How to conduct heating in the apartment with your own hands?


Many urban apart­ments today have cen­tral heat­ing. It just so hap­pened that the main hous­ing stock in our cities is includ­ed in the ser­vice sec­tor of pub­lic util­i­ties. First of all, this refers to the issues of pro­vid­ing heat sup­ply to city apart­ments dur­ing the heat­ing sea­son. The qual­i­ty of the cen­tral­ized heat sup­ply sys­tem to con­sumers has always left much to be desired. The rea­son lies in the inef­fi­cien­cy of the exist­ing ser­vice order. In addi­tion, the rise in ener­gy prices makes peo­ple look for alter­na­tive ways to heat their own homes.

Many apart­ment own­ers are try­ing to switch to autonomous heat­ing of the apart­ment. What dif­fi­cul­ties do you have to face in this case and how to make heat­ing with your own hands — these are the main issues that con­cern our cit­i­zens today. Let’s try togeth­er to solve the prob­lem, to find answers to urgent ques­tions.

Want to have your own heating. Action algorithm

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The desire of res­i­dents to improve the heat­ing of their own apart­ment dur­ing the cold peri­od is nat­ur­al, if we take into account how cen­tral heat­ing works in our homes and what expens­es we have to bear for a com­mu­nal apart­ment. At first glance, every­thing is sim­ple. There is mon­ey, take and install a boil­er at home and heat it as you please. But there is one sig­nif­i­cant “but”. In our coun­try, the inde­pen­dence of cit­i­zens, even in terms of man­ag­ing their prop­er­ty, has its lim­i­ta­tions. We are forced to heat our own hous­ing using the ser­vices of pub­lic util­i­ties. Any attempt to change the order of life sup­port for a city apart­ment runs into obsta­cles from the state.

Ener­gy com­pa­nies are monop­o­lists in the heat sup­ply mar­ket, and the state helps them in this by arti­fi­cial­ly lim­it­ing the abil­i­ty of cit­i­zens to switch to autonomous sources of ener­gy sup­ply. A do-it-your­self heat­ing sys­tem in an apart­ment is most often the result of a gru­el­ing strug­gle between res­i­dents and reg­u­la­to­ry author­i­ties. The whole prob­lem is how to get per­mis­sion to dis­con­nect from the dis­trict heat­ing. Exist­ing tech­ni­cal stan­dards do not allow you to inde­pen­dent­ly obtain the right to autonomous heat­ing of a city apart­ment with­out per­mis­sion, even despite the fact that the Civ­il Code of the EU does not direct­ly pro­hib­it such actions for home­own­ers and the own­er of the apart­ment has the right to refuse the ser­vices of a cen­tral­ized heat­ing sys­tem at any time. heat sup­ply.

Impor­tant! Unau­tho­rized shut­down of ele­ments of the in-house heat­ing sys­tem is pros­e­cut­ed by law and refers to admin­is­tra­tive offens­es. Arti­cle 7.21 of the Code of the EU on Admin­is­tra­tive Vio­la­tions gives a clear idea of ​​the respon­si­bil­i­ty of ten­ants in this regard.


To orga­nize inde­pen­dent heat­ing of your apart­ment with your own hands means at the ini­tial stage only one thing. You will have to inde­pen­dent­ly seek offi­cial per­mis­sion to turn off the cen­tral heat­ing. Already at this stage, you need to decide which type of home heat­ing is best for you.

On a note: in high-rise build­ings (more than 9 floors) there is no cen­tral­ized gas sup­ply in order to increase the safe­ty of the oper­a­tion of hous­ing facil­i­ties. There­fore, gas heat­ing is accept­able main­ly for res­i­dents of old apart­ment build­ings, where there is a cen­tral­ized sup­ply of domes­tic gas.

What to use heat­ing, gas or elec­tric­i­ty — you decide. The main thing is that the project meets the nec­es­sary build­ing codes and safe­ty stan­dards.

The project must spec­i­fy all the nec­es­sary tech­ni­cal para­me­ters of heat­ing devices, the plan and dia­gram of their con­nec­tion, as well as detailed hydraulic cal­cu­la­tions. Only after all bureau­crat­ic issues have been resolved can one direct­ly deal with the tech­ni­cal side of the issue.

Dismantling of old heating

Hav­ing dealt with the ener­gy com­pa­ny and received per­mis­sion to turn off, you can pro­ceed to the next stage — dis­man­tling the pip­ing sys­tem and radi­a­tors of the house sys­tem in the apart­ment. In this sit­u­a­tion, you can­not do with­out the help of a man­age­ment com­pa­ny or a hous­ing office. It is nec­es­sary to coor­di­nate with these ser­vices the pro­ce­dure for dis­con­nect­ing the apart­ment from the inter­nal heat sup­ply com­mu­ni­ca­tions. Only then can dis­man­tling begin.

In the process of work, it is nec­es­sary to strict­ly adhere to the sequence, cut­ting out exact­ly those nodes and ele­ments of the sys­tem that cor­re­spond to the scheme. Oth­er­wise, if there is a vio­la­tion of the heat sup­ply to oth­er apart­ments, you will have to answer not only for sab­o­tage under the law, but also bear the finan­cial costs asso­ci­at­ed with pay­ing a fine. It will be nec­es­sary to restore dam­aged house com­mu­ni­ca­tions at your own expense.

Work should begin with the dis­man­tling of the main wiring ele­ments. To give integri­ty to the cen­tral heat­ing cir­cuit, which is now use­less for you, it is bet­ter to replace the ris­er by insert­ing a new steel pipe of the same diam­e­ter instead of the old pipe. Hav­ing iso­lat­ed your­self from the cen­tral heat­ing sup­ply, pro­ceed to dis­man­tle the old pipelines and turn off the heat­ing devices. Hav­ing iso­lat­ed from the cen­tral heat­ing sup­ply, pro­ceed with dis­man­tling and shut­ting down.

For ref­er­ence! There is a manda­to­ry rule. It is strong­ly not rec­om­mend­ed to use old wiring and radi­a­tors for new heat­ing sys­tems. Incon­sis­ten­cy of tech­ni­cal para­me­ters, large con­t­a­m­i­na­tion can lead to tech­no­log­i­cal vio­la­tions dur­ing the oper­a­tion of autonomous heat­ing.


Overview of the necessary equipment for an independent heating system

Gas or electricity. What’s better

Do-it-your­self heat­ing instal­la­tion begins with a study of the project. All work must be car­ried out in strict accor­dance with the tech­ni­cal doc­u­men­ta­tion. Chang­ing the method of heat­ing an apart­ment on the go, installing a boil­er with a larg­er capac­i­ty than indi­cat­ed in the project and increas­ing the num­ber of radi­a­tors is fraught with trou­ble.

Retreat: Dur­ing the test run of the fin­ished heat­ing sys­tem, a heat­ing engi­neer is always present, who is respon­si­ble for the func­tion­al­i­ty of the new gas equip­ment. In case of obvi­ous dis­crep­an­cies between the avail­able equip­ment and the tech­ni­cal data spec­i­fied in the project, you may be refused the issuance of an offi­cial con­clu­sion on the com­mis­sion­ing of gas heat­ing.

There­fore, it is nec­es­sary to decide in advance what is bet­ter for you — gas heat­ing or elec­tric, which heat­ing devices to install. The fol­low­ing require­ments must be tak­en into account:

  • coor­di­na­tion of project doc­u­men­ta­tion with an ener­gy com­pa­ny sup­ply­ing gas or elec­tric­i­ty;
  • when equip­ping gas heat­ing, it will be nec­es­sary to install a coax­i­al chim­ney to the street;
  • in the case of elec­tric heat­ing, it will be nec­es­sary to re-equip the home elec­tri­cal wiring, install a three-phase meter and cir­cuit break­ers;
  • apart­ments equipped with gas boil­ers need to install sup­ply and exhaust ven­ti­la­tion;
  • direct con­nec­tion of the boil­er to the pipeline, car­ry­ing out start-up work is car­ried out by an autho­rized per­son, a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the gas dis­tri­b­u­tion orga­ni­za­tion.

How to prop­er­ly con­nect heat­ing equip­ment, how to install a boil­er and start the entire heat­ing sys­tem in accor­dance with estab­lished stan­dards, it is bet­ter to con­tact spe­cial­ists for these and oth­er issues.

It is appro­pri­ate to recall that choos­ing elec­tric heat­ing will not give you advan­tages and real sav­ings. Heat­ing an apart­ment direct­ly with elec­tric­i­ty is an expen­sive plea­sure. Only when installing a mul­ti-tar­iff meter will you be able to achieve a tan­gi­ble eco­nom­ic effect. Often, restric­tions on the oper­a­tion of elec­tric heat­ing impose a set lim­it on con­sump­tion. Over­ex­pen­di­ture of elec­tric­i­ty will lead to unfore­seen expens­es for light, to a dete­ri­o­ra­tion in the tem­per­a­ture regime.

Gas boiler. What are the options?


Hav­ing decid­ed for your­self the car­di­nal ques­tion — the apart­ment will have gas heat­ing, start with an assess­ment of the mar­ket for heat­ing equip­ment. Here it is nec­es­sary to take into account not only heat loss­es, but also the lim­it­ed area of ​​u200bu200bthe apart­ment, the num­ber of inhab­i­tants and their own domes­tic needs.

When choos­ing the type of heat­ing boil­er, make the main empha­sis on the wall-mount­ed mod­el. Today, the mar­ket for such equip­ment is quite wide­ly rep­re­sent­ed. You can always choose both a gas and an elec­tric boil­er of the appro­pri­ate pow­er. You should not imme­di­ate­ly grab onto mod­els with high pow­er. For a city apart­ment, you can get by with a 6–10 kW boil­er. An approx­i­mate cal­cu­la­tion applies here — 1 kW of ther­mal ener­gy is need­ed to heat 10 m2 of liv­ing space with aver­age ther­mal char­ac­ter­is­tics of the walls.. To this fig­ure, you can add 10–15% for heat loss­es.

On a note: the pow­er of heat­ing boil­ers is tak­en lit­er­al­ly — with­out any allowances and coef­fi­cients, since mod­ern mod­els have a high effi­cien­cy.

The pur­chase of a dou­ble-cir­cuit gas boil­er is the best option to get real inde­pen­dence from cen­tral heat­ing and hot water sup­ply. How to make heat­ing in an apart­ment with your own hands using elec­tric­i­ty, the answer is sim­ple — you can use wall-mount­ed heat­ing units with heat­ing ele­ments.

On a note: instal­la­tion of elec­tric boil­ers equipped with induc­tion or elec­trode heaters will require addi­tion­al instal­la­tion of equip­ment and a con­trol pan­el.

You can install a warm floor in the apart­ment, but in this case, the best option would be not an elec­tric, but a water floor. This method of heat­ing is very con­ve­nient, since a water-heat­ed floor can be con­nect­ed to the main heat­ing cir­cuit.

Mounting. Step by step guide to action


The wiring can be car­ried out with both met­al and plas­tic pipes.

Mak­ing plas­tic heat­ing with your own hands is much eas­i­er and eas­i­er than work­ing with steel pipes and valves.

The lat­ter option looks prefer­able, since it does not require weld­ing, every­thing is done neat­ly and quick­ly. Polypropy­lene pipes are durable and not sub­ject to inter­nal cor­ro­sion. Do-it-your­self heat­ing from plas­tic pipes is much eas­i­er than work­ing with steel pipes.

In the event that the boil­er is equipped with a cir­cu­la­tion pump, for heat­ing a small two-room apart­ment, the option with a sin­gle-pipe heat­ing sys­tem, in which the num­ber of radi­a­tors does not exceed 4–5 pieces, will be opti­mal.

The dia­gram shows that for a sin­gle-pipe sys­tem, it is ide­al to con­nect radi­a­tors diag­o­nal­ly. In this case, the coolant will be in full con­tact with the entire inner sur­face of the bat­ter­ies.

For apart­ments with a larg­er liv­ing area, you need to use a two-pipe sys­tem, and if you plan to con­nect a warm floor and a hot water sys­tem, you will also need a dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­er. The heat­ing effi­cien­cy of all radi­a­tors in an apart­ment with a two-pipe sys­tem is high­er than with a sin­gle-cir­cuit one. With a two-pipe heat­ing sys­tem in an apart­ment, the low­er wiring and the cor­re­spond­ing type of radi­a­tor con­nec­tion are usu­al­ly used. On the dia­gram you can see how the pipes are locat­ed in the apart­ment, how the bat­ter­ies are con­nect­ed and how the hot water sup­ply is orga­nized in the house. The cir­cuit made of plas­tic pipes can be eas­i­ly replaced or recon­fig­ured if nec­es­sary.

Impor­tant! Instal­la­tion of plas­tic heat­ing sys­tems is car­ried out only using rein­forced polypropy­lene pipes. Unlike ordi­nary plas­tic pipes, such mate­r­i­al is not sub­ject to large lin­ear expan­sion under the influ­ence of high coolant tem­per­a­ture.

The pipe can be rein­forced with fiber­glass or alu­minum foil. Thanks to this design, rein­forced polypropy­lene pipes are able to with­stand high pres­sure (up to 25 atm.) And sig­nif­i­cant heat­ing, in the range of 70–900C. Fiber­glass rein­forced pipes have a high­er lin­ear expan­sion and a ten­den­cy to flex when sub­ject­ed to high tem­per­a­tures. There­fore, it is very impor­tant for them to pay increased atten­tion to com­pen­sat­ing for ther­mal elon­ga­tions.

To ensure the pos­si­bil­i­ty of turn­ing off each radi­a­tor sep­a­rate­ly, it is nec­es­sary to equip them with a shut-off valve and ther­mostats, with which it will be pos­si­ble to reg­u­late the heat­ing tem­per­a­ture in the room.

Ini­tial­ly, decide which type of radi­a­tor suits you. Cast iron radi­a­tors are more reli­able, but this type is char­ac­ter­ized by high cost and bulk­i­ness of the design itself. Bimetal­lic radi­a­tors are most wide­ly used today in heat­ing sys­tems. The com­bi­na­tion of steel and alu­minum gives high per­for­mance to this mate­r­i­al. Steel is able to with­stand high pres­sure in the sys­tem, and alu­minum has excel­lent heat dis­si­pa­tion.


Low price, high man­u­fac­tura­bil­i­ty and ease of instal­la­tion pro­vide bimetal­lic radi­a­tors with high pop­u­lar­i­ty. Bat­ter­ies are mount­ed on brack­ets that are mount­ed direct­ly into the walls. The opti­mal place for installing a radi­a­tor in an apart­ment is under the win­dow, at a dis­tance of no more than 10–12 cm from the win­dowsill and at the same dis­tance from the floor. The dis­tance between the pan­els and the rear wall of the radi­a­tor must not be less than 5 cm.

On a note: you should not install heat­ing radi­a­tors on walls adja­cent to neigh­bor­ing apart­ments. In such a case, the con­nect­ed radi­a­tor will heat you and your neigh­bors. You will pay for heat­ing your neigh­bors out of your own pock­et.

The type of con­nec­tion of radi­a­tors to pipes is up to you. There are four options for con­nect­ing bat­ter­ies to the pipeline:

  • diag­o­nal or cross;
  • uni­lat­er­al;
  • bot­tom;
  • sin­gle-pipe.

The dia­gram shows all four con­nec­tion options with all the ensu­ing con­se­quences.


Hav­ing com­plet­ed the basic work on wiring and con­nect­ing radi­a­tors in the apart­ment, you can begin to con­nect the sys­tem to heat-gen­er­at­ing equip­ment. You can set up the oper­a­tion of the boil­er in the pres­ence of a spe­cial­ist from the gas ser­vice. In his pres­ence, it is nec­es­sary to check the oper­a­tion of the gas boil­er in all modes, to adjust the oper­a­tion of the automa­tion.

The video explains in detail how every­thing can be done with your own hands.


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