Heating for a private house: which one is better to choose

Heating in a private house

What the mar­ket offers

  • sol­id fuel
  • Gas
  • Elec­tric­i­ty
  • solar sys­tems
  • Ther­mal

How to heat a house

  • nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion
  • forced cir­cu­la­tion
  • Sin­gle pipe wiring
  • Ver­ti­cal two-pipe schemes
  • Hor­i­zon­tal two-pipe sys­tem

Heat­ing schemes for a pri­vate house: which is bet­ter
What is the most eco­nom­i­cal

What heat­ing is bet­ter for a pri­vate house? Let’s try to decide. The sys­tem­ati­za­tion of pro­pos­als by ener­gy source will help us. Let’s con­di­tion­al­ly dis­tin­guish three clas­si­cal types: wood, gas, elec­tric heat­ing. And also con­sid­er new tech­ni­cal solu­tions: solar sys­tems, heat pumps. Below we will talk about each of the options, talk about the advan­tages and con­sid­er prob­lem areas.

What the market offers

solid fuel

The main advan­tage is auton­o­my. Fur­naces have proven their reli­a­bil­i­ty for cen­turies. In addi­tion, you will like the pleas­ant price, always afford­able. Of the minus­es — long heat­ing, low effi­cien­cy, the need to con­stant­ly throw up fuel. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, there are areas where con­nec­tion to the gas pipeline is unprof­itable due to the high cost of tie-in, in some places it is impos­si­ble due to remote­ness. Own­ers of small build­ings of 3–4 rooms will be sat­is­fied. In addi­tion, mod­ern design­ers com­ple­ment their solu­tions with a cozy fire­place.

Sol­id fuel boil­ers are a great alter­na­tive to a stove. The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion is clear to every­one — dur­ing the com­bus­tion of com­bustible mate­ri­als, heat is released and the coolant is heat­ed. Hot water is dis­trib­uted through pipes and heats the rooms. It is pleas­ant to note a wide range of advan­tages, which in many respects have some­thing in com­mon with the fur­nace method of heat­ing.

  • Prof­itabil­i­ty. Inex­pen­sive, espe­cial­ly if the for­est is near­by.
  • Eco­log­i­cal puri­ty. The con­tents of the fire­box burn com­plete­ly, leav­ing only ash.
  • Load­ing with fire­wood, saw­dust, bri­quettes, coal, peat.
  • Auton­o­my.
  • Low equip­ment cost.
  • Automa­tion pro­vides ease of con­trol.
  • The boil­er room will be installed with­out addi­tion­al approvals.

But there are also dis­ad­van­tages.

  • Low heat trans­fer, it is prob­lem­at­ic to heat a large area hous­ing.
  • Heat­ing occurs by iner­tia, like a fur­nace.
  • Stor­age of fuel in a sep­a­rate room.
  • Clean­ing soot, soot.
  • Man­u­al load­ing.
  • Reg­u­lar care.
  • Addi­tion­al devices are need­ed, for exam­ple, a heat accu­mu­la­tor, a forced draft device, an addi­tion­al boil­er.
  • Chim­ney instal­la­tion.

To sum­ma­rize, this option has many advan­tages, the main thing is inde­pen­dence from exter­nal ener­gy sources, cost sav­ings. A sig­nif­i­cant draw­back is that it requires reg­u­lar super­vi­sion, which caus­es dis­com­fort.


A great solu­tion if the high­way is locat­ed near­by. The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion is the same as that of sol­id fuel. The ener­gy car­ri­er is ignit­ed using piezo­elec­tric ele­ments or elec­tron­ic igni­tion.

Main advan­tages.

  • Sim­ple oper­a­tion.
  • Safe­ty thanks to mod­ern safe­ty devices.
  • Rel­a­tive­ly high effi­cien­cy, and the cost of fuel is low.
  • High effi­cien­cy: heats large areas.
  • Com­fort: the heat sup­ply is reg­u­lat­ed by the own­er, and each radi­a­tor is com­ple­ment­ed by a ther­mo­stat. This approach allows you to cre­ate your own ther­mal regime.

Among the dis­ad­van­tages:

  • A per­mit from the gas ser­vice is required.
  • The instal­la­tion is locat­ed in a spe­cial room.
  • Instal­la­tion is car­ried out only by spe­cial­ists.
  • It is pos­si­ble to change the pres­sure in the lines, which will dis­able the equip­ment.
  • Only the pres­ence of an auto­mat­ic sys­tem implies the safe­ty of the unit.
  • Need a chim­ney.

Gas con­vec­tors are also used in coun­try hous­es. Cold air enters through a slot at the bot­tom of the appli­ance, is heat­ed through a heat exchang­er, and then hot air is sup­plied into the room.

We note the advan­tages:

  • heat enters faster, due to the exclu­sion of an inter­me­di­ate link — water;
  • expens­es are reduced;
  • sim­pli­fies the instal­la­tion process as there is no pip­ing.

Let’s look at the dis­ad­van­tages:

  • the device is mount­ed in each room and an ener­gy car­ri­er is sup­plied;
  • a spe­cial per­mit from the gas ser­vice is required;
  • installed by experts;
  • need a chim­ney.

So the costs are rea­son­able. Get­ting all kinds of per­mits will take time.


Elec­tric heat­ing has many advan­tages and is con­sid­ered as an alter­na­tive when the gas line is not avail­able. Feed-in tar­iffs in place can even reduce costs.

Let’s take a look at the three most com­mon ways.

  1. Con­vec­tive. Pro­vid­ed by elec­tric boil­ers, oil cool­ers, con­vec­tors.
  2. Ray. Instal­la­tion of infrared heat­ing pan­els, elec­tro­ce­ram­ic pan­els, bat­ter­ies, films, car­bon heaters.
  3. Air or ther­mal fans.


  • Instal­la­tion is eas­i­er.
  • The pack­age of per­mits is much small­er.
  • Easy man­age­ment.
  • Safe­ty. No open flames, no haz­ardous waste.
  • The chim­ney is miss­ing.
  • Reduced rates are pos­si­ble.

Pro­fes­sion­al cal­cu­la­tion is the basis for a com­pe­tent choice of equip­ment. This option will be ben­e­fi­cial if the experts take into account all the nuances of your home.

solar systems

A solar col­lec­tor is a pan­el with built-in heat exchange ele­ments: plates or vac­u­um tubes. The sun shines for free, so this method is eco­nom­i­cal, but the price of equip­ment, on the con­trary, is high. In Europe, it pays off in 5 years, and for cen­tral Europe this peri­od will dou­ble. In win­ter, when more heat is need­ed and the day length is short­er, solar pan­els do not pro­duce the required amount of ener­gy.

Heat pumps

A unit that trans­fers dis­si­pat­ed heat ener­gy through a heat­ing cir­cuit. A heat gen­er­a­tor, air con­di­tion­er and water heater coex­ist here at the same time. Three mod­els are used for cot­tages: geot­her­mal, water, air.


  • Prof­itabil­i­ty is much high­er than oth­er offers. It pro­duces 3–5 kW of ther­mal ener­gy, and receives only 1 kW of elec­tric­i­ty.
  • Eco­log­i­cal puri­ty. Works with­out pol­lu­tion.
  • Safe­ty. No open flames, no haz­ardous waste.
  • Ver­sa­til­i­ty. Pro­vides heat­ing in win­ter, air cool­ing in sum­mer, water heat­ing all year round.
  • Very reli­able. Oper­ates in a closed, sealed cir­cuit.
  • Com­fort thanks to auto­mat­ic mode.
  • Doc­u­men­tary sup­port requires less effort com­pared to oth­ers.


  • The price is con­sid­ered high.
  • Drilling works, place for instal­la­tion, doc­u­men­ta­tion.
  • Com­pres­sor noise. Addi­tion­al sound­proof­ing of the boil­er room will be required.
  • The pres­ence of a three-phase pow­er sup­ply.

This is advanced equip­ment with which we are still lit­tle famil­iar. It is rea­son­able to add to the indi­rect dis­ad­van­tages the cau­tious atti­tude of the con­sumer towards all new prod­ucts. It is dif­fi­cult to imag­ine a mod­ern apart­ment with­out air con­di­tion­ing. How many peo­ple know that this is an air source heat pump?

The choice is wide. Each option has its own pros, cons, we also list­ed. When installing, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the specifics of your own hous­ing, the acquired land, and the area. You can sup­ple­ment the stan­dard offer with warm floors, which is very com­fort­able, espe­cial­ly if you have chil­dren.

How to heat a house

There are sev­er­al heat­ing schemes that have been proven by life expe­ri­ence. They dif­fer in the type of water cir­cu­la­tion, in the way of dis­trib­ut­ing high­ways: one-pipe, two-pipe, radi­al and “Leningrad”. Com­po­nents:

  • Heat­ing boil­er.
  • Pipeline.
  • Radi­a­tors.

  • Fit­tings.
  • Expan­sion tank.
  • Cir­cu­la­tion pump.

The coolant moves through the pipes in a nat­ur­al or forced way. Through the bat­ter­ies, it gives off heat to the room, then returns. To speed up, a pump is installed.

natural circulation

When heat­ed or cooled, the den­si­ty of water changes. Hot ris­es through the ris­er, flows to the radi­a­tors along the high­ways. It is impor­tant to make a small slope of 3–5 degrees when lay­ing hor­i­zon­tal pipes to the bat­ter­ies.

The pro­posed option will save the cost of heat­ing a small one-sto­ry, two-sto­ry house. Restric­tion — the length of the cir­cuit should not exceed 30 m.

forced circulation

The pump accel­er­ates the move­ment of the coolant. This solu­tion makes it pos­si­ble to heat large areas. There is no need to with­stand the slope when lay­ing the pipeline hor­i­zon­tal­ly. In this case, there is a depen­dence on the source of elec­tric­i­ty. Many pri­vate home own­ers buy a gen­er­a­tor.

Single pipe wiring

Water with such wiring sequen­tial­ly enters all radi­a­tors.


  • Easy instal­la­tion.
  • Low labor costs.
  • Low cost.


  • Heat loss.
  • The heat­ing of each room is not reg­u­lat­ed.
  • A pump is required to main­tain pres­sure.

You can install ther­mo­sta­t­ic valves, radi­a­tor reg­u­la­tors, bal­anc­ing valves, air ducts to get rid of unpleas­ant imper­fec­tions. Costs will increase, but you will set the tem­per­a­ture of the rooms.

Leningrad­skaya is dis­tin­guished by the abil­i­ty to adjust the heat­ing lev­el of each bat­tery. The instal­la­tion of a bypass pipe and stop­cocks allows the equip­ment to func­tion when the device is cut off.

Vertical two-pipe schemes

This solu­tion allows you to bring a direct and return line to each radi­a­tor. The cost of installing the pipeline will increase, but the con­trol of the heat lev­el of the rooms will remain with the own­er. The wiring from the boil­er can be top or bot­tom.

Horizontal two-pipe system

The scheme, which is most often used for heat­ing cot­tages. She has three options:

  • Dead end. Easy to cal­cu­late and mount, low cost. The occur­rence of a stag­na­tion zone in places with a low speed of water move­ment is a dis­ad­van­tage.
  • Asso­ci­at­ed move­ment of the coolant. Heat­ing is eas­i­er to adjust due to the equal length of the cir­cu­la­tion cir­cuits. Opti­mum oper­a­tion of the boil­er with a pump. The pur­chase of pipes will cost more.
  • Col­lec­tor. The coolant will always be warm. Sep­a­rate con­nec­tion of radi­a­tors con­tributes to uni­form heat­ing of the room. The high cost, which does not pre­vent to win the hearts of lovers of coun­try life.

Heating schemes for a private house: which is better

Sin­gle-pipe and grav­i­ty sys­tems are good for their sim­plic­i­ty, they do not require sig­nif­i­cant costs. If the house is built near the metrop­o­lis, where elec­tric­i­ty is sup­plied with­out inter­rup­tion, and the gas main is close, you can cre­ate com­fort­able liv­ing con­di­tions. When installing radi­a­tor heat­ing, it is bet­ter to choose a two-pipe dead-end or beam scheme. Both work equal­ly well. Heat­ed floors will add extra com­fort. The main thing is to cor­rect­ly cal­cu­late the heat loss.

Heating in a private house: what is the most economical

What is bet­ter to choose in a pri­vate house. There are two main fac­tors to con­sid­er here. First, the cost of equip­ment, instal­la­tion. Sec­ond, the month­ly fuel fee. Sav­ing mon­ey will allow a crit­i­cal analy­sis of your struc­ture. Find out the short­com­ings. Any offer will be unprof­itable if the heat goes out­side. Each region of the coun­try dic­tates the norms for build­ing mate­ri­als, their thick­ness, ther­mal insu­la­tion. Heat loss for dou­ble-glazed win­dows is 25%, roofs, attics — 15%, and poor ven­ti­la­tion eats up to 50% of heat. “Cold bridges” are formed through the met­al parts that pen­e­trate the wall. They are com­ple­ment­ed by the ends of the slabs, slopes of doors, win­dows, base­ment walls.

Obvi­ous­ly, the price of the issue depends on the pos­si­ble desire to com­bine some options. Approx­i­mate­ly in EU, the total cost is built tak­ing into account the fol­low­ing com­po­nents:

  1. Bake.
  2. Gas heat­ing, if there is a high­way near­by.
  3. Sol­id fuel boil­er.
  4. Boil­er equip­ment for liq­uid fuel.
  5. Elec­tric boil­er.

Solar sys­tems and heat pumps are wide­ly used in West­ern Europe, but have not yet become the most effi­cient for the inhab­i­tants of our coun­try. The cost of equip­ment and instal­la­tion will pay off in a few years. Undoubt­ed­ly, the high cost of fuel abroad jus­ti­fies sig­nif­i­cant cap­i­tal invest­ments; our fuel is cheap.

All hous­es are dif­fer­ent, the best solu­tion can be offered by spe­cial­ists. In this arti­cle, we exam­ined the pos­si­ble options, eval­u­at­ed the advan­tages, and high­light­ed the dis­ad­van­tages. You just have to weigh all the pros and cons and com­pare them with your wish­es in order to make the best choice.

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