Gas burners for heating boilers: criteria for the right choice

As you know, our coun­try is con­stant­ly work­ing on gasi­fi­ca­tion of the pri­vate sec­tor. Most future own­ers of gas heat­ing sys­tems are con­cerned about the choice of a gas burn­er for boil­ers that were orig­i­nal­ly used to burn sol­id and liq­uid fuels. This pub­li­ca­tion will dis­cuss the main types of house­hold burn­ers, their design fea­tures, advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages.


Classification and principle of operation

A gas burn­er for a heat­ing boil­er is a fair­ly tech­no­log­i­cal­ly advanced device that is respon­si­ble for cre­at­ing a gas-air mix­ture in a strict­ly defined pro­por­tion. From the device, the mix­ture enters the fuel cham­ber, where it is ignit­ed by an elec­tric dis­charge or a spark of a piezo­elec­tric ele­ment. Depend­ing on how the fuel is mixed with air, these devices can be divid­ed into: dif­fu­sion, injec­tion, recu­per­a­tive, regen­er­a­tive.

Depend­ing on how the flame is adjust­ed and con­trolled, these devices are:

  • Sin­gle stage. To heat the coolant, the device oper­ates at full pow­er. When the heat car­ri­er reach­es a tem­per­a­ture deter­mined by the user, the tem­per­a­ture sen­sor gives a sig­nal, and the automa­tion clos­es the gas valve. In this case, the burn­er stops func­tion­ing. When the coolant cools down to the low­er tem­per­a­ture val­ue, the valve opens, and the fuel-air mix­ture ignites again in the fuel cham­ber. In this case, the device oper­ates at its max­i­mum from its pow­er.
  • Two-stage. When start­ing the boil­er, for quick heat­ing of the heat car­ri­er, the burn­er oper­ates at 100% capac­i­ty. After reach­ing the upper tem­per­a­ture lim­it defined by the user, the gas valve is closed, pro­vid­ing the device with the nec­es­sary amount of fuel, suf­fi­cient for the oper­a­tion of the device, with a capac­i­ty of 40%.
  • Con­tin­u­ous­ly adjustable. With such an adjust­ment of the gas burn­er of the boil­er, the flame also does not go out, but the change of modes from 100% to 40% of the pow­er does not occur abrupt­ly, but more smooth­ly.
  • Mod­u­lat­ed. Gas burn­er equip­ment of this type auto­mat­i­cal­ly changes per­for­mance. This is what allows you to auto­mat­i­cal­ly main­tain the tem­per­a­ture set by the user, which pro­vides com­fort for the user and sig­nif­i­cant sav­ings in fuel burned.

The effect of using mod­u­lat­ed mod­els is 5 — 15% gas sav­ings. Depend­ing on the design of the flame adjust­ment mod­ule, this type of equip­ment is pro­duced with a mechan­i­cal, pneu­mat­ic and elec­tron­ic con­trol sys­tem. The use of mod­u­lat­ed gas burn­er units in boil­er units sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduces the heat load on the heat exchang­er, which has a pos­i­tive effect on its ser­vice life.

Depart­ing from the top­ic, we want to inform you that we have pre­pared com­par­a­tive reviews on gas boil­ers. You can get acquaint­ed with them in the fol­low­ing mate­ri­als:

Atmospheric appliances for combustion of gas-air mixture

atmospheric burnerThe scheme of oper­a­tion of atmos­pher­ic burn­ers of a domes­tic gas boil­er is quite sim­ple: fuel is sup­plied to the device through an ejec­tor. Due to the high speed of the fuel jet, a low pres­sure area is cre­at­ed around it, due to which air is mixed with gas. Through the tubes, the mix­ture enters the holes through which it enters the fire­box, where it is ignit­ed by elec­tric igni­tion. The main advan­tages of this design:

  • sim­plic­i­ty;
  • reli­a­bil­i­ty;
  • com­pact­ness;
  • silent oper­a­tion.

These advan­tages allow the use of atmos­pher­ic gas burn­ers in almost all types of heat­ing boil­ers that use nat­ur­al gas as fuel.

The dis­ad­van­tages of the device include the fol­low­ing:

  • Decreased oxy­gen con­cen­tra­tion in the room where the heat­ing boil­er is installed.
  • With insuf­fi­cient draft, com­bus­tion prod­ucts enter the boil­er room.

As a rule, atmos­pher­ic burn­ers are installed in boil­er units with an open com­bus­tion cham­ber, there­fore they require a sta­tion­ary chim­ney.

Turbine burners

Turbine gas burnerTur­bine instal­la­tions for heat­ing sys­tems have a rather com­plex design. The device of a gas burn­er for a heat­ing boil­er includes:

  • Elec­tric motor with rotary fan wheel.
  • Air grille and gas throt­tle ser­vos.
  • mix­ing device.
  • Flame con­trol sen­sor.
  • Elec­tric or piezo igni­tion elec­trodes.

A fea­ture of tur­bine mod­els is the pres­ence of a gas mod­ule in the design: with a fuel fil­ter, a pres­sure reduc­er, a device that reg­u­lates gas flow, automa­tion that con­trols the rela­tion­ship between the fan speed and fuel sup­ply, and is also respon­si­ble for turn­ing off the gas sup­ply to the burn­er when the tur­bine stops. Most often, this type of equip­ment is installed in boil­er units with a closed fuel cham­ber and addi­tion­al fans installed to force the removal of com­bus­tion prod­ucts of the gas-air mix­ture.

The main advan­tages of tur­bine devices:

  • High per­for­mance safe­ty of use due to the con­trol and secu­ri­ty sys­tem.
  • Con­fi­dent oper­a­tion at low pres­sure of nat­ur­al gas in the gas pipeline.
  • There is no need for a sta­tion­ary chim­ney.

In addi­tion, when using fan mod­els, man­u­al adjust­ment of the gas burn­er of the boil­er is not required. The design of the tur­bine burn­er pro­vides for an air damper, the posi­tion of which is con­trolled by a ser­vo dri­ve, which is respon­si­ble for the vol­ume of air in the gas-air mix­ture.

Dis­ad­van­tages of tur­bine mod­els:

  • High cost, which is sev­er­al times high­er than that of atmos­pher­ic burn­ers.
  • High noise lev­el gen­er­at­ed dur­ing the oper­a­tion of the tur­bine and addi­tion­al fan.

Tip: for the oper­a­tion of the pro­tec­tion sys­tems and the tur­bine, this device requires elec­tric­i­ty. That is why, in order to elim­i­nate the risk asso­ci­at­ed with volatil­i­ty, it is rec­om­mend­ed to con­nect via an unin­ter­rupt­ible pow­er sup­ply.

There is anoth­er type of burn­ers — dif­fuse-kinet­ic. The prin­ci­ple of cre­at­ing a gas-air mix­ture is as fol­lows: the oxy­gen nec­es­sary to main­tain the com­bus­tion process simul­ta­ne­ous­ly enters the fuel cham­ber and direct­ly into the torch. Such devices are prac­ti­cal­ly not used in domes­tic heat­ing sys­tems.

Today, most man­u­fac­tur­ers of heat­ing sys­tems have launched the pro­duc­tion of com­bined burn­ers, which allow using almost any type of fuel as fuel with­out recon­fig­ur­ing the sys­tem and addi­tion­al equip­ment.

Burn­ers of this type have a rather com­plex design, which leads to their high cost. That is why the com­bined mod­els did not find great demand among our com­pa­tri­ots.

Criterias of choice

The cor­rect choice of the gas burn­er device ensures the cor­rect, com­plete and con­stant com­bus­tion of the fuel even with gas pres­sure fluc­tu­a­tions. Com­plete com­bus­tion of gas ensures high effi­cien­cy and obtain­ing a mix­ture of gas­es that is prac­ti­cal­ly safe for humans dur­ing fuel com­bus­tion.

When choos­ing this device, you should pay atten­tion to its design, tech­ni­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics, the prin­ci­ples of cre­at­ing a fuel mix­ture and its sup­ply to the com­bus­tion cham­ber.

  1. Based on oper­at­ing expe­ri­ence, the most durable are struc­tural­ly sim­ple gas burn­er equip­ment. Com­plex devices, most often fail quick­ly enough due to high tem­per­a­tures in the com­bus­tion cham­ber.
  2. It is rec­om­mend­ed to use mod­els with the same sec­tion of holes for the pas­sage of the gas-air mix­ture. Adjust­ment of air and fuel flow should be car­ried out by means of throt­tle devices installed on under­wa­ter air and gas com­mu­ni­ca­tions.

When buy­ing this device, pay atten­tion to its label­ing. For exam­ple, the let­ter “G” in the mark­ing indi­cates that it is intend­ed for gas boil­ers. The des­ig­na­tion “GM” indi­cates that this mod­el is intend­ed for boil­ers that use gas and fuel oil as fuel. The let­ter “P” indi­cates that you have a rota­tion­al mod­el in front of you. The des­ig­na­tion “RP” means rotary with the right rota­tion of the rotor; “RL” — with left rota­tion of the noz­zle rotor.

If you decide to make your own choice, then you should pay atten­tion to the fol­low­ing equip­ment:

  • KChM is an extreme­ly sim­ple and reli­able device equipped with three noz­zles.

    KChMMost often used by our com­pa­tri­ots when trans­fer­ring boil­er units from sol­id fuel to nat­ur­al or liq­ue­fied gas.

  • Ochag is a ful­ly auto­mat­ic, pneu­mo­me­chan­i­cal gas burn­er equip­ment with a three-stage safe­ty sys­tem.

    HearthThe mod­el is equipped with an auto­mat­ic gas pres­sure reg­u­la­tor, which ensures uni­form com­bus­tion of the mix­ture even with pres­sure drops in the sys­tem.

  • “Coop­er” is a com­bined device that can oper­ate on almost any type of fuel.

    cooperThe main advan­tage of this device is the ease of instal­la­tion.

Tip: The right choice of gas burn­er equip­ment requires spe­cial knowl­edge and expe­ri­ence. That is why it is rec­om­mend­ed to entrust the choice of the nec­es­sary mod­el to pro­fes­sion­als.

Service features

Like any equip­ment, a gas burn­er needs main­te­nance. The leg­is­la­tion pro­hibits inter­ven­tion in gas equip­ment, so you have to resort to the ser­vices of cer­ti­fied spe­cial­ists. Despite this, clean­ing the fur­nace and burn­er can be done inde­pen­dent­ly. The main stages of work:

  1. Shut­ting off the gas line and dis­con­nect­ing the boil­er from the pow­er sup­ply.
  2. Dis­man­tling the device.
  3. Clean­ing of car­bon deposits that could form on the igni­tion elec­trodes.
  4. Clean­ing the com­bus­tion cham­ber.
  5. Replac­ing the gas valve fil­ter.

After clean­ing, it is nec­es­sary to assem­ble the device in com­pli­ance with the nec­es­sary clear­ances, which are set out in the tech­ni­cal require­ments and are in the pass­port for the boil­er. After the assem­bly process, it is nec­es­sary to con­fig­ure and adjust the device.

These works are car­ried out using a gas ana­lyz­er, which is mount­ed in the chim­ney and exam­ines the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of the exhaust gas­es. We strong­ly rec­om­mend that you con­tact com­pa­nies that have a state cer­tifi­cate autho­riz­ing this work to adjust the oper­a­tion of the burn­er.


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