Is it worth it to be proud that your home is still illuminated by “Ilyich’s bulbs”, and wires, sockets and switches have been serving since the time of G.M.Krzhizhanovsky. Technological progress encourages apartment owners to bring outdated electrical installations in accordance with modern requirements.
Two sacramental questions that concern European regardless of time, place and current events,- “what to do?” and “withwhat to start?”. Tohousehold electrical appliances, they are most directly related. The fact is that citizens living in houses of old construction will soon have to change wires, sockets, and switches in their apartments.- this is absolutely reliable information. We will tell you how we made such an upgrade.
Before you is a plan of the apartment, on which a functional diagram of the electrical installation is outlined. According to the plan and diagram with a pencil on the wall, mark the strobes for laying wires, points for chiseling holes in the walls, places where the apartment shield, junction boxes, sockets, dimmers and switches will be located.
Symbols given in the functional diagram of the electrical installation:
6 lines of socket groups
Socket with earth conductor (PE)
3 lighting lines
Ground conductor (PE)
At a time when household appliances meant a table lamp, iron, radio,
First, remove the old housing panel, open and, where necessary, hidden electrical wiring. Temporarily take power from the cable entry to the apartment (make the connection in accordance with the general electrical rules).
In the walls, according to the markings (from the shield), with a “grinder” saw with an abrasive wheel, cut the contours of the strobes to a depth of 4–5 cm. Repeat the same operation on the plastered ceiling.
Hollow out the strobe within the cuts with the help of a scarpel and a hammer to a depth sufficient for laying the PVC hose into which the wire will be pulled.
In places where sockets, boxes, switches are installed, drill holes for them with a drill with a special cutting nozzle.
Punch holes in the interior partitions with a perforator, through which you can extend protective PVC hoses from one room to another.
In a modern apartment, appliances that consume electricity are located literally on every meter of living space, and numerous sockets are needed to connect them. According to the new requirements for such energy-intensive electrical appliances as a microwave oven, washing machine, boiler, a separate outlet group, or even two, is required, not to mention a home sauna. BUTbecause there are still numerous chandeliers, floor lamps, sconces. You have already understood that without a project agreed with the power supply authorities and the State Energy Supervision Authority, it is better not to carry out electrical work. ToIn addition, a new electrical installation must be certified according to existing rules. Therefore, you have a direct road to a company that has experience in designing, coordinating electrical installation diagrams and a license for the right to perform electrical work. You can, of course, do it yourself, but our duty- to warn of the possible consequences before your mistakes are discovered by a technician from the housing department …
Install a new housing shield in a niche previously hollowed out in the wall, which (at the first stage of electrical installation) is fixed with wooden wedges. Subsequently, screw it to the wall with screws with dowels, cover the gaps with alabaster.
Lead the phase, zero protective and zero working conductors of the internal wiring and power cable to the shield through PVC hoses and connect to the ground terminals, residual current device (RCD), circuit breakers, electricity meter and general circuit breaker 40 A.
Connect the installation devices in the shield (RCD, circuit breakers) to each other using a bus.
The hose, regardless of whether the wires are passed into it or they will be pulled in later, put it in a gate so that its end goes into a niche for an installation or branch box, and temporarily fix it on the wall with a pre-diluted alabaster applied with a spatula.
Tighten the wire into a hidden hose, first with a pulling cable from the side of the nearest outlet or junction box, and then with your hands. Fasten the ends of the wire to the terminals of the appropriate switchgear.
But jokes aside, let’s get down to business. Any serious reconstruction begins with the demolition of walls and partitions. If you act to the maximum, then only the supporting structures and ceilings should not be touched, and all communications, including electrical wiring, must be re-laid during the repair. Let’s not be too categorical in our decisions and keep fragments of its original layout in the apartment. On thewalls in places where, according to the project, electrical appliances were supposed to be connected, there are junction boxes and sockets, as well as switches. The wires were either laid to them in an open way (attached to insulators), or were brought in secret. Often a flat wire — “noodles” was simply smeared with a layer of plaster. ATIn this case, it is easiest to cut it off and leave it in the wall. If the wire is laid in a channel or pipe, then it is possible to tighten a new one in its place, saving effort and money on gouging the walls. As a rule, it is still necessary to hollow out load-bearing walls, since during redevelopment the location of electrical appliances changes and new sockets are required. ToIn addition, the rubber hoses previously used for laying wires cracked from time to time and lost their insulating properties. ATIn cases where the electrical installation is undergoing further reconstruction after the repair is completed, it is permissible to use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cable channels for open wiring.
(flat and Phillips screwdrivers, cable cutters, pliers, stripping tool)
What is considered the main thing in electrical engineering? That’s right, reliable contacts. ATideally, the ends of the copper wires at the joints could be tinned with tin-lead solder. In practice, however, it is enough to clean them up. Common twisted connections tend to oxidize over time, break contacts, leak currents and spark- there is a threat of ignition of the wooden base of the partition, wallpaper and other things. Therefore, Western methods allow only terminal connections. WAGO clamping terminals and connecting caps are considered to be highly effective, in which the wires are in a protective conductive lubricant. Screw terminals also work well, but every three to four years you should check the quality of the contacts and tighten the screws if necessary, especially if aluminum wires are connected.
The technology of laying wires in cable channels manufactured by THORSMAN and REHAU was covered in the article
“Confessions of an old electric meter.” “Ideas of Your Home” has already written about the rules for laying wires, installing sockets and other electrical products (see the articles “Don’t get in, it will kill you!”, “A penny saves a ruble”, “Wires to nowhere”, “Lost electricity” ), therefore we will omit the questions of theory and turn to practice.
So, follow the good advice: reconstruct your home electrical installations in accordance with the rules. If we change the old to the new, then so that there is a margin of safety and problems with electricity in the apartment after you do not even have to be resolved by your great-grandchildren.
Fix plastic boxes for installing sockets and switches, as well as junction boxes into which the ends of the wires are inserted, fasten to the wall with alabaster.
Connect the wires in the junction boxes using screw terminals.
Connect the wires in the sub-socket box to the three terminals of the plug socket “under the screw”, then install the socket in the box, which is fixed on the wall in a horizontal plane with the help of adjusting screws. Set the switch in the same way.
Fasten the decorative and protective cover of the socket (switch) from the outside with a screw.
Bath grounding is an important element of the electrical installation, designed to equalize electrical potentials. Connect a stranded ground wire with a cross section of 6 mm² with a bolt to the bath tide, and with the other end to the terminal distributor. Fix this distributor with screws anywhere, such as under the bathtub or on the wall.
Connect the cold water pipe to the “ground” of the apartment shield through the same terminal distributor. For this, a ground wire with a cross section of 6mm2 lay under the skirting and enter into the shield box through the PVC hose. Fix one end of the grounding wire to the pipe with a steel clamp, and fix the other end on the shield with a separate bolt.