safetyElec­tri­cal instal­la­tion prod­uct series Aqua Top from ELSO (Ger­many)
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyInstalling a rub­ber seal in sock­ets and switch­es allows you to achieve degree of pro­tec­tion IP44 (GIRA, Event series)
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyIP65 spot­light from XENON )

Electrician in the bathroom: safety

Electrician in the bathroom: safetyElec­tri­cal instal­la­tion prod­ucts of the Hydra series for out­door instal­la­tion from PRODAX (Hun­gary)
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyWhen a leak occurs, the bal­ance of cur­rents pass­ing through the phase and neu­tral wires is dis­turbed. The resid­ual cur­rent device (RCD) mon­i­tors the vio­la­tion of this bal­ance and opens the cir­cuit
Electrician in the bathroom: safety“UZO plug” from “ASTRO-UZO”. Three-phase RCD of the Mul­ti series9 for leak­age cur­rent 30mA
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyPlexo Series Elec­tri­cal Instal­la­tion Prod­ucts55s (IP55) from LEGRAND
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyResid­ual cur­rent device “Astro*UZO” for leak­age cur­rent 10mA
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyTwo-pole (sin­gle-phase net­work 220C) resid­ual cur­rent device of the “Domovoy” series for a leak­age cur­rent of 10mA from SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyFour-pole resid­ual cur­rent device (three-phase net­work 380C), show­ing the leak­age cur­rent in the pro­tect­ed elec­tri­cal cir­cuit at a giv­en time from “ASTRO-UZO”
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyFour-pole resid­ual cur­rent device (three-phase net­work 380C) for leak­age cur­rent 30mA from SIEMENSElectrician in the bathroom: safetyThe resid­ual cur­rent device mon­i­tors the cur­rent leak­age to the ground and auto­mat­i­cal­ly dis­con­nects all phas­es of the emer­gency sec­tion of the elec­tri­cal cir­cuit
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyTyp­i­cal apart­ment pow­er sup­ply scheme using resid­ual cur­rent devices.
1. Guard body
2. Con­nect­ing ele­ment of zero work­ing con­duc­tors
3. Con­nect­ing ele­ment of zero pro­tec­tive con­duc­tors
4. RCD for leak­age cur­rent 30 mA
5. Cir­cuit break­ers
6. RCD for leak­age cur­rent 10mA
7. Elec­tric­i­ty meter
8. Group cir­cuit lines
Electrician in the bathroom: safetyRCDs of the Mul­ti series9 (30)mA) from SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC

Each of us, both at work and at home, is sur­round­ed by many elec­tri­cal appli­ances. In the kitchen, we habit­u­al­ly use an elec­tric stove, a ket­tle and a dish­wash­er (the refrig­er­a­tor does not turn off at all), in the bath­room- elec­tric shaver, hair dry­er and wash­ing machine. We use it with­out even think­ing about how safe our com­mu­ni­ca­tion with these “au pairs” is. BUTto pon­der, at least some­times, does not inter­fere.

With regard to the dan­ger of elec­tric shock to peo­ple, all premis­es are divid­ed into three types: not rep­re­sent­ing increased dan­ger, with increased dan­ger and espe­cial­ly dan­ger­ous. Topremis­es with increased dan­ger are those in which at least one of the fol­low­ing con­di­tions is present: damp­ness or con­duc­tive dust; con­duc­tive floors; high tem­per­a­ture or the pos­si­bil­i­ty of a per­son simul­ta­ne­ous­ly touch­ing the met­al struc­tures of build­ings con­nect­ed to the ground, tech­no­log­i­cal devices, mech­a­nisms, etc.on the one hand, and met­al cas­es of elec­tri­cal equip­ment- Withanoth­er. Toespe­cial­ly dan­ger­ous are “espe­cial­ly damp rooms- humid­i­ty is close to 100%” and rooms in which there are two or more fac­tors at the same time, cor­re­spond­ing to increased dan­ger. If the room does not have the con­di­tions list­ed above, it does not pose an increased dan­ger.

Elec­tric cur­rent, flow­ing through the human body, pro­duces ther­mal, chem­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal effects. The chem­i­cal influ­ence of elec­tric cur­rent is man­i­fest­ed in the elec­trol­y­sis of blood and oth­er solu­tions con­tained in the body, which entails a change in their chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and, con­se­quent­ly, a vio­la­tion of their func­tions. The bio­log­i­cal effect of the cur­rent is indi­vid­ual for each per­son. It man­i­fests itself in a dan­ger­ous “exci­ta­tion” of mus­cle tis­sues, the con­se­quences of which depend on the mag­ni­tude of the cur­rent that has passed through the body and the dura­tion of its expo­sure.

  • Cur­rent up to 5 mA is almost not felt by a per­son.
  • Cur­rent up to 10 mA is felt, but has no dan­ger­ous con­se­quences.
  • A cur­rent of 200 mA with a short expo­sure does not cause organ­ic dam­age, but with expo­sure longer than 2c can pro­voke a reflex con­trac­tion of the mus­cles in direct con­tact with the cur­rent source (the phe­nom­e­non of “not let­ting go of the wire”), dif­fi­cul­ty breath­ing, con­vul­sions and even mus­cle paral­y­sis, as well as heart fib­ril­la­tion.
  • A cur­rent of more than 500 mA, even with a short-term effect on a per­son, leads to the most unfor­tu­nate con­se­quences.- paral­y­sis of the chest mus­cles (res­pi­ra­to­ry arrest) or heart mus­cles and, con­se­quent­ly, death. Both types of paral­y­sis can be either the result of a direct pas­sage of cur­rent through the chest area, or reflex- the response of the ner­vous sys­tem to the flow of cur­rent through any area of ​​the body.

Why are we? Yes, to the fact that mod­ern bath­rooms should be clas­si­fied as espe­cial­ly dan­ger­ous rooms. Which makes you think. This arti­cle is devot­ed to talk­ing about how to make your stay in this room safe. We will imme­di­ate­ly warn you that we will use the PUE in it- Rules for the instal­la­tion of elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions (edi­tion 7th, chap­ter1.7), which basi­cal­ly set out the safe­ty require­ments for the oper­a­tion of elec­tri­cal net­works and elec­tri­cal equip­ment in res­i­den­tial and pub­lic build­ings. This doc­u­ment is writ­ten in a dry (if not offi­cial) lan­guage, because it is intend­ed for spe­cial­ists. Ordi­nary cit­i­zens nev­er read it (andit’s a pity!). How­ev­er, we will try to do it. And through­out the con­ver­sa­tion about the elec­tri­cal safe­ty of the bath­room, we will refer to this fun­da­men­tal doc­u­ment, explain­ing (withwith the help of pro­fes­sion­als) its con­tents.

What threatens us in the bathroom?

In the dry lan­guage of the PUE, “the main source of dan­ger in the bath­room is the appear­ance of volt­age on the met­al parts of lamps, elec­tri­cal appli­ances and pipelines when the insu­la­tion of elec­tri­cal wires is dam­aged due to cur­rent leak­age through the insu­la­tion of elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions and wires (cables). Leak­age can be caused by dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the insu­la­tion due to mois­ture, heat, mechan­i­cal stress, etc.” In oth­er words, an elec­tri­cal appli­ance with faulty elec­tri­cal insu­la­tion is capa­ble of shock­ing a per­son. And hit much hard­er than if it hap­pened in any oth­er room of the house. Why stronger?

It must be remem­bered that it is not the high volt­age itself that is dan­ger­ous, but the mag­ni­tude of the elec­tric cur­rent flow­ing through the human body. As fol­lows from Ohm’s law, this val­ue is direct­ly pro­por­tion­al to the applied volt­age (the numer­a­tor of the for­mu­la) and inverse­ly pro­por­tion­al to the resis­tance (the denom­i­na­tor of the for­mu­la), and in this case, the sum of the resis­tances: the human body (the resis­tance of the inter­nal organs- 500–600 Ohm + skin resis­tance) + shoes on his feet + floor. We take a bath or show­er with­out shoes, under our feet it often turns out to be a wet and there­fore con­duc­tive sur­face, and the resis­tance of wet skin is extreme­ly low. So the sum in the denom­i­na­tor of the for­mu­la decreas­es almost to the val­ue of the resis­tance of the inter­nal organs of a per­son (500–600 Ohm). That’s why the chance of elec­tric shock in the bath­room is much high­er than any­where else, and the con­se­quences of such an elec­tric shock are much more seri­ous.

Sec­ond dan­ger- the occur­rence of a fire. Yes, yes, don’t be sur­prised! A fire in the bath­room, start­ing with the igni­tion of the elec­tri­cal equip­ment in it. For exam­ple, the cur­rent is only 500mA flow­ing through insu­la­tion (com­bustible mate­r­i­al) for some time can cause it to ignite. Leak­age cur­rents pass­ing through met­al parts (box­es, pipes, beams, etc.)heat them up, which can also cause a fire.

How to make your stay in the bathroom safe?

You don’t need to rein­vent the wheel to achieve this.- a set of nec­es­sary mea­sures has long been thought out and described in the same PUE.

Let’s start with the wiring. We quote: “Insaunas, bath­rooms, lava­to­ries, show­ers must use con­cealed elec­tri­cal wiring. It is not allowed to lay wires with met­al sheaths, in met­al pipes and met­al sleeves. “For you and me, this means that there are no spe­cial require­ments for the use of wires in the bath­room- it should be a three-wire sys­tem that replaced the pre­vi­ous­ly exist­ing two-wire sys­tem and has already become famil­iar: a phase con­duc­tor, zero and pro­tec­tive. The wire (it is more cor­rect to call it a cable) must be dou­ble insu­lat­ed- each of the con­duc­tors is iso­lat­ed and then all togeth­er are enclosed in an insu­lat­ing sheath. The cross sec­tion of the con­duc­tor must cor­re­spond to the con­nect­ed load. Lay­ing lines with wire in rub­ber insu­la­tion is not rec­om­mend­ed, because rub­ber becomes brit­tle over time, cracks and crum­bles.- there is a path for leak­age cur­rents.

A three-wire sys­tem is need­ed in order to be able to ground the hous­ings of all elec­tri­cal appli­ances in the bath­room: a wash­ing machine, a show­er cab­in (if it uses elec­tric­i­ty), lamps, etc.e. Con­cealed elec­tri­cal wiring should be (even if it is open through­out the rest of the house) in order to, if pos­si­ble, exclude expo­sure to mois­ture. Why it is impos­si­ble to use wires with met­al sheaths, in met­al pipes and sleeves- also under­stand­able: so that cor­ro­sion does not occur, which can cause destruc­tion of the insu­la­tion. The excep­tion is pipes made on one-piece joints (weld­ing). And even then, pro­vid­ed that the pipe is ground­ed (it is unlike­ly that it will be pos­si­ble to do this in an apart­ment / house). There­fore, it is bet­ter to use spe­cial elec­tri­cal plas­tic box­es and pipes with con­nect­ing ele­ments that pro­vide the nec­es­sary degree of pro­tec­tion (aboutdegrees of pro­tec­tion- a lit­tle bit lat­er). Box­es and pipes can be hid­den (for exam­ple, behind a false ceil­ing) or immured into a wall.

Why is pro­tec­tive ground­ing nec­es­sary and how is it orga­nized? “Why, I some­how lived with­out this ground­ing of yours! AndI’ll live on”- the impa­tient read­er can say. Well, what do you object? Lucky man with the qual­i­ty of elec­tri­cal appli­ances. BUTafter all, in the life of this most impa­tient read­er, there were sit­u­a­tions when, for exam­ple, hold­ing the case of a work­ing wash­ing machine or refrig­er­a­tor, he felt a slight tin­gling, which was caused by a “dis­charge” on his body of the poten­tial that appeared on the case due to cur­rent microleaks (wear and tear). insu­la­tion plus damp­ness). If these were not micro-leaks, but a phase break­down on the device case, then the mat­ter would hard­ly have been lim­it­ed to tin­gling.

Pro­tec­tive ground­ing is pre­cise­ly designed to pre­vent elec­tric shock to a per­son when touch­ing parts of elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions, which, in case of any mal­func­tions (insu­la­tion dam­age, etc.)etc.) may be under ten­sion. The prob­a­bil­i­ty of such dam­age in the pres­ence of ground­ing becomes min­i­mal. To increase safe­ty, it makes sense to ground not only elec­tri­cal appli­ances installed in the bath­room, but also the body of a met­al (steel or cast iron) bath­tub or show­er tray (they have a spe­cial ter­mi­nal for this). Ground­ing must be car­ried out with a wire with a cross sec­tion not less than that of the phase con­duc­tor.

Degrees of IP protection

The applied clas­si­fi­ca­tion of elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion prod­ucts com­plies with the inter­na­tion­al stan­dard Inter­na­tion­al Pro­tec­tion- IP. The let­ters IP and are used in mark­ing. They are fol­lowed by two num­bers: the first indi­cates the degree of pro­tec­tion against the ingress of sol­id par­ti­cles, the sec­ond- degree of pro­tec­tion against water. X- the require­ment is not stip­u­lat­ed.

Degrees of IP protection

First dig­it: pro­tec­tion against ingress of sol­id par­ti­cles Sec­ond dig­it: pro­tec­tion against mois­ture ingress
IP Def­i­n­i­tion IP Def­i­n­i­tion
0 No pro­tec­tion 0 No pro­tec­tion
one Pro­tec­tion against touch­ing haz­ardous parts with the back of the hand. 3protection against the ingress of solids exceed­ing 50mm one Pro­tec­tion against ver­ti­cal­ly falling drops of water
2 Pro­tec­tion against water splash­es falling at an angle up to 15 to the ver­ti­cal
2 Fin­ger con­tact pro­tec­tion. Pro­tec­tion against ingress of sol­id objects exceed­ing 12mm 3 Pro­tec­tion against water splash­es falling at an angle up to 60 to the ver­ti­cal
3 Pro­tec­tion against access to dan­ger­ous parts with a tool. Pro­tec­tion against ingress of sol­id objects exceed­ing 2.5mm four Pro­tect­ed against splash­ing water from all direc­tions
5 Pro­tect­ed against water jets from all direc­tions
four Pro­tec­tion against con­tact with wire to dan­ger­ous parts. Pro­tec­tion against ingress of sol­id objects exceed­ing 1mm 6 Com­plete pro­tec­tion against splash­es and strong jets like sea storms
5 Pro­tec­tion against the ingress of harm­ful dust that may inter­fere with the oper­a­tion of the device 7 Pro­tec­tion against short-term immer­sion to a depth of 15see uponem
6 Absolute dust pro­tec­tion eight Pro­tec­tion against the action of water dur­ing pro­longed stay in water at a depth of more than 1m*
*- the exact data is spec­i­fied by the man­u­fac­tur­er

In indi­vid­ual hous­es, a spe­cial ground loop is made for the ground­ing device (we will not dwell on its device nowis a top­ic for a sep­a­rate dis­cus­sion). ATIn a city apart­ment, ground­ing is usu­al­ly tak­en from the body of the storey switch­board. ATnew build­ings on the shield, as a rule, there is a spe­cial ter­mi­nal (some­times it can be a bolt with a nut weld­ed to the shield) with the cor­re­spond­ing des­ig­na­tion. ATold build­ings may not have ter­mi­nals, but the shield is still, as a rule, ground­ed. If you have any doubts about this, you should con­tact the DEZ- the local elec­tri­cian must know- whether there is a reli­able ground­ing in the shield or not.

And since we decid­ed that it is nec­es­sary to lay a pro­tec­tive ground from the shield to the bath­room, it is bet­ter to sim­ply run a new three-wire cable, pow­er­ing the light­ing and sock­ets from it. The spe­cial­ists who will per­form this work do not care how many lived in the wire being laid- one (ground) or three, except that the wire itself will cost a lit­tle more. But as a result, you will have the oppor­tu­ni­ty to install a sep­a­rate pro­tec­tive device (RCD) for the bath­room on the shield. The option of installing an RCD on an old two-wire net­work is incon­ve­nient- it is dif­fi­cult to find a lead wire, and a shield with an RCD will have to be placed at the entrance to the bath­room, which will not add aes­thet­ics to the apart­ment.

Now let’s move on to light­ing fix­tures and wiring equip­ment. Again we quote the PUE: “Inbath­rooms, show­ers and toi­lets, only elec­tri­cal equip­ment that is specif­i­cal­ly designed for instal­la­tion in the respec­tive areas of the spec­i­fied premis­es should be used … Insaunas, bath­rooms, steam rooms, etc.n. instal­la­tion of switchgear and con­trol devices is not allowed. This means that all switch­boards must be locat­ed out­side the bath­room. Con­trol devices in this case are switch­es. The only excep­tion to the rule are switch­es with IP44 pro­tec­tion, installed under the ceil­ing and actu­at­ed by a cord (human con­tact with the switch must be com­plete­ly exclud­ed). Switch­es with a degree of pro­tec­tion IP44 with a radio or infrared dri­ve also fall under this arti­cle.

Let us explain what dan­ger zones and degrees of pro­tec­tion are. Let’s start with the dan­ger zones in the bath­room (theirherefour).

  • Zone 0- the vol­ume with­in the bath or show­er tray itself.
  • Zone 1- vol­ume bound­ed by a ver­ti­cal sur­face with­in a bath­tub or show­er tray.
  • Zone 2- the vol­ume bound­ed by the ver­ti­cal sur­face of the zone1 and a ver­ti­cal sur­face locat­ed at a dis­tance of 60cm from it par­al­lel to it.
  • Zone 3- vol­ume bound­ed by the out­er sur­face of the zone2 and a ver­ti­cal sur­face locat­ed at a dis­tance of 240see from her.
  • In zone 0- with degree IPX7. Appli­ances up to 12V can also be used.B, and the pow­er source (trans­former) must be locat­ed out­side the zone.
  • In zone 1- with degree IPX5. Only water heaters with an appro­pri­ate degree of pro­tec­tion may be installed here.
  • In zone 2- with degree IPX4. These are water heaters, sock­ets and lamps with a degree of pro­tec­tion against water pen­e­tra­tion of at leastfour.
  • In zone 3- with degree IPX1. It is allowed to install sock­ets con­nect­ed to the net­work through iso­lat­ing trans­form­ers or pro­tect­ed by a resid­ual cur­rent device with a trip cur­rent of up to 30ma.

  • PRODAX (Hun­gary), Hydra series for out­door instal­la­tion.
  • ENSTO (Fin­land), Kosti series for out­door instal­la­tion
  • BUSCH-JAEGER-ABV (Ger­many), All­wet­ter series44 for con­cealed and Busch-Duro 2000WS for open instal­la­tion.
  • ELJO-LEXEL-SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (France), Aqua- series for out­door instal­la­tion (IP44 and IP55).
  • ELSO-LEXEL-SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC, series Aqua In for hid­den and Aqua-Top for out­door instal­la­tion.
  • LEGRAND (France), Urbano (IP44)- eco­nom­i­cal series for indoor and out­door instal­la­tion. Also offered by Plexo55s (IP55) in sev­er­al forms: monoblock (sock­ets, switch­es, ther­mostats with IP55 pro­tec­tion already assem­bled in the case) and mod­u­lar ver­sion (uni­ver­sal box pro­vid­ing IP55 pro­tec­tion can accom­mo­date any device).

TX-44,SIEMENS

Wiring prod­ucts with IP44 pro­tec­tion are also pro­duced by domes­tic man­u­fac­tur­ers. For exam­ple, “MosE­LEK­TRO­PRI­BOR” (St.world) and VESSEN (world).Koz­mode­myan­sk).

Prices for wiring accessories of various companies, rub.

Elec­tro-
instal­la­tion prod­ucts
Man­u­fac­tur­er (series)
ELJO (Aqua) ELSO (Aqua In) ELSO (Aqua Top) PRODAX (Hydra) VESSEN (Vessen) SIEMENS (Delta Line) LEGRAND (Urbano) LEGRAND (Plexo55s)
Sin­gle sock­et with ground­ing and cov­er 226 127 131 - 35 110 157 274.5
One-gang switch 425 152 - 119 37 120 137 178
Illu­mi­nat­ed sin­gle-gang switch - - - 198 - 150 167 332
One-key switch with two places - - 144 - - 270 153 747
Sin­gle-gang switch with two places with back­light - - 218 - - 290 201 -
Two-gang switch 567 - 169 134 - 173 - 406

There are also enough light­ing fix­tures with a degree of pro­tec­tion from IP44 to IP65 on sale. These are spot­lights, recessed ceil­ing lights, mir­ror light­ing, day­light sources, etc.etc. They are offered on our mar­ket by such com­pa­nies as NOBILE (Ger­many), XENON (Spain), ENSTO (Fin­land), GENERAL ELECTRIC (USA), PHILIPS (Hol­land), “LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES” (Mr.Krasno­gorsk), etc.

It is pos­si­ble to do with­out the above-described elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion equip­ment with a degree of pro­tec­tion IP44 only in large bath­rooms. ATold hous­es this is unlike­ly to suc­ceed. First, since the zone3 stan­dard bath­rooms of a mul­ti-storey build­ing (with an area of ​​3–3.9m2) only include the wall oppo­site the bath and sec­tions of walls adja­cent to it with a width of 5 to 50see It is hard­ly pos­si­ble to place all elec­tri­cal equip­ment in this zone (andthere is noth­ing to say about the aes­thet­ics of such an arrange­ment). Sec­ond­ly, because the sock­ets in this case, accord­ing to the PUE, must be con­nect­ed through an iso­lat­ing trans­former. BUTthis means that it will be impos­si­ble to pow­er any­thing oth­er than an elec­tric shaver through them due to the low pow­er of the trans­former. The instal­la­tion of an iso­la­tion trans­former of greater pow­er will require, in addi­tion to high one-time pur­chase costs, also the area for this instal­la­tion, as well as con­stant super­vi­sion (the trans­former is not turned off from the net­work). If we add to the above an increase in the amount for pay­ing for elec­tric­i­ty, it becomes quite obvi­ous that the option with an iso­la­tion trans­former is unac­cept­able. That is, the only way out (pro­vid­ed by the PUE) is the use of sock­ets of a class not low­er than IP44 with a resid­ual cur­rent device.

What is UZO?

The resid­ual cur­rent device (RCD) mon­i­tors the cur­rent leak­age from the cir­cuit (the one that cre­ates the cur­rent pass­ing through the human body) and pro­vides auto­mat­ic shut­down of all phas­es or poles of the emer­gency sec­tion of the elec­tri­cal cir­cuit for a time usu­al­ly not exceed­ing 0.02With (+40…-60%) since the leak occurred. Our mag­a­zine has already writ­ten about these devices more than once, so we will not dwell on them in detail, we will sim­ply sup­ple­ment what was pre­vi­ous­ly pub­lished with new infor­ma­tion.

RCDs are avail­able in two types: AC and A. Type AC reacts to the leak­age of alter­nat­ing (sinu­soidal) cur­rents- these are the devices we have been talk­ing about so far. But in elec­tri­cal cir­cuits that sup­ply equip­ment that includes rec­ti­fiers or con­trolled thyris­tors, in the event of an insu­la­tion break­down, leak­age of not only alter­nat­ing, but also direct (pul­sat­ing) cur­rent is pos­si­ble. RCD type AC prac­ti­cal­ly does not react to this. BUThere is an RCDA reacts- it is intend­ed for such cas­es. Since the cir­cuit for mea­sur­ing the dif­fer­ence cur­rent in Type A RCDs is more com­plex, these devices are 1.1–1.5 times more expen­sive RCD type AC. The need to use RCD type A in the cur­rent reg­u­la­to­ry doc­u­ments is not spec­i­fied. But in the oper­at­ing instruc­tions, for exam­ple, wash­ing machines, you can meet the require­ment to install this par­tic­u­lar type of RCD (onwhat you need to pay atten­tion to when choos­ing a car).

On sale, in addi­tion to the RCDs installed on the switch­board, you can find elec­tri­cal out­lets with a built-in RCD. These devices are of two types: the first is installed in place of an exist­ing out­let, the sec­ond- sim­ply plugs into an exist­ing out­let and then into it- a plug from an elec­tri­cal appli­ance. Andanoth­er type of device with built-in RCD- the so-called “RCD plug”. These three devices are good, first of all, because they elim­i­nate the need to change the elec­tri­cal wiring in the bath­room in old hous­es. BUTbad high­er price- sock­ets with built-in RCD will cost about 3times more expen­sive than RCDs installed on a switch­board. They pro­duce sock­ets with a built-in RCD, for exam­ple, com­pa­nies such as ABB and GIRA. Domes­tic “UZO-plug” from “ASTRO-UZO” will cost the buy­er 594rub. It is advis­able or not to use devices with a built-in RCD, it is up to the con­sumer to decide.

Anoth­er pro­tec­tive device wor­thy of atten­tion is the dif­fer­en­tial cir­cuit break­er.- a com­bi­na­tion of a cir­cuit break­er with an RCD (of the type “two inone”). It works in both cas­es- both in case of cur­rent leak­age to the ground, and in case of short cir­cuits and over­load. Like RCD devices, dif­fer­en­tial automa­ta are pro­duced for dif­fer­ent oper­at­ing cur­rents and for dif­fer­ent leak­age cur­rents. The use of such a machine is advan­ta­geous in the case when there is not enough space for the instal­la­tion of two sep­a­rate devices in the elec­tri­cal cab­i­net. The dif­fer­en­tial machine can do as in 1.5times more expen­sive than a sep­a­rate cir­cuit break­er and RCD, and in the same amount as a sep­a­rate RCD,- it all depends on the man­u­fac­tur­er.

RCDs and dif­fer­en­tial automa­tons of both Euro­pean and for­eign pro­duc­tion are pre­sent­ed on our mar­ket. From domes­tic firms, con­sumers know the Stavropol plant “SIGNAL” (pro­duces elec­tron­ic “UZO-20”), Research Insti­tute “PROEKTELEKTROMONTAZH” (pro­duces elec­tron­ic “UZO-2000”), firm “ASTRO-UZO” (offers the electro­mechan­i­cal device “Astro*UZO”). Of the for­eign com­pa­nies, it is worth men­tion­ing, first of all, those that have been work­ing seri­ous­ly in our mar­ket for a long time: SIEMENS, ABB, LEGRAND, SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC. On the mar­ket, you can also find Chi­nese-made RCDs, the qual­i­ty of which must be treat­ed with extreme cau­tion.

The French con­cern SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC offers Euro­pean cus­tomers two ranges of devices of this class at once- elite mul­ti­func­tion­al series Mul­ti9 and a series of devices spe­cial­ly designed for the equip­ment of res­i­den­tial build­ings- “Brown­ie”.

Not so long ago, the Euro­pean com­pa­ny “ASTRO-UZO” pre­sent­ed to con­sumers a nov­el­ty- UZO “Astro * I”. It not only pro­tects the cir­cuit from leak­age, but also shows on the LCD the val­ue of the leak­age cur­rent at the moment. The “show­ing” resid­ual cur­rent device will cost 1980–2490 rub., depend­ing on the val­ue of the rat­ed cur­rent (40 and 63BUT).

Which of the man­u­fac­tur­ers to pre­fer, we will not under­take to advise. But what­ev­er equip­ment you choose, do not go to the flea mar­ket to pur­chase it, but to a spe­cial­ized store or to an offi­cial deal­er of the com­pa­ny. ToUnfor­tu­nate­ly, the domes­tic mar­ket is sim­ply teem­ing with fakes. Andthere­fore, when pur­chas­ing equip­ment, do not hes­i­tate to ask for a qual­i­ty cer­tifi­cate, and even bet­ter- “cer­tifi­cate for pro­duc­tion”, which means that not only this batch of goods, but also any prod­ucts man­u­fac­tured by the com­pa­ny have the required lev­el of qual­i­ty.

Prices for RCDs and differential automatons of various production, rub.

Prod­uct Man­u­fac­tur­er (series)
ABB LEGRAND SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (“Brown­ie”) SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (Mul­ti9) SIEMENS “ASTRO-UZO”
Dif­fer­en­tial cir­cuit break­er 6A 30mA (AC) 2032 - - 1966 1112 936
Dif­fer­en­tial cir­cuit break­er 10A 30mA (AC) - 1484 - 1752 1112 948
Dif­fer­en­tial cir­cuit break­er 16A 30mA (AC) 1839 1484 1356 1752 1112 948
Dif­fer­en­tial cir­cuit break­er 40A 30mA (AC) 1996 1827 1385 2109 1112 1020
RCD2P 16A 10mA (A) 2234 1419 - - 1881 1120
RCD2P 16A 10mA (AC) - - - 1534 1390 1020
RCD2P 40A 30mA (AC) 1273 1094 901 1371 962 960
RCD2P 25A 30mA (A) 1909 - - - 1176 1060
RCD2P 63A 30mA (AC) - 1398 1009 1748 1212 1296

Where and how are RCDs installed?

Pro­tec­tive devices such as RCDs are installed in the switch cab­i­net of the apart­ment (by the way, exist­ing cab­i­nets can also be used). There are sev­er­al mount­ing options.

One RCD for the whole dwelling. The device is placed after the intro­duc­to­ry machine, pro­tect­ing the entire apart­ment (house). ATIn this case, an RCD is usu­al­ly used for a leak­age cur­rent of 30ma. ToThe advan­tages of such a solu­tion include the low lev­el of costs and the fact that there is always space in the cab­i­net to install one RCD. Tocons- it is dif­fi­cult to deter­mine which of the exist­ing lines has a leak, and that when the device is trig­gered, the entire apart­ment remains with­out elec­tric­i­ty.

One “intro­duc­to­ry” RCD (30mA) + addi­tion­al RCDs (10mA) per line (for exam­ple, on the lines that feed the wash­ing machine, hot tubs and espe­cial­ly elec­tri­cal­ly heat­ed floors). Of course, this is a more pro­gres­sive option com­pared to the pre­vi­ous one, since it allows you to turn off only the line in which it occurred in case of a leak (the whole apart­ment does not remain with­out light). Tothe dis­ad­van­tages include high­er equip­ment costs, as well as the need to have sig­nif­i­cant­ly more space in the clos­et.

This scheme can also be used as an option to pro­tect the entire floor in a large cot­tage. ATIn this case, next to the “intro­duc­to­ry” cir­cuit break­er that pro­tects the entire house, it is nec­es­sary to install an “intro­duc­to­ry” RCD for leak­age cur­rent 300–500mA (if a three-phase cur­rent of 380B, then a four-pole RCD is installed). ATIn this case, it is bet­ter to use a non-ordi­nary RCD (withresponse time 0.02s), and the so-called selec­tive (dis­tin­guished by the let­ter S in the mark­ing), the response time of which is slight­ly longer- 0.3–0.5 s. A longer response time will make it pos­si­ble to react to the leak­age that has occurred and turn off the “first line” devices (RCD for 10 and 30mA that pro­tects indi­vid­ual elec­tri­cal appli­ances or lines of a house / apart­ment). Andonly if for some rea­son they didn’t “work”, it will turn off the entire pow­er sup­ply cir­cuit. The “intro­duc­to­ry” RCD will also turn off the elec­tric­i­ty in the entire house in case of a fire caused by a wiring fault.

Cal­cu­la­tion, instal­la­tion and adjust­ment of elec­tri­cal cir­cuits using RCDs should be car­ried out only by qual­i­fied spe­cial­ists. Only in this case you will have a guar­an­tee that the pro­tec­tion will work on time.

The edi­tors thank the firms “CROCUS-TRADE”, “ASTRO-UZO”, ABB, “TFS-ELECTRO”, “ELIPS-GARANT”, “TRISTAR”, “ENERGO LIGHT”, “HAUSELEKTROTEKHNIK” and per­son­al­ly I.BUT.Dobro­vol­sky for help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

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