Hidden reserves of comfort

The range of wall-mount­ed boil­ers pre­sent­ed in the dis­tri­b­u­tion net­work is wide and var­ied, so the con­sumer can eas­i­ly choose a tech­ni­cal­ly per­fect unit. Towall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­ers oper­at­ing on main gas fuel are among the most effi­cient and envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly- methane.

Vail­lantunlike wall-mount­ed gas boil­ers of tra­di­tion­al design, the effi­cien­cy of which is about 80–85%, wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­ers allow you to use fuel more effi­cient­ly- their effi­cien­cy reach­es 93–96%. That is why eco­nom­i­cal Euro­peans legal­ly encour­age the use of con­dens­ing units. BUTIn the UK, only con­dens­ing heat gen­er­a­tors have recent­ly been allowed in res­i­den­tial build­ings. This is explained by the strict require­ments of the British leg­is­la­tion, which deter­mines the per­mis­si­ble stan­dards for harm­ful emis­sions, and the increase in pur­chase prices for gas. And in our coun­try, in the fore­see­able future, con­sumers may aban­don con­ven­tion­al wall-mount­ed gas boil­ers in favor of con­dens­ing ones, espe­cial­ly in the most devel­oped regions.

About the tricky cal­cu­la­tion method

Gross calorif­ic val­ue of fuel- this is the entire amount of heat that can be used in the com­bus­tion of fuel, includ­ing its share con­tained in the water vapor of the exhaust gas­es. Net calorif­ic val­ue- the amount of heat with­out tak­ing into account the ener­gy hid­den in the steam of exhaust gas­es. To show their prod­uct in a favor­able light, sell­ers of heat­ing equip­ment almost always indi­cate the effi­cien­cy of the heat gen­er­a­tor, cal­cu­lat­ed accord­ing to the method using the net calorif­ic val­ue of the fuel. How­ev­er, the buy­er is not informed about this. ATas a result, instead of effi­cien­cy 80–85%, real for a tra­di­tion­al heat gen­er­a­tor, an indi­ca­tor of 92–95 appears%, and the effi­cien­cy of the con­denser instead of 93–96% is at the lev­el of 107–109%, which con­tra­dicts the law of con­ser­va­tion of ener­gy. This fact caus­es a cer­tain skep­ti­cism among con­sumers who are unfa­mil­iar with the basics of heat engi­neer­ing. But you still should not be afraid of the ultra-high effi­cien­cy of a con­dens­ing boil­er.are the costs of the exist­ing cal­cu­la­tion method.

Design Benefits

Tra­di­tion­al wall-mount­ed boil­ers uti­lize the heat gen­er­at­ed dur­ing gas com­bus­tion using a con­vec­tion heat exchang­er (in fact, this is a tube on which numer­ous cop­per plates are mount­ed). The com­bus­tion prod­ucts of methane heat this unit, and it trans­fers the heat received to the heat car­ri­er of the heat­ing sys­tem. The draft required to main­tain com­bus­tion in con­ven­tion­al wall-mount­ed boil­ers is pro­vid­ed by the vac­u­um that occurs in the grav­i­ty chim­ney; the aver­age tem­per­a­ture of the com­bus­tion prod­ucts removed into the atmos­phere at the out­let of the boil­er is 120C. Tra­di­tion­al boil­ers are not capa­ble of cool­ing flue gas­es to a low­er tem­per­a­ture due to their design fea­tures. Of course, you can install a more effi­cient heat exchang­er in the wall. But if the exhaust tem­per­a­ture drops, con­den­sate con­tain­ing acid will appear on its plates and in the chim­ney, due to which the boil­er ele­ments will become unus­able. There­fore, you have to spend ener­gy “for heat­ing the street”- it’s bet­ter than replac­ing heat gen­er­a­tors dam­aged by con­den­sate one after anoth­er.

Where does the con­den­sate come from? When nat­ur­al gas (like any oth­er hydro­car­bon fuel) is burned, a chem­i­cal reac­tion occurs, and as a result, water is formed, which instant­ly turns into steam in a fire. It is steam that con­tains up to 11% ener­gy of methane burned. Pur­pose of the con­dens­ing boil­er- use this ener­gy by reduc­ing the tem­per­a­ture of the exhaust gas­es to the dew point (for gas com­bus­tion prod­ucts- approx­i­mate­ly 57C), at which the steam begins to con­dense, the ther­mal ener­gy spent on the for­ma­tion of steam (evap­o­ra­tion of water) will be released, and the heat that pre­vi­ous­ly “flew into the pipe” can be used, for exam­ple, to heat the coolant.

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one.Con­dens­ing wall-mount­ed boil­ers Innovens (De Diet­rich) pro­vide an opti­mal lev­el of com­fort in heat­ing and hot water prepa­ra­tion.
2.MCR boil­ers with a capac­i­ty of 6.3–39kW run on nat­ur­al gas or propane. For hot water sup­ply, boil­ers are equipped with flow-through heat exchang­ers that allow hot water to be obtained imme­di­ate­ly after gas is ignit­ed, or con­nect­ed to boil­ers. Capac­i­ty at 80l mount­ed next to the boil­er, at 130l- under him.
3.Con­dens­ing boil­ers ecoTEC plus (Vail­lant) are very eco­nom­i­cal and do not pol­lute the envi­ron­ment.
four.The wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­er Vito­dens 200‑W (Viess­mann) is installed in a row with wall-mount­ed kitchen cab­i­nets.

What is the dif­fer­ence between con­dens­ing boil­ers and con­ven­tion­al boil­ers? The for­mer have a spe­cial heat exchang­er made of acid-resis­tant mate­ri­als (stain­less steel, silu­min andt.P.). It has a large out­er sur­face in con­tact with flue gas­es, which, by the way, can self-clean with fluc­tu­a­tions in the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant, as in the Com­fort­Line mod­el (Wolf, Ger­many). Such a heat exchang­er is capa­ble of oper­at­ing both in low-tem­per­a­ture mode (the tem­per­a­ture of the water returned to the boil­er,- around 30C, but out­go­ing- 40–50C), and in nor­mal, high-tem­per­a­ture mode (70–90C). True, in the lat­ter case, con­den­sa­tion in the heat exchang­er will not begin, and the effi­cien­cy of the boil­er will be almost the same as tra­di­tion­al wall-mount­ed gas ones. In addi­tion, a spe­cial mod­u­lat­ing fan burn­er is used in con­dens­ing boil­ers. It can give out from 8–20 to 100% of rat­ed heat­ing out­put (depend­ing on the mod­el), adapt­ing the heat­ing out­put of the boil­er to the needs of the house. More­over, prob­lems with gas sup­ply, typ­i­cal for the Euro­pean out­back, are not ter­ri­ble for the burn­ers of con­densers- they work even when the gas pres­sure at the entrance to the house drops to 5mbar, with­out sig­nif­i­cant loss in pow­er. The con­den­sate does not destroy the burn­er.

A mod­ern wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­er (both sin­gle- and dou­ble-cir­cuit) is func­tion­al­ly supe­ri­or to almost any wall-mount­ed gas appli­ance of tra­di­tion­al design. The pow­er of wall-mount­ed con­densers ranges from 5–125kW. This means that with just one unit it will be pos­si­ble to heat a fair­ly large house. If the heat demand of the dwelling exceeds 120kW, con­dens­ing boil­ers, if desired, are com­bined into a cas­cade, which allows you to sat­is­fy the appetites of any pri­vate coun­try house. For exam­ple, con­dens­ing boil­ers Ren­damax (Nether­lands) can be equipped with a cas­cade con­trol device, which includes up to eight devices.

The con­dens­ing boil­er pro­duces hot water in sig­nif­i­cant quan­ti­ties. So, a sin­gle-cir­cuit con­denser can always be con­nect­ed to a remote boil­er. For exam­ple, Pro­Con (MHG, Ger­many) is able to work with an exter­nal boil­er up to 500l. With a small water con­sump­tion (say, a faucet in the kitchen and a show­er in the bath­room), it is a good idea to buy a dou­ble-cir­cuit con­dens­ing boil­er that heats the water using a plate heat exchang­er built into it. This can be, for exam­ple, a dual-cir­cuit Com­fort­Line (Wolf). Very com­pact and pro­duc­tive mod­els with a built-in mini-boil­er. ATVito­dens 333‑F boil­ers (type WS3C, Viess­mann, Ger­many) have a built-in water heater tank with a capac­i­ty of 86l.

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5.A high-effi­cien­cy wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­er Vito­dens 200‑W (Viess­mann) is installed in the kitchen of a coun­try house. The device heats the heat car­ri­er for heat­ing and water for the DHW sys­tem.
6–7.Con­denser CGB-K-24 Com­fort-Line (Wolf) with built-in con­trol pan­el(6) and remote con­troller calor­MAT­IC 330 (Vail­lant)(7).

eight.Biasi wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­ers can be com­bined in a cas­cade to increase out­put. Instal­la­tion of equip­ment will be great­ly sim­pli­fied by spe­cial met­al cell cab­i­nets.

Is the game worth the candle?

On aver­age, due to the dif­fer­ence in effi­cien­cy, a good con­denser spends 1kW of heat for gas heat­ing needs by 15% less than tra­di­tion­al wall-mount­ed boil­er. For exam­ple, for heat­ing a house with an area of ​​200m2 tra­di­tion­al boil­er with a capac­i­ty of 24kW for the heat­ing sea­son will con­sume 60$.m3 gas, and con­dens­ing of sim­i­lar capac­i­ty- total 5100m3. Then if price is 1000m3 gas 3690rub. (this is how much main nat­ur­al gas now costs for own­ers of dachas near world), for the indi­cat­ed peri­od, the own­er of con­dens­ing equip­ment will save approx­i­mate­ly 3321rub. For 10years, this amount will increase to 33,210thou­sandrubles, or even more, as nat­ur­al gas prices for the pop­u­la­tion are grow­ing, and recent­ly at a fair­ly rapid pace.

Chim­ney options
from con­dens­ing boil­ers

De Diet­richThe dia­gram shows: a hor­i­zon­tal out­let of a coax­i­al chim­ney through the roof(a) or out­er wall(b); chim­ney in a ver­ti­cal shaft+intake of com­bus­tion air from the atmos­phere(in) or from the premis­es(G); ver­ti­cal coax­i­al chim­ney with a pas­sage through an inclined(d,f) roof­ing; coax­i­al chim­ney in the mine(and); flex­i­ble chim­ney in a non-lin­ear shaft(h).

How­ev­er, assum­ing that gas prices in EU remain unchanged (which is unlike­ly), the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of buy­ing a con­dens­ing boil­er can be called into ques­tion. After all, for exam­ple, a con­denser with a capac­i­ty of 24kW is more expen­sive than a tra­di­tion­al heat gen­er­a­tor of the same pow­er, just by the same 30–35thou­sandrubles, which will be saved on fuel and ful­ly returned to the own­er of the boil­er only after 10years of its oper­a­tion. In addi­tion, although this equip­ment has an increased resource (which, by the way, par­tial­ly com­pen­sates for the high cost of con­densers), it still requires reg­u­lar and expen­sive main­te­nance.

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9.Mod­ern con­dens­ing boil­ers are usu­al­ly very com­pact in size, light in weight, and are deliv­ered assem­bled. All this great­ly sim­pli­fies their instal­la­tion and allows you to fit the equip­ment into any inte­ri­or. High-qual­i­ty con­dens­ing equip­ment works with a fair­ly low noise lev­el even at max­i­mum pow­er.
ten.The Vito­dens 300‑W (Viess­mann) con­dens­ing boil­er is equipped with a SMART diag­nos­tic sys­tem (Self Mon­i­tor­ing And Report­ing Tech­nol­o­gy), which prompt­ly detects mal­func­tions in the oper­a­tion of the heat gen­er­a­tor and informs the user about this.
11–12.Con­dens­ing boil­ers BWC 42 (Bosch)(11) and Loga­max plus GB 162 (Buderus)(12) equipped with mul­ti­func­tion­al con­trol sys­tems, extreme­ly easy to set up and easy to main­tain.

Nev­er­the­less, con­dens­ing boil­ers should be pre­ferred pri­mar­i­ly because they are envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly. Since the emis­sions into the atmos­phere of con­densers are envi­ron­men­tal­ly clean­er (com­pared to the prod­ucts of com­bus­tion of tra­di­tion­al units), this equip­ment can be placed in res­i­den­tial build­ings with­out con­struct­ing high chim­neys. Due to the pre­lim­i­nary mix­ing of fuel and air, as well as low­er­ing the tem­per­a­ture of the exhaust gas­es, it is pos­si­ble to sup­press the for­ma­tion of nitro­gen oxides NOX and reduce the con­tent of CO (car­bon monox­ide), since the lat­ter is oxi­dized to less dan­ger­ous CO diox­ide2 (car­bon diox­ide). ToIn addi­tion, con­den­sate cap­tures a sig­nif­i­cant part of harm­ful sub­stances, so the amount of harm­ful emis­sions into the atmos­phere is sharply reduced. For exam­ple, the con­tent of nitro­gen oxides and car­bon monox­ide in Baxi con­densers (Italy) is reduced by 80 and 90, respec­tive­ly, com­pared to con­ven­tion­al wall-mount­ed gas boil­ers.%.

There is anoth­er impor­tant advan­tage of a con­dens­ing boil­er over a tra­di­tion­al one.- the first is adapt­ed to low-tem­per­a­ture heat­ing sys­tems (more com­fort­able than con­ven­tion­al, high-tem­per­a­ture ones). ATsuch sys­tems use large heaters. Their set will cost the own­er of the house 20–50% more expen­sive than when cre­at­ing a high-tem­per­a­ture heat­ing sys­tem (for a dwelling with an area of ​​150m2- at 10–20thou­sandrub.). But on the oth­er hand, the radi­a­tors of low-tem­per­a­ture sys­tems heat up only up to 40–45C, so even if you touch them for a long time, you won’t get burned. Long-wave infrared radi­a­tion from the sur­faces of radi­a­tors, pipes and oth­er com­po­nents of a low-tem­per­a­ture heat­ing sys­tem is most ben­e­fi­cial for humans. And there are almost no drafts in the rooms, since large, mod­er­ate­ly warm radi­a­tors under the win­dows more effec­tive­ly fight down­drafts of cold air than small, but heat­ed to a high tem­per­a­ture, radi­a­tors of tra­di­tion­al heat­ing sys­tems. Con­densers are per­fect­ly adapt­ed to work with warm floors.

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13.The Loga­max plus GB 162 (Buderus) boil­er is equipped with a heat exchang­er with a capac­i­ty of up to 100kW, the high effi­cien­cy of which is due to its large heat exchange sur­face.
four­teen.The ceram­ic burn­er of the GB 162 boil­er allows you to change its pow­er from 18 to 100%.
fif­teen.ATThe Gie­gaS­tar (Gier­sch) gas-fired wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­ers use a cylin­dri­cal stain­less steel burn­er mount­ed in the upper zone of a cor­ro­sion-resis­tant heat exchang­er made of high sil­i­con alu­minum alloy (11%).
16.Scheme of oper­a­tion of the MCR boil­er (De Diet­rich).

Process costs

Unfor­tu­nate­ly, the con­dens­ing boil­er “pro­duces” a sig­nif­i­cant amount of con­den­sate. Of course, even dur­ing the oper­a­tion of an ordi­nary boil­er, quite a lot of this liq­uid some­times turns out to be in the chim­ney, espe­cial­ly in frosty weath­er, but these vol­umes are incom­pa­ra­ble with the “pro­duc­tiv­i­ty” of the con­denser. Thus, a con­dens­ing boil­er with a capac­i­ty of 25kW gives up to 3.5l / h of con­den­sate, almost two buck­ets of it will be col­lect­ed per day, and per year (with con­tin­u­ous oper­a­tion)- up to 7thou­sandl. In fact, the con­den­sateis a weak solu­tion of car­bon­ic and sul­fu­ric acids in water. Its pH val­ue depends on the type of fuel, the design of the heat exchang­er, the excess air coef­fi­cient, the final tem­per­a­ture of the con­den­sate, and when using main gas, it is 4–6.

The ques­tion aris­es: where to drain the con­den­sate? After all, you can’t divert it into a stream flow­ing next to the house, onto the ground or into a gut­ter at the bor­der of the site (thus, you will wors­en the eco­log­i­cal sit­u­a­tion both on your ter­ri­to­ry and among your neigh­bors). If at the heart of the build­ing’s sew­er- a bio­log­i­cal treat­ment plant, it is unde­sir­able or even unac­cept­able to drain an acidic solu­tion into the pipes (as a result, a colony of bac­te­ria that pro­vide waste­water treat­ment may die). So, for many high-tech mod­els of treat­ment facil­i­ties designed for a coun­try house, the required pH val­ue of the efflu­ents- not less than 6.5.

How­ev­er, there is a very effi­cient and inex­pen­sive equip­ment that allows you to pre­pare con­den­sate for dis­pos­al in tra­di­tion­al ways. So, before drain­ing into the house sew­er, the con­den­sate must be sub­ject­ed to deox­i­da­tion in the neu­tral­iz­er. The lat­ter is usu­al­ly mount­ed next to a wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­er (on the floor or wall). Con­vert­er- this is usu­al­ly a small con­tain­er, at the inlet to which a fil­ter is installed that cleans the con­den­sate from sol­id par­ti­cles. Once in the neu­tral­iz­er, the con­den­sate grad­u­al­ly seeps through the back­fill of alka­li-con­tain­ing gran­ules or mar­ble chips that fills it and at the out­let is a liq­uid with a pH that is quite safe for any sep­tic tank6.5–9.

The pH val­ue of the deox­i­dized con­den­sate must be sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly con­trolled (at least 1once amonth). To do this, you can use the test strip sup­plied with the neu­tral­iz­er or a pH meter. You will have to reg­u­lar­ly pour pel­lets into the neu­tral­iz­er or (if required by the oper­at­ing instruc­tions) com­plete­ly change the back­fill 1every 6–12months Exam­ples of Neu­tral­iz­ers- Neu­tra­box GENO I‑25 (Grun­beck, Ger­many), NS33 (De Diet­rich, France). The price of a neu­tral­iz­er for a con­dens­ing boil­er with a capac­i­ty of 25kW (the deliv­ery set, as a rule, includes deox­i­diz­ing gran­ules per fill­ing) is about 10–19thou­sandrub. Addi­tion­al bag with gran­ules (5kg) costs about 1–1.5thou­sandrub.

ATset­tle­ment sew­er­age (if sev­er­al dozen hous­es are con­nect­ed to it) con­den­sate can be drained with­out neu­tral­iza­tion if the boil­er capac­i­ty does not exceed 200kW. After all, house­hold drains, includ­ing those from wash­ing machines and dish­wash­ers, often have a weak­ly pro­nounced alka­line com­po­si­tion (pH7.2–7.8). There­fore, the con­den­sate is already neu­tral­ized direct­ly in the sew­er, due to the con­tact of alka­line and acidic envi­ron­ments. How­ev­er, in this case, it may be nec­es­sary to install a deox­i­diz­ing device.- for exam­ple, if pipes and sew­er seals are made of a mate­r­i­al that can­not with­stand pro­longed con­tact with a weak acid solu­tion, or if the con­den­sate does not mix in suf­fi­cient pro­por­tion with domes­tic sewage water (at least 1:25).

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17.The “heart” of the Vito­dens 200‑W wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing heat gen­er­a­tor is the spher­i­cal Matrix burn­er made of stain­less steel, which allows to sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the emis­sion of harm­ful sub­stances into the atmos­phere.
18–19.heat exchang­er(18) and cylin­dri­cal burn­er(19) Biasi con­dens­ing wall mount­ed boil­ers are made of acid-resis­tant durable mate­ri­als.
twen­ty.Con­dens­ing wall-mount­ed gas boil­ers CGB-K-24 (Wolf) are equipped with a stain­less steel hot water heat exchang­er. These heat gen­er­a­tors are designed for heat­ing and hot water prepa­ra­tion in flow mode. If over time the needs of a coun­try house for warm water increase, a boil­er can be con­nect­ed to the boil­er, for exam­ple CSW-120.

Andone more cir­cum­stance. If the boil­er is locat­ed in the base­ment or base­ment of the house, below the entrance to the sew­er, the con­den­sate will not fall by grav­i­ty into the sew­er. It will be nec­es­sary to install a con­tain­er with a float valve behind the neu­tral­iz­er, which, as the ves­sel is filled, will turn on the pump, or a spe­cial sew­er instal­la­tion, for exam­ple, Con­lift (Grund­fos, Den­mark, about 6.2thou­sandrub.) to auto­mat­i­cal­ly remove con­den­sate into the sew­er.

It is very impor­tant to choose the right chim­ney for a con­dens­ing boil­er. The design of the lat­ter is such that the com­bus­tion prod­ucts are dis­charged forcibly. This makes it pos­si­ble to con­nect the boil­er to a coax­i­al chim­ney, as well as to a branch pipe for air intake from the street or from a room and removal of com­bus­tion prod­ucts through a chim­ney. The tem­per­a­ture load on the chim­ney of a con­dens­ing boil­er is small (by the time it enters the chim­ney, the flue gas­es cool down to 40–60C). But con­den­sa­tion often con­tin­ues in the chim­ney, so it must be air­tight and resis­tant to acids. Brick chan­nel is def­i­nite­ly not suit­able- acid will destroy it in a fewmonths of oper­a­tion. BUThere are chim­neys, for exam­ple Vail­lant, Raab (both- Ger­many), made of poly­mer­ic mate­ri­als, will last longer. As a rule, chim­neys are made of PP, PPS or PVDF plas­tic. To assem­ble the chim­ney, straight pipe sec­tions 0.5–2 long are used.m (PP-pipe with a diam­e­ter of 80mm costs about 800‑2500rub. for 1 run­ning m) and var­i­ous shaped ele­ments. How­ev­er, there are chim­neys based on a flex­i­ble cor­ru­gat­ed PP-poly­mer pipe, which can be eas­i­ly “stretched” inside old brick chim­neys, includ­ing those with an uneven inner sur­face. They are offered, say, by Immer­gas (Italy). FROMcon­dens­ing boil­ers are “friend­ly” and tra­di­tion­al stain­less steel chim­neys (AISI 304, AISI 409, AISI 430 brands).

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21.Removal of con­den­sate into the vil­lage sew­er. When remov­ing con­den­sate from a wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­er into a city or large vil­lage sew­er, you do not need to use a device for its neu­tral­iza­tion. Nor­mal­iza­tion of pH will occur as a result of mix­ing the con­den­sate with waste­water.
22.Back­fill pel­lets in the con­den­sate neu­tral­iz­er.

23.Neu­tral­iz­er Neu­tra­box I‑25.
24.Con­lift unit (Grund­fos) with built-in non-return valve for auto­mat­ic con­den­sate removal (pres­sure- 5.3m).

What does the market offer?

Cur­rent­ly, con­dens­ing boil­ers are pro­duced by almost all lead­ing boil­er-build­ing com­pa­nies. ACV prod­ucts (Bel­gium) can be not­ed: Pres­tige series; Aris­ton: Genus Pre­mi­um; Beretta: Exclu­sive Green and Pow­er Plus (both- Italy); Baxi: Prime HT, Luna HT, Luna HT Res­i­den­tial and Nuvola HT. Very good equip­ment is pro­duced by De Diet­rich: Innovenc, MCR. Let’s also call Immer­gas: Vic­trix; Fer­roli: Ener­gy Top, Econ­cept; Sime: For­mat Dewy.zip and Plan­et Dewy (all- Italy); Protherm (Slo­va­kia): “Lion” series; Ther­mona (Czech Repub­lic): KD, KDC, KDZ rat­ed pow­er 28kW, as well as the Therm 45 KD con­dens­ing boil­er with a nom­i­nal out­put of 45kW with a com­bus­tion cham­ber made of heat-resis­tant plas­tic. One of the trend­set­ters for con­dens­ing equip­ment is the com­pa­ny Ren­damax (in EU, for exam­ple, boil­ers of the R30 series are pop­u­lar). Final­ly, con­densers of excel­lent qual­i­ty and ther­mal per­for­mance are sup­plied by Ger­man boil­er man­u­fac­tur­ers.- Buderus (Loga­max plus three series: GB022, GB112, GB162), Junkers (Cer­a­pur), MHG (Pro­Con Stream­line), Vail­lant (ecoTEC plus), Viess­mann (Vito­dens 200‑W, 300‑W and 333‑F), Wolf (Com­fort Line). The approx­i­mate cost of a house­hold wall-mount­ed con­dens­ing boil­er can be deter­mined by mul­ti­ply­ing its rat­ed pow­er by 3thou­sandrub.

The edi­tors would like to thank Biasi, Buderus, De Diet­rich, Vail­lant, Viess­mann for their help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

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