Heating systems of the traditional type have not been in demand for a long time, because they have been replaced by several more efficient ways of heating rooms for various purposes. Many are hesitant to use technology due to lack of awareness, while others believe that such an investment will never pay off. Even greater stereotypes arise when laying a warm floor under linoleum in wooden houses or on a wooden floor. However, subject to the basic technology and laying nuances, such systems can be installed on this type of base.
The happy owners of houses made of natural wood are incredibly lucky, because everyone knows about the thermal insulation properties of this natural material. In addition to the unsurpassed appearance, it is worth thinking about ensuring maximum comfort inside the living quarters.
If the floor was insulated correctly, then the need for warm socks during the cold weather will disappear forever. Such a popular space heating technology as a warm floor, which can be installed on both concrete and wooden bases, is the best fit. Before proceeding with the necessary manipulations to install the necessary equipment, you should familiarize yourself with the safety rules and the rules for connecting devices. The surface of such a device can be hidden using ordinary linoleum.
Varieties and features of their installation
There are several schemes for underfloor heating, and a special installation system is applicable for each of them. But as a topcoat, you can use different materials, including the familiar linoleum.
There are only three types of underfloor heating:
Next, we propose to consider in more detail each type of device, its characteristic features and installation methods.
Infrared or film underfloor heating
Such a device is the thinnest film, which is sold in the form of small rolls in any building supermarket. Infrared elements are placed inside the material, which, when connected to a power source, begin to emit infrared radiation, which is completely harmless to humans. You can’t see them, but you can feel them with your skin. The system heats individual objects (linoleum, for example), which subsequently release heat into the room.
The main advantages of the material:
- the film itself is thin, but incredibly strong, as it consists of carbon emitters and copper electrodes (they are located perpendicularly);
- the design is laminated with a special polymer film;
- in the process of installation work, it is almost impossible to damage expensive material;
- the thickness of the device will be no more than 3.5 mm;
- installation under linoleum of any type is possible;
- heating occurs gradually, and the maximum surface temperature is such that it has an inherent indicator of increased safety (including fire safety);
- ease of laying the main material.
The maximum power rating of such devices is 220 W / m2, which is a high indicator for a material such as linoleum. The problem can be solved by purchasing less powerful equipment with an indicator of 150 W / m2 or less. When heated strongly, the material can be significantly deformed. It is recommended not to exceed the linoleum surface heating index of 30°C.
The sequence of actions for mounting the film:
- On a wooden base, all visible dirt and defects should be removed. The result should be the most even surface. If it was decided to use plywood, then fastenings should be made exclusively with self-tapping screws.
- A layer of insulation (foil) is laid on top of the base, and all joints are fastened with ordinary adhesive tape.
- The film is laid exclusively on the prepared base in a parallel way. You can cut the material only along specially marked lines.
- For insulation, bitumen-based tapes can be used.
- A connection is made to the thermostat and only then to the network.
- A layer of polyethylene is laid on top.
- After the plywood (sheets) and the linoleum itself are mounted.
Important! It is possible to significantly facilitate the laying process with the help of a special metal mesh, on which fastening is carried out using small brackets.
What is an electric underfloor heating
The undoubted advantages of this type of heating include the fact that the electric cable is used as the main heating element. It is located around the entire perimeter of the room. The temperature regime can be set manually, which is undoubtedly an advantage over the same type of water-heated floor. Installation work will not take much time and no special skills are required for their implementation. The disadvantages include a high probability of ignition and short circuit of individual elements of the system, which, in combination with a wooden base and laminate, makes their installation impractical.
The recommended type of flooring for electric underfloor heating is tiles or any other ceramic flooring. However, ease of installation and affordable cost make this type of heating preferred for modern private homes. Installation under linoleum is possible, but requires significant restrictions (cannot be used as the main source of heating).
- The base must be pre-cleaned and leveled (auxiliary filling layer).
- Thermal insulation layer. The reflective coating should be directed towards the ceiling. Joints are glued with construction tape.
- waterproofing material. It is necessary to cover the entire work surface with a slight overlap on the walls.
- The use of edge type insulation. To do this, you need a roll of damper tape.
- Checking the performance of each element of the system.
- Installation of sensors and thermostat. At a distance of a meter from the floor makes a hole. A line is drawn with a regular pencil and pinholes are made along the entire perimeter along it. The strobe is made homogeneous with a drill. At the end, you need to make a small hole the size of the installed thermostat. The temperature sensor is also installed in a small hole in the corrugation.
Important! The level of the pipe is recommended to be made as smooth as possible. This is done in order to avoid possible damage and deformation of the sensors. The wire installed between the thermostat and the mats is also placed in a corrugated pipe. As a result, they should go towards the exit (to the thermostat) through the strobe.
- Mat installation. Laying can be done in several ways. For fixing the material (lower side), construction tape is used. The distance to objects in the room, including walls, should be at least 20 cm, and between mats 15 cm. The last mat is connected to the power source. The sleeve used must be substantially larger than the cable used. And in the heaters it is necessary to make a niche for it.
- Screed. The height of the wet screed above the mats must be at least 3 cm. The use of self-leveling floor structures of the same height is also allowed. It will take at least a month for the screed to completely harden. At this time, any drafts in the room should be excluded. To speed up the process, you can use the same warm floor. However, the strength of the screed will decrease significantly.
- soundproof layer. The material should be laid immediately before laying the linoleum.
At the end of the installation work, you should re-check the system for integrity and performance using a special device. A multimeter will allow you to determine the material resistance index at the output of the cable used. The percentage of error will be about 7% of the one declared by the manufacturer (10MΩ or more). The check is carried out before laying the mats and after the completion of the screed.
The cable connection is carried out exclusively according to the instructions provided by the manufacturers. A separate floor heating system is installed for each room.
Warm water floor
When using the technology of water warm coating, you will need to lay pipes of a special type through which the coolant will pass straight from the heating system. If central heating is used, then this type of underfloor heating is not recommended. Between the linoleum and the pipes there must be a cement screed, which also makes it difficult to lay in rooms with low ceilings.
The main disadvantages of the system:
- possible leaks that are extremely difficult to eliminate;
- the complexity of any repair work;
- complex technology of laying the device;
- impossibility of installation in old apartment buildings;
- complete dependence on central heating.
A significant reduction in the cost of paying utility bills is the main advantage of this technology. The increased temperature regime implies the use of exceptionally high-quality and expensive linoleum. Otherwise, the material will quickly deform.
To equip a system of this type on a wooden base, you will need to use special mats with already prepared grooves for pipes. This option is the simplest and at the same time effective, as it will significantly reduce the time for the upcoming work and help eliminate possible errors when laying the necessary equipment. It is worth paying attention to the fact that their surface is covered with heat exchangers.
- Logs are installed on the surface of the base, which will become the basis of the water floor. The distance between the bars will be about 55–65 cm. The level must be carefully controlled or the surface under the flooring will be skewed.
- The vapor barrier and waterproofing layer should be between the lags, under the insulation layer. It is recommended to use only high-quality materials for which a warranty period is provided. An ordinary film will provoke the appearance of condensate, which will destroy the insulation.
- A heater is laid on the waterproofing. For this, mineral wool or its high-quality analogues are used. After the layer is covered with hydro and vapor barrier.
- A special mat with grooves is laid or the planks are laid and then fastened together using grooves and loops.
- A foil is mounted on the longitudinal grooves, on top of which the pipe is laid. All edges are fastened with a stapler. The pipe itself must be fixed to the floor surface with metal plates across the grooves. This will fix the main elements within the system.
Important! The length of the contour is strictly fixed and you should not forget about it. More accurate information is provided by the manufacturers. Otherwise, static equilibrium may occur. If the pipe diameter is 20 mm — 110 m, for 16 mm — 75 m.
- Connection to the general heating system as the final stage of installation. Manual regulation, connection with a mixing unit or a collector system is possible.
- After that, the device should be crimped. This will help prevent leaks and breakouts in the future. The surface is covered with plywood sheets, which will become the base for linoleum.
If the upcoming manipulations will be carried out without the involvement of specialists, then you should carefully consider the simplest precautionary methods:
- It is forbidden to lay the thermal film in several layers or overlap. At best, the system will simply burn out.
- The thermostat is set to a temperature range not exceeding 30°C.
- Switching on without first checking the integrity of the insulating layer is prohibited.
- The thermostat should be connected only after a complete blackout of the living space.
All the necessary work can be carried out independently, however, in the absence of proper experience, it is recommended to seek help from specialists who provide certain guarantees for their work. An experienced electrician can guarantee the reliability and high productivity of the entire system.
The most common mistakes when laying underfloor heating
- Premature activation. The screed has not yet dried completely, and the system is already working with might and main — the most common mistake. Most are sure that this will speed up the hardening process of the screed, but in practice it only reduces its strength. It will take at least a month for the auxiliary layer to dry completely. Otherwise, all electrical equipment will burn.
- A preliminary drawing of the circuit used is optional. A schematic representation will help not to make mistakes when installing the main elements of the system and not to miscalculate with the overall dimensions of the room. Subsequently, it may be necessary to install windows, arches, doors or plumbing and the cable should not be damaged. Any warm floor has a passport, where the necessary information is indicated.
- An attempt to save on materials. Due to the saving of consumables, free space (air) remains around the cable, which will lead to equipment damage in the future. The solution must cover the entire surface without exception.
- Installing a temperature sensor with violations. If necessary, the sensors should be replaced every few years and that is why they should be in the visibility of the owners. The device should not be placed in a solution, because for this it is better to use a corrugation without branches.
- Timely payments. The resistance index of the cable used is calculated before it is laid. The result must match the information given in the product passport.
- Prepared base. This stage is not worth skipping, as well as saving on it. Laying of the material must be carried out on a clean, dry and previously prepared surface. The further operational life of the system will depend on this.
- Walks through source material. Stepping on or deforming the tubes or mats is prohibited, even when laying the material. The veins are squeezed and separate sections cease to function.
- Frequent health checks. The system should not be checked until the end of installation work.
- Wrong calculations. You should not calculate the entire surface of the room, because a room without furniture will not be empty for long. Under the interior items, the device does not fit. And overheating of the system can happen from the fact that the device will work to warm up the base of the cabinet or bed.
- Wrong cable. To create a warm floor, only a two-core shielded cable is used. It should not be cut, as this will inevitably lead to breakdowns in the future.
Thus, we can conclude that it is possible to equip warm floors on a wooden base using different laying technologies. Electrical circuits are the best suited for small apartments. Dachas are well heated with water-based underfloor heating. A film infrared canvas is perfect for maintaining the temperature regime of any room where linoleum is used as a floor covering. Good luck in your endeavors!