Heater with carbon elements

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In addi­tion to halo­gen and quartz heaters, there is anoth­er, the youngest type of infrared heat­ing devices — a car­bon heater. The fresh­ness of the devel­op­ment implies the use of mod­ern tech­nolo­gies in the device, which real­ly takes place in this unit, so we will con­sid­er the car­bon heater in more detail in order to bet­ter nav­i­gate the wide range of house­hold appli­ances that are iden­ti­cal in pur­pose when buy­ing.


Carbon heater device

The design of this type of heat­ing device dif­fers lit­tle from the exe­cu­tion of most types of infrared heat­ing devices. In a met­al or ceram­ic case with a reflec­tor (reflec­tor), the main ele­ment of the elec­tric heater is placed inside — a car­bon lamp, which can be locat­ed in the case both hor­i­zon­tal­ly and ver­ti­cal­ly.

The reflec­tor pro­vides direc­tion­al­i­ty to the con­cen­trat­ed beam of radi­a­tion, which can also be adjust­ed with a mechan­i­cal rotary device avail­able on most mod­els.

Carbon lamp device

This lamp-emit­ter is a tube of quartz glass sealed at the ends, in which an incan­des­cent fil­a­ment of a spe­cial car­bon fiber — car­bon fiber is placed under vac­u­um con­di­tions.

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Car­bon fiber was cho­sen as a fil­a­ment for a rea­son — an infrared emit­ter of this design oper­ates in the long-wave range, exclud­ing the fac­tor of unde­sir­able long-term expo­sure to short-wave radi­a­tion. In addi­tion, the resource of car­bon lamps is on aver­age 1000$ hours, which, in terms of the months of the heat­ing sea­son, is approx­i­mate­ly 10 cal­en­dar years.


A large resource is due to the fact that the coef­fi­cient of lin­ear ther­mal expan­sion of car­bon fiber, unlike tung­sten or nichrome, is close to zero, and the met­al fatigue fac­tor from tem­per­a­ture defor­ma­tions when the device is turned on and off is absent from car­bon fiber by def­i­n­i­tion.

The principle of operation of the device

After installing or mount­ing the device, the reflec­tor is man­u­al­ly direct­ed in the desired direc­tion and fixed. The device is con­nect­ed to a 220/230 V house­hold net­work and almost instant­ly reach­es the max­i­mum heat radi­a­tion pow­er. The effi­cien­cy of car­bon fiber in heat trans­fer is high­er than that of met­als, since it requires almost no ener­gy to heat the fil­a­ment to the radi­a­tion tem­per­a­ture, while the quartz glass of the tubes trans­mits radi­ant heat with­out loss. This is due to the cost-effec­tive­ness of car­bon heaters com­pared to oth­er tube infrared heaters.

Heat­ing of the room is pro­vid­ed by heat­ing the objects to which the heater is direct­ed, with their sub­se­quent release of heat into the air of the room. There is no radi­a­tion ener­gy con­sump­tion for increas­ing the air tem­per­a­ture dur­ing the pas­sage of waves through it, since the ener­gy of long-wave infrared radi­a­tion of car­bon is absorbed only by dense media. In this case, not only the sur­faces of the room fur­nish­ings are heat­ed, but also their inter­nal heat­ing to a depth of up to 2 cm, which helps to extend the heat trans­fer time after the heater is turned off. Many mod­els of car­bon units are equipped with a ther­mo­stat that allows you to main­tain a cer­tain tem­per­a­ture in the room.

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Like all mod­ern elec­tric heat­ing devices, the car­bon heater has an auto­mat­ic shut­down device in the design in case of a fall, over­turn­ing or a dan­ger­ous angle of incli­na­tion.

Impor­tant! Long-term pres­ence of a per­son in the path of long-wave radi­a­tion of a car­bon lamp, if a safe dis­tance is observed to pre­vent ther­mal burns, is absolute­ly harm­less.

Types of carbon appliances for heating

Car­bon heaters are made portable (floor, tri­pod) or intend­ed for instal­la­tion on a wall or ceil­ing. These types of con­struc­tion dif­fer from each oth­er only in the way they are locat­ed and attached to the base.

There is also a clas­si­fi­ca­tion accord­ing to the ori­en­ta­tion of the heat­ing ele­ments in the hous­ing:

  • hor­i­zon­tal;
  • ver­ti­cal.

Of these two ver­sions, the one that cor­re­sponds to the most ratio­nal place­ment of the device at the place of oper­a­tion is select­ed.

Mod­els of car­bon heaters also dif­fer in the num­ber of heat­ing ele­ments. Nat­u­ral­ly, the more of them, the more effi­cient the device will be, but the more sig­nif­i­cant is the pow­er con­sump­tion.


In terms of pow­er, car­bon-fiber heat­ing devices are divid­ed into house­hold ones — from a few tens of watts to 2–3 kilo­watts, and indus­tri­al, mul­ti-kilo­watt ones, used to heat indus­tri­al premis­es or pro­vide tem­per­a­ture con­trol in dry­ing cham­bers.

Advantages and disadvantages

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The car­bon heater, as the youngest, is the most advanced unit among lamp heaters, which also deter­mines its high­er tech­ni­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics. We list the pros and cons of these devices, both inher­ent in all infrared heaters, and char­ac­ter­is­tic only of car­bon units.

  • High effi­cien­cy — close to 95%.
  • Econ­o­my:
  • low lev­el of ener­gy con­sump­tion — due to the high ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty of car­bon fiber, which allows for the gen­er­a­tion of a unit of heat to con­sume elec­tric­i­ty almost half as much as most tra­di­tion­al types of elec­tric heaters;
  • a large resource of the unit is also pro­vid­ed with the unique prop­er­ties of the car­bon fiber.
  • Absence of short-wave radi­a­tion — long-wave radi­a­tion of car­bon does not have a harm­ful effect on humans and does not change the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the air in the room (humid­i­ty, oxy­gen con­tent).
  • High degree of safe­ty of use.
  • Wide choice of options of con­struc­tive exe­cu­tion and design.
  • Com­pact­ness and small weight (2–4 kg).
  • Opti­mal lev­el of heater oper­a­tion automa­tion (ther­mo­stat, tip­ping sen­sor, remote con­trol).
  • Easy to oper­ate and dai­ly care.
  • Qui­et oper­a­tion.
  • Afford­able cost.

The list of advan­tages of a car­bon heater is impres­sive, but there are also dis­ad­van­tages:

  • low effi­cien­cy of direc­tion­al heat­ing in fresh air — due to the char­ac­ter­is­tics of long-wave radi­a­tion;
  • high prob­a­bil­i­ty of destruc­tion of quartz tubes of car­bon lamps if the device is acci­den­tal­ly dropped;
  • the inabil­i­ty of long-wave radi­a­tion to go around obsta­cles — an object that is in the path of the rays will be heat­ed.

The list­ed short­com­ings are not crit­i­cal, and rather per­form an infor­ma­tive func­tion than deter­mine the choice of device when buy­ing.

How to choose a carbon heater

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When buy­ing, first of all, you need to decide on the instal­la­tion loca­tion of the unit. If there is no per­ma­nent loca­tion, that is, it is sup­posed to move the device as need­ed, then you should choose a portable device — floor or tri­pod.

Ver­sions with a ver­ti­cal arrange­ment of heat­ing ele­ments are more com­pact and prefer­able for small spaces. At the same time, the pow­er of portable car­bon heat­ing devices usu­al­ly does not exceed 2 kW, which makes it pos­si­ble to pro­vide the desired tem­per­a­ture in a room up to 20 square meters.

To pro­tect chil­dren and pets from con­tact with appli­ances, it is bet­ter to give pref­er­ence to a wall or ceil­ing mod­i­fi­ca­tion, choos­ing a car­bon heater with the abil­i­ty to rotate the reflec­tor to the max­i­mum angle for even greater ease of use. At the same time, the strength of the brack­ets and the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the design for attach­ing the unit to the base should be manda­to­ry con­di­tions for choos­ing wall-mount­ed car­bon heat­ing devices.

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Impor­tant! The pow­er sup­ply cable of the device must have a ground­ing con­duc­tor con­nect­ed to the body of the device, and car­bon lamps must have a pro­tec­tive met­al grill.

The mate­r­i­al of the reflec­tor must be made of dense foil that resists being pressed by a fin­ger, and the heater body must be pro­tect­ed from cor­ro­sion by a high-qual­i­ty paint and var­nish coat­ing with­out chips and scratch­es.

The per­for­mance of the car­bon heat­ing device and its auto­mat­ic sys­tems upon pur­chase is checked on site, the man­u­fac­tur­er’s oper­at­ing instruc­tions must be attached to the device.

Terms of Use and Safety

To pre­vent acci­dents asso­ci­at­ed with elec­tri­cal injury and burns, as well as to ensure the heater’s life declared by the man­u­fac­tur­er, the fol­low­ing safe­ty pre­cau­tions must be observed:

  1. It is for­bid­den to place heaters in close prox­im­i­ty to flam­ma­ble objects (cur­tains, table­cloths, lamp­shades of floor lamps and table lamps, etc.).
  2. Dry­ing items on elec­tric heaters is not allowed.
  3. It is for­bid­den to place elec­tri­cal cables under car­pets, mov­able door leaves, in an area of ​​high humid­i­ty or water in an open form.
  4. It is also for­bid­den to leave heaters on unat­tend­ed.
  5. Repairs to car­bon heaters should only be car­ried out by qual­i­fied per­son­nel.

Fol­low­ing these rules will pro­tect users not only from acci­dents, but also from dis­ap­point­ment in these mod­ern func­tion­al home heaters.

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