GOELRO plan for a single apartment

Is it worth it to be proud that your home is still illu­mi­nat­ed by “Ilyich’s bulbs”, and wires, sock­ets and switch­es have been serv­ing since the time of G.M.Krzhizhanovsky. Tech­no­log­i­cal progress encour­ages apart­ment own­ers to bring out­dat­ed elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions in accor­dance with mod­ern require­ments.

Two sacra­men­tal ques­tions that con­cern Euro­pean regard­less of time, place and cur­rent events,- “what to do?” and “with­what to start?”. Tohouse­hold elec­tri­cal appli­ances, they are most direct­ly relat­ed. The fact is that cit­i­zens liv­ing in hous­es of old con­struc­tion will soon have to change wires, sock­ets, and switch­es in their apart­ments.- this is absolute­ly reli­able infor­ma­tion. We will tell you how we made such an upgrade.

GOELRO plan for a single apartment

Before you is a plan of the apart­ment, on which a func­tion­al dia­gram of the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion is out­lined. Accord­ing to the plan and dia­gram with a pen­cil on the wall, mark the strobes for lay­ing wires, points for chis­el­ing holes in the walls, places where the apart­ment shield, junc­tion box­es, sock­ets, dim­mers and switch­es will be locat­ed.

Sym­bols giv­en in the func­tion­al dia­gram of the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion:

GOELRO plan for a single apartment6 lines of sock­et groups

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentLight­ing point

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentSock­et with earth con­duc­tor (PE)

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentSwitch

GOELRO plan for a single apartment3 light­ing lines

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentGround con­duc­tor (PE)

At a time when house­hold appli­ances meant a table lamp, iron, radio, and in the 60s- what progress!- also a refrig­er­a­tor and a TV, in a two-room apart­ment five sock­ets were enough, and even those were designed for a cur­rent strength of 6BUT.

GOELRO plan for a single apartment

First, remove the old hous­ing pan­el, open and, where nec­es­sary, hid­den elec­tri­cal wiring. Tem­porar­i­ly take pow­er from the cable entry to the apart­ment (make the con­nec­tion in accor­dance with the gen­er­al elec­tri­cal rules).

GOELRO plan for a single apartment

In the walls, accord­ing to the mark­ings (from the shield), with a “grinder” saw with an abra­sive wheel, cut the con­tours of the strobes to a depth of 4–5 cm. Repeat the same oper­a­tion on the plas­tered ceil­ing.

GOELRO plan for a single apartment

Hol­low out the strobe with­in the cuts with the help of a scarpel and a ham­mer to a depth suf­fi­cient for lay­ing the PVC hose into which the wire will be pulled.

GOELRO plan for a single apartment

In places where sock­ets, box­es, switch­es are installed, drill holes for them with a drill with a spe­cial cut­ting noz­zle.

GOELRO plan for a single apartment

Punch holes in the inte­ri­or par­ti­tions with a per­fo­ra­tor, through which you can extend pro­tec­tive PVC hoses from one room to anoth­er.

In a mod­ern apart­ment, appli­ances that con­sume elec­tric­i­ty are locat­ed lit­er­al­ly on every meter of liv­ing space, and numer­ous sock­ets are need­ed to con­nect them. Accord­ing to the new require­ments for such ener­gy-inten­sive elec­tri­cal appli­ances as a microwave oven, wash­ing machine, boil­er, a sep­a­rate out­let group, or even two, is required, not to men­tion a home sauna. BUT­be­cause there are still numer­ous chan­de­liers, floor lamps, sconces. You have already under­stood that with­out a project agreed with the pow­er sup­ply author­i­ties and the State Ener­gy Super­vi­sion Author­i­ty, it is bet­ter not to car­ry out elec­tri­cal work. ToIn addi­tion, a new elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion must be cer­ti­fied accord­ing to exist­ing rules. There­fore, you have a direct road to a com­pa­ny that has expe­ri­ence in design­ing, coor­di­nat­ing elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion dia­grams and a license for the right to per­form elec­tri­cal work. You can, of course, do it your­self, but our duty- to warn of the pos­si­ble con­se­quences before your mis­takes are dis­cov­ered by a tech­ni­cian from the hous­ing depart­ment …

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentInstall a new hous­ing shield in a niche pre­vi­ous­ly hol­lowed out in the wall, which (at the first stage of elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion) is fixed with wood­en wedges. Sub­se­quent­ly, screw it to the wall with screws with dow­els, cov­er the gaps with alabaster.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentLead the phase, zero pro­tec­tive and zero work­ing con­duc­tors of the inter­nal wiring and pow­er cable to the shield through PVC hoses and con­nect to the ground ter­mi­nals, resid­ual cur­rent device (RCD), cir­cuit break­ers, elec­tric­i­ty meter and gen­er­al cir­cuit break­er 40 A.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentCon­nect the instal­la­tion devices in the shield (RCD, cir­cuit break­ers) to each oth­er using a bus.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentThe hose, regard­less of whether the wires are passed into it or they will be pulled in lat­er, put it in a gate so that its end goes into a niche for an instal­la­tion or branch box, and tem­porar­i­ly fix it on the wall with a pre-dilut­ed alabaster applied with a spat­u­la.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentTight­en the wire into a hid­den hose, first with a pulling cable from the side of the near­est out­let or junc­tion box, and then with your hands. Fas­ten the ends of the wire to the ter­mi­nals of the appro­pri­ate switchgear.

But jokes aside, let’s get down to busi­ness. Any seri­ous recon­struc­tion begins with the demo­li­tion of walls and par­ti­tions. If you act to the max­i­mum, then only the sup­port­ing struc­tures and ceil­ings should not be touched, and all com­mu­ni­ca­tions, includ­ing elec­tri­cal wiring, must be re-laid dur­ing the repair. Let’s not be too cat­e­gor­i­cal in our deci­sions and keep frag­ments of its orig­i­nal lay­out in the apart­ment. On the­walls in places where, accord­ing to the project, elec­tri­cal appli­ances were sup­posed to be con­nect­ed, there are junc­tion box­es and sock­ets, as well as switch­es. The wires were either laid to them in an open way (attached to insu­la­tors), or were brought in secret. Often a flat wire — “noo­dles” was sim­ply smeared with a lay­er of plas­ter. ATIn this case, it is eas­i­est to cut it off and leave it in the wall. If the wire is laid in a chan­nel or pipe, then it is pos­si­ble to tight­en a new one in its place, sav­ing effort and mon­ey on goug­ing the walls. As a rule, it is still nec­es­sary to hol­low out load-bear­ing walls, since dur­ing rede­vel­op­ment the loca­tion of elec­tri­cal appli­ances changes and new sock­ets are required. ToIn addi­tion, the rub­ber hoses pre­vi­ous­ly used for lay­ing wires cracked from time to time and lost their insu­lat­ing prop­er­ties. ATIn cas­es where the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion is under­go­ing fur­ther recon­struc­tion after the repair is com­plet­ed, it is per­mis­si­ble to use polyvinyl chlo­ride (PVC) cable chan­nels for open wiring.

Saw “Bul­gar­i­an” with an abra­sive wheel
Scarpel, ham­mer, spat­u­la
PVC insu­la­tion tape
elec­tri­cal tool
(flat and Phillips screw­drivers, cable cut­ters, pli­ers, strip­ping tool)

What is con­sid­ered the main thing in elec­tri­cal engi­neer­ing? That’s right, reli­able con­tacts. ATide­al­ly, the ends of the cop­per wires at the joints could be tinned with tin-lead sol­der. In prac­tice, how­ev­er, it is enough to clean them up. Com­mon twist­ed con­nec­tions tend to oxi­dize over time, break con­tacts, leak cur­rents and spark- there is a threat of igni­tion of the wood­en base of the par­ti­tion, wall­pa­per and oth­er things. There­fore, West­ern meth­ods allow only ter­mi­nal con­nec­tions. WAGO clamp­ing ter­mi­nals and con­nect­ing caps are con­sid­ered to be high­ly effec­tive, in which the wires are in a pro­tec­tive con­duc­tive lubri­cant. Screw ter­mi­nals also work well, but every three to four years you should check the qual­i­ty of the con­tacts and tight­en the screws if nec­es­sary, espe­cial­ly if alu­minum wires are con­nect­ed.

The tech­nol­o­gy of lay­ing wires in cable chan­nels man­u­fac­tured by THORSMAN and REHAU was cov­ered in the arti­cle

“Con­fes­sions of an old elec­tric meter.” “Ideas of Your Home” has already writ­ten about the rules for lay­ing wires, installing sock­ets and oth­er elec­tri­cal prod­ucts (see the arti­cles “Don’t get in, it will kill you!”, “A pen­ny saves a ruble”, “Wires to nowhere”, “Lost elec­tric­i­ty” ), there­fore we will omit the ques­tions of the­o­ry and turn to prac­tice.

So, fol­low the good advice: recon­struct your home elec­tri­cal instal­la­tions in accor­dance with the rules. If we change the old to the new, then so that there is a mar­gin of safe­ty and prob­lems with elec­tric­i­ty in the apart­ment after you do not even have to be resolved by your great-grand­chil­dren.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentFix plas­tic box­es for installing sock­ets and switch­es, as well as junc­tion box­es into which the ends of the wires are insert­ed, fas­ten to the wall with alabaster.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentCon­nect the wires in the junc­tion box­es using screw ter­mi­nals.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentCon­nect the wires in the sub-sock­et box to the three ter­mi­nals of the plug sock­et “under the screw”, then install the sock­et in the box, which is fixed on the wall in a hor­i­zon­tal plane with the help of adjust­ing screws. Set the switch in the same way.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentFas­ten the dec­o­ra­tive and pro­tec­tive cov­er of the sock­et (switch) from the out­side with a screw.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentBath ground­ing is an impor­tant ele­ment of the elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion, designed to equal­ize elec­tri­cal poten­tials. Con­nect a strand­ed ground wire with a cross sec­tion of 6 mm² with a bolt to the bath tide, and with the oth­er end to the ter­mi­nal dis­trib­u­tor. Fix this dis­trib­u­tor with screws any­where, such as under the bath­tub or on the wall.

GOELRO plan for a single apartmentCon­nect the cold water pipe to the “ground” of the apart­ment shield through the same ter­mi­nal dis­trib­u­tor. For this, a ground wire with a cross sec­tion of 6mm2 lay under the skirt­ing and enter into the shield box through the PVC hose. Fix one end of the ground­ing wire to the pipe with a steel clamp, and fix the oth­er end on the shield with a sep­a­rate bolt.

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