Electrical installation product series
Installing a rubber seal in sockets and switches allows you to achieve degree of protection IP44 (GIRA, Event series)
IP65 spotlight from XENON )
Electrical installation products of the Hydra series for outdoor installation from PRODAX (Hungary)
When a leak occurs, the balance of currents passing through the phase and neutral wires is disturbed. The residual current device (RCD) monitors the violation of this balance and opens the circuit
“UZO plug” from “ASTRO-UZO”. Three-phase RCD of the Multi series9 for leakage current 30mA
Plexo Series Electrical Installation Products55s (IP55) from LEGRAND
Residual current device “Astro*UZO” for leakage current 10mA
Two-pole (single-phase network 220C) residual current device of the “Domovoy” series for a leakage current of 10mA from SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
Four-pole residual current device (three-phase network 380C), showing the leakage current in the protected electrical circuit at a given time from “ASTRO-UZO”
Four-pole residual current device (three-phase network 380C) for leakage current 30mA from
Typical apartment power supply scheme using residual current devices.
1. Guard body
2. Connecting element of zero working conductors
3. Connecting element of zero protective conductors
4. RCD for leakage current 30 mA
5. Circuit breakers
6. RCD for leakage current 10mA
7. Electricity meter
8. Group circuit lines
RCDs of the Multi series9 (30)mA) from SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
Each of us, both at work and at home, is surrounded by many electrical appliances. In the kitchen, we habitually use an electric stove, a kettle and a dishwasher (the refrigerator does not turn off at all), in the bathroom- electric shaver, hair dryer and washing machine. We use it without even thinking about how safe our communication with these “au pairs” is. BUTto ponder, at least sometimes, does not interfere.
With regard to the danger of electric shock to people, all premises are divided into three types: not representing increased danger, with increased danger and especially dangerous. Topremises with increased danger are those in which at least one of the following conditions is present: dampness or conductive dust; conductive floors; high temperature or the possibility of a person simultaneously touching the metal structures of buildings connected to the ground, technological devices, mechanisms, etc.on the one hand, and metal cases of electrical equipment- Withanother. Toespecially dangerous are “especially damp rooms- humidity is close to 100%” and rooms in which there are two or more factors at the same time, corresponding to increased danger. If the room does not have the conditions listed above, it does not pose an increased danger.
Electric current, flowing through the human body, produces thermal, chemical and biological effects. The chemical influence of electric current is manifested in the electrolysis of blood and other solutions contained in the body, which entails a change in their chemical composition and, consequently, a violation of their functions. The biological effect of the current is individual for each person. It manifests itself in a dangerous “excitation” of muscle tissues, the consequences of which depend on the magnitude of the current that has passed through the body and the duration of its exposure.
- Current up to 5 mA is almost not felt by a person.
- Current up to 10 mA is felt, but has no dangerous consequences.
- A current of 200 mA with a short exposure does not cause organic damage, but with exposure longer than 2c can provoke a reflex contraction of the muscles in direct contact with the current source (the phenomenon of “not letting go of the wire”), difficulty breathing, convulsions and even muscle paralysis, as well as heart fibrillation.
- A current of more than 500 mA, even with a short-term effect on a person, leads to the most unfortunate consequences.- paralysis of the chest muscles (respiratory arrest) or heart muscles and, consequently, death. Both types of paralysis can be either the result of a direct passage of current through the chest area, or reflex- the response of the nervous system to the flow of current through any area of the body.
Why are we? Yes, to the fact that modern bathrooms should be classified as especially dangerous rooms. Which makes you think. This article is devoted to talking about how to make your stay in this room safe. We will immediately warn you that we will use the PUE in it- Rules for the installation of electrical installations
What threatens us in the bathroom?
In the dry language of the PUE, “the main source of danger in the bathroom is the appearance of voltage on the metal parts of lamps, electrical appliances and pipelines when the insulation of electrical wires is damaged due to current leakage through the insulation of electrical installations and wires (cables). Leakage can be caused by deterioration of the insulation due to moisture, heat, mechanical stress, etc.” In other words, an electrical appliance with faulty electrical insulation is capable of shocking a person. And hit much harder than if it happened in any other room of the house. Why stronger?
It must be remembered that it is not the high voltage itself that is dangerous, but the magnitude of the electric current flowing through the human body. As follows from Ohm’s law, this value is directly proportional to the applied voltage (the numerator of the formula) and inversely proportional to the resistance (the denominator of the formula), and in this case, the sum of the resistances: the human body (the resistance of the internal organs-
Second danger- the occurrence of a fire. Yes, yes, don’t be surprised! A fire in the bathroom, starting with the ignition of the electrical equipment in it. For example, the current is only 500mA flowing through insulation (combustible material) for some time can cause it to ignite. Leakage currents passing through metal parts (boxes, pipes, beams, etc.)heat them up, which can also cause a fire.
How to make your stay in the bathroom safe?
You don’t need to reinvent the wheel to achieve this.- a set of necessary measures has long been thought out and described in the same PUE.
Let’s start with the wiring. We quote: “Insaunas, bathrooms, lavatories, showers must use concealed electrical wiring. It is not allowed to lay wires with metal sheaths, in metal pipes and metal sleeves. “For you and me, this means that there are no special requirements for the use of wires in the bathroom- it should be a three-wire system that replaced the previously existing two-wire system and has already become familiar: a phase conductor, zero and protective. The wire (it is more correct to call it a cable) must be double insulated- each of the conductors is isolated and then all together are enclosed in an insulating sheath. The cross section of the conductor must correspond to the connected load. Laying lines with wire in rubber insulation is not recommended, because rubber becomes brittle over time, cracks and crumbles.- there is a path for leakage currents.
A three-wire system is needed in order to be able to ground the housings of all electrical appliances in the bathroom: a washing machine, a shower cabin (if it uses electricity), lamps, etc.e. Concealed electrical wiring should be (even if it is open throughout the rest of the house) in order to, if possible, exclude exposure to moisture. Why it is impossible to use wires with metal sheaths, in metal pipes and sleeves- also understandable: so that corrosion does not occur, which can cause destruction of the insulation. The exception is pipes made on one-piece joints (welding). And even then, provided that the pipe is grounded (it is unlikely that it will be possible to do this in an apartment / house). Therefore, it is better to use special electrical plastic boxes and pipes with connecting elements that provide the necessary degree of protection (aboutdegrees of protection- a little bit later). Boxes and pipes can be hidden (for example, behind a false ceiling) or immured into a wall.
Why is protective grounding necessary and how is it organized? “Why, I somehow lived without this grounding of yours! AndI’ll live on”- the impatient reader can say. Well, what do you object? Lucky man with the quality of electrical appliances. BUTafter all, in the life of this most impatient reader, there were situations when, for example, holding the case of a working washing machine or refrigerator, he felt a slight tingling, which was caused by a “discharge” on his body of the potential that appeared on the case due to current microleaks (wear and tear). insulation plus dampness). If these were not micro-leaks, but a phase breakdown on the device case, then the matter would hardly have been limited to tingling.
Protective grounding is precisely designed to prevent electric shock to a person when touching parts of electrical installations, which, in case of any malfunctions (insulation damage, etc.)etc.) may be under tension. The probability of such damage in the presence of grounding becomes minimal. To increase safety, it makes sense to ground not only electrical appliances installed in the bathroom, but also the body of a metal (steel or cast iron) bathtub or shower tray (they have a special terminal for this). Grounding must be carried out with a wire with a cross section not less than that of the phase conductor.
Degrees of IP protection
The applied classification of electrical installation products complies with the international standard International Protection- IP. The letters IP and are used in marking. They are followed by two numbers: the first indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of solid particles, the second- degree of protection against water. X- the requirement is not stipulated.
Degrees of IP protection
|First digit: protection against ingress of solid particles
|Second digit: protection against moisture ingress
|Protection against touching hazardous parts with the back of the hand. 3protection against the ingress of solids exceeding 50mm
|Protection against vertically falling drops of water
|Protection against water splashes falling at an angle up to 15
|Finger contact protection. Protection against ingress of solid objects exceeding 12mm
|Protection against water splashes falling at an angle up to 60
|Protection against access to dangerous parts with a tool. Protection against ingress of solid objects exceeding 2.5mm
|Protected against splashing water from all directions
|Protected against water jets from all directions
|Protection against contact with wire to dangerous parts. Protection against ingress of solid objects exceeding 1mm
|Complete protection against splashes and strong jets like sea storms
|Protection against the ingress of harmful dust that may interfere with the operation of the device
|Protection against short-term immersion to a depth of 15see uponem
|Absolute dust protection
|Protection against the action of water during prolonged stay in water at a depth of more than 1m*
|*- the exact data is specified by the manufacturer
In individual houses, a special ground loop is made for the grounding device (we will not dwell on its device nowis a topic for a separate discussion). ATIn a city apartment, grounding is usually taken from the body of the storey switchboard. ATnew buildings on the shield, as a rule, there is a special terminal (sometimes it can be a bolt with a nut welded to the shield) with the corresponding designation. ATold buildings may not have terminals, but the shield is still, as a rule, grounded. If you have any doubts about this, you should contact the DEZ- the local electrician must know- whether there is a reliable grounding in the shield or not.
And since we decided that it is necessary to lay a protective ground from the shield to the bathroom, it is better to simply run a new three-wire cable, powering the lighting and sockets from it. The specialists who will perform this work do not care how many lived in the wire being laid- one (ground) or three, except that the wire itself will cost a little more. But as a result, you will have the opportunity to install a separate protective device (RCD) for the bathroom on the shield. The option of installing an RCD on an old two-wire network is inconvenient- it is difficult to find a lead wire, and a shield with an RCD will have to be placed at the entrance to the bathroom, which will not add aesthetics to the apartment.
Now let’s move on to lighting fixtures and wiring equipment. Again we quote the PUE: “Inbathrooms, showers and toilets, only electrical equipment that is specifically designed for installation in the respective areas of the specified premises should be used … Insaunas, bathrooms, steam rooms, etc.n. installation of switchgear and control devices is not allowed. This means that all switchboards must be located outside the bathroom. Control devices in this case are switches. The only exception to the rule are switches with IP44 protection, installed under the ceiling and actuated by a cord (human contact with the switch must be completely excluded). Switches with a degree of protection IP44 with a radio or infrared drive also fall under this article.
Let us explain what danger zones and degrees of protection are. Let’s start with the danger zones in the bathroom (theirherefour).
- Zone 0- the volume within the bath or shower tray itself.
- Zone 1- volume bounded by a vertical surface within a bathtub or shower tray.
- Zone 2- the volume bounded by the vertical surface of the zone1 and a vertical surface located at a distance of 60cm from it parallel to it.
- Zone 3- volume bounded by the outer surface of the zone2 and a vertical surface located at a distance of 240see from her.
- In zone 0- with degree IPX7. Appliances up to 12V can also be used.B, and the power source (transformer) must be located outside the zone.
- In zone 1- with degree IPX5. Only water heaters with an appropriate degree of protection may be installed here.
- In zone 2- with degree IPX4. These are water heaters, sockets and lamps with a degree of protection against water penetration of at leastfour.
- In zone 3- with degree IPX1. It is allowed to install sockets connected to the network through isolating transformers or protected by a residual current device with a trip current of up to 30ma.
- PRODAX (Hungary), Hydra series for outdoor installation.
- ENSTO (Finland), Kosti series for outdoor installation
- BUSCH-JAEGER-ABV (Germany), Allwetter series44 for concealed and Busch-Duro 2000WS for open installation.
- ELJO-LEXEL-SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (France), Aqua- series for outdoor installation (IP44 and IP55).
- ELSO-LEXEL-SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC, series
Aqua Infor hidden and Aqua-Top for outdoor installation.
- LEGRAND (France), Urbano (IP44)- economical series for indoor and outdoor installation. Also offered by Plexo55s (IP55) in several forms: monoblock (sockets, switches, thermostats with IP55 protection already assembled in the case) and modular version (universal box providing IP55 protection can accommodate any device).
Wiring products with IP44 protection are also produced by domestic manufacturers. For example, “MosELEKTROPRIBOR” (St.world) and VESSEN (world).Kozmodemyansk).
Prices for wiring accessories of various companies, rub.
|Single socket with grounding and cover
|Illuminated single-gang switch
|One-key switch with two places
|Single-gang switch with two places with backlight
There are also enough lighting fixtures with a degree of protection from IP44 to IP65 on sale. These are spotlights, recessed ceiling lights, mirror lighting, daylight sources, etc.etc. They are offered on our market by such companies as NOBILE (Germany), XENON (Spain), ENSTO (Finland), GENERAL ELECTRIC (USA), PHILIPS (Holland), “LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES” (Mr.Krasnogorsk), etc.
It is possible to do without the above-described electrical installation equipment with a degree of protection IP44 only in large bathrooms. ATold houses this is unlikely to succeed. First, since the zone3 standard bathrooms of a multi-storey building
What is UZO?
The residual current device (RCD) monitors the current leakage from the circuit (the one that creates the current passing through the human body) and provides automatic shutdown of all phases or poles of the emergency section of the electrical circuit for a time usually not exceeding 0.02With
RCDs are available in two types: AC and A. Type AC reacts to the leakage of alternating (sinusoidal) currents- these are the devices we have been talking about so far. But in electrical circuits that supply equipment that includes rectifiers or controlled thyristors, in the event of an insulation breakdown, leakage of not only alternating, but also direct (pulsating) current is possible. RCD type AC practically does not react to this. BUThere is an RCDA reacts- it is intended for such cases. Since the circuit for measuring the difference current in Type A RCDs is more complex, these devices are
On sale, in addition to the RCDs installed on the switchboard, you can find electrical outlets with a built-in RCD. These devices are of two types: the first is installed in place of an existing outlet, the second- simply plugs into an existing outlet and then into it- a plug from an electrical appliance. Andanother type of device with built-in RCD- the so-called “RCD plug”. These three devices are good, first of all, because they eliminate the need to change the electrical wiring in the bathroom in old houses. BUTbad higher price- sockets with built-in RCD will cost about 3times more expensive than RCDs installed on a switchboard. They produce sockets with a built-in RCD, for example, companies such as ABB and GIRA. Domestic “UZO-plug” from “ASTRO-UZO” will cost the buyer 594rub. It is advisable or not to use devices with a built-in RCD, it is up to the consumer to decide.
Another protective device worthy of attention is the differential circuit breaker.- a combination of a circuit breaker with an RCD (of the type “two inone”). It works in both cases- both in case of current leakage to the ground, and in case of short circuits and overload. Like RCD devices, differential automata are produced for different operating currents and for different leakage currents. The use of such a machine is advantageous in the case when there is not enough space for the installation of two separate devices in the electrical cabinet. The differential machine can do as in 1.5times more expensive than a separate circuit breaker and RCD, and in the same amount as a separate RCD,- it all depends on the manufacturer.
RCDs and differential automatons of both European and foreign production are presented on our market. From domestic firms, consumers know the Stavropol plant “SIGNAL” (produces electronic
The French concern SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC offers European customers two ranges of devices of this class at once- elite multifunctional series Multi9 and a series of devices specially designed for the equipment of residential buildings- “Brownie”.
Not so long ago, the European company “ASTRO-UZO” presented to consumers a novelty- UZO “Astro * I
Which of the manufacturers to prefer, we will not undertake to advise. But whatever equipment you choose, do not go to the flea market to purchase it, but to a specialized store or to an official dealer of the company. ToUnfortunately, the domestic market is simply teeming with fakes. Andtherefore, when purchasing equipment, do not hesitate to ask for a quality certificate, and even better- “certificate for production”, which means that not only this batch of goods, but also any products manufactured by the company have the required level of quality.
Prices for RCDs and differential automatons of various production, rub.
|SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (“Brownie”)
|SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (Multi9)
|Differential circuit breaker 6A 30mA (AC)
|Differential circuit breaker 10A 30mA (AC)
|Differential circuit breaker 16A 30mA (AC)
|Differential circuit breaker 40A 30mA (AC)
|RCD2P 16A 10mA (A)
|RCD2P 16A 10mA (AC)
|RCD2P 40A 30mA (AC)
|RCD2P 25A 30mA (A)
|RCD2P 63A 30mA (AC)
Where and how are RCDs installed?
Protective devices such as RCDs are installed in the switch cabinet of the apartment (by the way, existing cabinets can also be used). There are several mounting options.
One RCD for the whole dwelling. The device is placed after the introductory machine, protecting the entire apartment (house). ATIn this case, an RCD is usually used for a leakage current of 30ma. ToThe advantages of such a solution include the low level of costs and the fact that there is always space in the cabinet to install one RCD. Tocons- it is difficult to determine which of the existing lines has a leak, and that when the device is triggered, the entire apartment remains without electricity.
One “introductory” RCD (30mA) + additional RCDs (10mA) per line (for example, on the lines that feed the washing machine, hot tubs and especially electrically heated floors). Of course, this is a more progressive option compared to the previous one, since it allows you to turn off only the line in which it occurred in case of a leak (the whole apartment does not remain without light). Tothe disadvantages include higher equipment costs, as well as the need to have significantly more space in the closet.
This scheme can also be used as an option to protect the entire floor in a large cottage. ATIn this case, next to the “introductory” circuit breaker that protects the entire house, it is necessary to install an “introductory” RCD for leakage current
Calculation, installation and adjustment of electrical circuits using RCDs should be carried out only by qualified specialists. Only in this case you will have a guarantee that the protection will work on time.
The editors thank the firms “CROCUS-TRADE”, “ASTRO-UZO”, ABB, “TFS-ELECTRO”, “ELIPS-GARANT”, “TRISTAR”, “ENERGO LIGHT”, “HAUSELEKTROTEKHNIK” and personally I.BUT.Dobrovolsky for help in preparing the material.