Installing an air conditioner with your own hands and the rules for its use


In the hot sum­mer, peo­ple begin to under­stand what they lack in home improve­ment.
Air con­di­tion­ing allows:

  • get rid of prob­lems such as heat and stuffi­ness;
  • main­tain the desired lev­el of tem­per­a­ture in the room, as com­fort­able as pos­si­ble for humans and house­hold appli­ances.

Unlike fans, caus­ing drafts and lead­ing to colds, mod­ern air con­di­tion­ers main­tain a pre­de­ter­mined tem­per­a­ture regime in auto­mat­ic mode with­out prob­lem­at­ic move­ments of air flows.

Types of air conditioners

Accord­ing to their design, house­hold appli­ances are divid­ed into two main class­es:

  • monoblock;
  • multi­block devices.

Monoblock plants con­sist of one work­ing unit and are divid­ed into the fol­low­ing main types:

  • Win­dow. Such devices must be installed in a win­dow open­ing. Mod­ern sys­tems are pro­duced with a pow­er of 1.5–6 kW, may have an addi­tion­al air heat­ing sys­tem, auto­mat­ic tem­per­a­ture con­trol and remote con­trol. The price of this air con­di­tion­er from 12000 rubles and high­er, depend­ing on the con­fig­u­ra­tion.

Window air conditioner

  • Monoblock air con­di­tion­er mobile type designed for floor instal­la­tion and can move around the apart­ment. He does not require spe­cial instal­la­tion; the only con­di­tion is that the air out­let hose must be brought out. The hose has a diam­e­ter of up to 15 cm and a length of up to 2 m, which lim­its move­ment in the dis­tance to the win­dow.

portable air conditioner

  • rooftop devices, which are rarely used as domes­tic instal­la­tions.

Mul­ti-block struc­tures are rep­re­sent­ed by split sys­tems of var­i­ous instal­la­tions with two or more blocks. They have an out­door unit con­tain­ing a com­pres­sor and are installed out­side the room, and one or more indoor units for air dis­tri­b­u­tion.

  • Wall split air con­di­tion­er. The most com­mon type of split sys­tem is the wall-mount­ed ver­sion of the indoor unit. It con­nects elec­tri­cal­ly and hydrauli­cal­ly to the out­door unit and is fixed to the wall any­where in the room. Such devices are pro­duced with a pow­er of 2–7 kW and are able to cool a room rang­ing from 12 to 75 square meters. m. The dis­tance between the ele­ments (pipeline length) is select­ed up to 7 m.

Wall split air conditioner

  • Mul­ti-split sys­tem. Unlike a sim­ple split, which pro­vides for 1 indoor unit, the mul­ti-split sys­tem is based on the instal­la­tion of 2 to 5 indoor devices, which can have a dif­fer­ent design and pow­er (with­in 2–5 kW). Such a sys­tem allows you to dis­trib­ute air con­di­tion­ing through­out the apart­ment, with­out clut­ter­ing the out­er sur­face of the wall with addi­tion­al blocks.

Multi-split system

Air conditioner power calculation

The choice of air con­di­tion­er pow­er. This impor­tant para­me­ter of the device depends on the vol­ume of the room.

the nec­es­sary pow­er can be cal­cu­lat­ed by the for­mu­la Q = S x H xq (W), where:

  • S — the area of ​​the room;
  • H — ceil­ing height;
  • q — the heat trans­fer coef­fi­cient of the walls (for the sun­ny side q=40, for the shady side — q=30) with the addi­tion of 10% for the heat gen­er­at­ed by peo­ple and house­hold appli­ances (except for the kitchen).

For exam­ple, for a room with an area of ​​​​30 square meters, a height of 2.5 m, fac­ing the sun­ny side of the house, the pow­er should be 30 x 2.5 x 40 x 1.1 u003d 3300 watts. Stan­dard pow­er range of split sys­tems: 2; 2.6; 3.5; 5.3 and 7 kW. Con­se­quent­ly, you will have to choose an air con­di­tion­er with a capac­i­ty of 3.5 kW.

How to choose the right air conditioner

With the onset of the sum­mer sea­son, many are won­der­ing: which air con­di­tion­er to choose? When select­ing, in addi­tion to pow­er, We rec­om­mend that you pay atten­tion to the fol­low­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics:

  • elec­tric­i­ty con­sump­tion, the length of the fre­on line;
  • weight;
  • drainage fea­tures, design;
  • impor­tant — the pres­ence of auto­mat­ic tem­per­a­ture con­trol, remote con­trol, the pres­ence of fit­tings for fas­ten­ing;
  • and, of course, the price of the device.

Watch our video on how to choose the right air con­di­tion­er:

The principle of operation of the air conditioner

All house­hold split sys­tems have a sim­i­lar oper­at­ing prin­ci­ple:

  • The air is cooled by coolant (fre­on) at the moment of trans­for­ma­tion into gas in the evap­o­ra­tor cham­ber takes in a lot of heat.
  • Vac­u­um pump gaseous fre­on is pumped out of the cham­ber and enters the con­den­sa­tion cham­ber, where again turns into a liq­uid.
  • Then a new cycle begins, and so it repeats con­stant­ly. It should also be tak­en into account that in the evap­o­ra­tion cham­ber when fre­on evap­o­rates, water con­den­sate is formed, accu­mu­lat­ing at the bot­tom of the cham­ber and requir­ing with­draw­al (drainage).

A fea­ture of the split sys­tem is remote sep­a­ra­tion of the loca­tion of the con­den­sa­tion cham­ber, com­pres­sor and vac­u­um pump, and the evap­o­ra­tion cham­ber.
Due to the fact that all ele­ments that emit noise (com­pres­sor, pump) are locat­ed in the out­door unit and tak­en out of the room, it is ensured silent oper­a­tion.
Fre­on is dis­tilled through annealed cop­per tubes through the indoor unit, where the evap­o­ra­tion cham­ber is locat­ed and the air is cooled.

The ener­gy con­sump­tion of the sys­tem can be reduced by the fol­low­ing mea­sures:
  • the min­i­mum length of the fre­on line;
  • good drainage of the evap­o­ra­tion cham­ber;
  • exclu­sion of heat­ing of the out­door unit under the influ­ence of direct sun­light.

Ener­gy con­sump­tion is reduced when the out­door unit is low­er than the indoor unit, just as when heat­ed, any liq­uid itself rush­es up, which means that it does not have to be pro­mot­ed arti­fi­cial­ly.

The tight­ness of the entire sys­tem is impor­tant — any micro­scop­ic defects can lead to fre­on volatiliza­tion.

Installing an air conditioner and a split system with your own hands

Installing a split air con­di­tion­er includes the fol­low­ing main steps:

  1. Prepara­to­ry work.
  2. Instal­la­tion of out­door and indoor units.
  3. Fre­on pip­ing.
  4. Instal­la­tion of a drainage sys­tem.
  5. Instal­la­tion of the elec­tri­cal cir­cuit.
  6. Fill­ing refrig­er­ant and seal­ing the sys­tem.
  7. Test and launch.

For mount­ingA necessary tool for the installation of air conditioners do-it-your­self air con­di­tion­er, you must pre­pare the fol­low­ing tool in advance:

  • per­fo­ra­tor, elec­tric drill and screw­driv­er;
  • rolling set;
  • vac­u­um pump and gauge man­i­fold;
  • pipe pro­cess­ing tool — pipe cut­ter, scraper, ream­er, pipe ben­der;
  • Screw­driv­er Set;
  • a set of sock­et and wrench keys;
  • Adjustable wrench;
  • tester;
  • lev­el and plumb;
  • Bul­gar­i­an.

When installing the device with your own hands, you will need the fol­low­ing mount­ing mate­r­i­al and equip­ment:

  • for fre­on route: cop­per tube (two sizes); return nuts for tubes (two sizes); mate­r­i­al for ther­mal insu­la­tion of the route;
  • for elec­tri­cal instal­la­tion: cable, cir­cuit break­er at least 25A, con­nect­ing (ter­mi­nal) block, RCD, PVC elec­tri­cal tape, cor­ru­gat­ed pipe for cable;
  • for the drainage sys­tem: hose for out­door and indoor units, fit­tings for con­nec­tion to the sew­er sys­tem and con­nec­tion;
  • for fas­ten­ing: brack­ets for the out­door unit, mount­ing plate for the indoor unit, anchor bolts, dow­els and screws, rope (cable) to hold the out­door unit dur­ing instal­la­tion;
  • for fill­ing and seal­ing: fre­on bot­tle, sil­i­cone sealant;
  • aux­il­iary ele­ments: plas­tic box­es for pipes and drainage (60–100 mm) and cable (20–30 mm), clamps, pipeline fas­ten­ers, screws, dow­els.

Preparatory work

The prepara­to­ry phase includes a num­ber activ­i­ties with­out which you can not start work:

  1. prepa­ra­tion of the mount­ing kit;
  2. study­ing instruc­tions;
  3. check­ing the avail­abil­i­ty of all details;
  4. deter­mi­na­tion of the place of attach­ment of blocks;
  5. route mark­ing; clar­i­fi­ca­tion of the pos­si­bil­i­ty of the pow­er grid.

Instal­la­tion work must begin by read­ing the instruc­tions by use. With­out instruc­tionswhere the spec­i­fied para­me­ters of the device are giv­en, qual­i­ty instal­la­tion is not pos­si­ble. If the instruc­tion is lost, then you should find an air con­di­tion­er sim­i­lar in mod­el (com­pa­ny office, ser­vice cen­ters, Inter­net).

The instruc­tions spec­i­fy the fol­low­ing para­me­ters:

  • oper­at­ing cur­rent;
  • per­mis­si­ble length and diam­e­ter of the pipeline;
  • drainage require­ments spe­cif­ic instal­la­tion require­ments;
  • type of refrig­er­ant and its work­ing pres­sure;
  • mass of blocks.

Block placement

Mounting the indoor unit

When deter­min­ing the place where it is nec­es­sary to install an air con­di­tion­er in an apart­ment, cer­tain rules must be fol­lowed.

  • The inter­nal one is installed close to the ceil­ing, but not clos­er than 15 cm.
  • There must be a free gap of at least 10 cm around the block.
  • Dur­ing instal­la­tion, the unit should be hung oblique­ly at an angle of up to 5 degrees.
  • The loca­tion of the ele­ment should allow free sup­ply of pipes and cables, and be away from heat sources.
  • The dis­tance to the block from the win­dow should not exceed the max­i­mum dimen­sions set for the length of the fre­on route.
  • The out­door unit is installed on the out­er side of the wall below the indoor unit, but no more than 3 m.
  • Its loca­tion must be cho­sen so that the instal­la­tion is easy to car­ry out from the win­dow open­ing.
  • The length of the pipes from the block to the entrance to the room should not exceed 1 m.
  • Dur­ing instal­la­tion, the out­er ele­ment is moved away from the wall by 10 cm. It is for­bid­den to install the unit near the gas pipeline.

Planned block instal­la­tion sites are marked with chalk or a mark­er with mount­ing brack­ets. Then between them pip­ing route is marked for fre­on and pow­er cable. not­ed mount­ing loca­tion of elec­tri­cal dis­tri­b­u­tion box. Drainage sys­tems are being markeds and divert­ing it into the sew­er.

Wiring and laying a freon route

Shtroba freon routeInstal­la­tion of the sys­tem con­sists in fix­ing the blocks, lay­ing and fix­ing the pipeline, elec­tri­cal wiring and drainage sys­tem.

The pipeline and cable along the wall can be laid in three ways:

  • penal­ty;
  • plas­tic box;
  • cor­ru­gat­ed hose.

Penal­ties allow you to make a hid­den route, but require a lot of time and effort. For lay­ing all high­ways in con­crete, a stan­dard chan­nel size 40 x 60 mm.

Chas­ing is car­ried out using a grinder, punch­er or wall chas­er. The eas­i­est and most high-qual­i­ty way is to use a wall chas­er, which allows you to make a chan­nel in one pass, but the cost of such a pow­er tool is high. More a com­mon method is to cut 2 lon­gi­tu­di­nal slots with a grinder fol­lowed by sam­pling of con­crete between the slots with a per­fo­ra­tor.

An eas­i­er lay­ing method is a plas­tic hose or box. They are attached to the wall with dow­els, for which holes with a diam­e­ter of about 8 mm are drilled in the marked places. To draw a route through a wall, it breaks through hole with a diam­e­ter of 5–8 cm using a per­fo­ra­tor.

Installation of the drainage system

Air Conditioner Drainage System

Prop­er instal­la­tion — drain­ing the air con­di­tion­er into the sew­er, but this is real­ized only with a close loca­tion of sew­er pipes. Most often, the drainage hoses are sim­ply brought out (the vol­ume of con­den­sate is small and is released in the form of drops). A fea­ture of lay­ing drainage is the need to ensure the self-flow of water, i.e. the hose should be low­ered by 3 cm for every 1 m of gas­ket length.

Electrical connection

The cable for pow­er sup­ply of the units is placed in a cor­ru­gat­ed hose or a stubpierced in the wall. It is pulled through the wall into the same hole as the tubes. Along the out­er wall and in the wall hole wiring is locat­ed in the cor­ru­ga­tion. The chan­nel for lay­ing inside the wall has dimen­sions of at least 10 x 10 mm.

The out­let of the elec­tri­cal cir­cuit of the air con­di­tion­er from the main elec­tri­cal net­work is car­ried out in the near­est junc­tion box, if the sec­tion of the sup­ply wires allows. Most often, nec­es­sary into an exist­ing chan­nel extend addi­tion­al cable (wire) of the desired sec­tion. A ter­mi­nal block is installed in the junc­tion box, in which the con­nec­tion is made.

Intro­duc­to­ry RCD is installed on the elec­tri­cal pan­el with a cir­cuit break­er for a cur­rent of at least 25 A.

The fig­ure shows the elec­tri­cal con­nec­tion dia­gram of the air con­di­tion­er:

Wiring diagram for air conditioner

Split system installation

Mounting the outdoor unit

The out­door unit is mount­ed on brack­ets, the dimen­sions of which must take into account the weight of the device, as well as weath­er fac­tors (snow, icing, wind). The brack­ets are fas­tened with anchor bolts, and the holes in the wall for them are punched with a per­fo­ra­tor. Usu­al­ly brack­ets are includ­ed. It is rec­om­mend­ed to install a canopy over the out­door unit.

To install the indoor unit pre-on wall fixed with dow­els mount­ing plateinclud­ed with the air con­di­tion­er. Holes for dow­els are drilled with an elec­tric drill or punched with a punch­er. The block itself, accord­ing to the instal­la­tion tech­nol­o­gy, is installed with an incli­na­tion at an angle of 3 to 5 degrees to direct the cool air down.

When lay­ing cop­per pipes, spe­cial atten­tion should be paid to their bend­ing. To avoid defor­ma­tions, bend­ing should be car­ried out using a spe­cial device — a pipe ben­der. The per­mis­si­ble bend­ing diam­e­ter is 20 cm. The tube must be cut with a pipe cut­ter, and the cut end must be processed with a scraper.

A heat-insu­lat­ing hose made of polyurethane foam is put on the pipes (flex). Thread­ed flanges (back nuts) are installed on the ends of the tubes, and the end is rolled with a ream­er. The flanges are installed on the fit­tings of the blocks and tight­ened, but so as not to deform the soft cop­per base of the tube.

Spe­cial atten­tion — the thread of the flanges must be direct­ed towards the endand when fas­ten­ing the cold out­let of one unit must not be con­nect­ed to the hot out­let of anoth­er.

Charging refrigerant and completing the installation

The final stage of instal­la­tion of the air con­di­tion­er includes fill­ing the sys­tem with refrig­er­ant, seal­ing and test­ing.

After the instal­la­tion is com­plet­ed, the pow­er sup­ply is con­nect­ed and the sys­tem is charged with fre­on.Refueling air conditioners

  • air is pumped out using a vac­u­um pump;
  • then the sys­tem is filled with fre­on from a cylin­der, where it is under pres­sure.

The tight­ness of the struc­ture is con­trolled by a mano­met­ric man­i­fold.

If the col­lec­tor shows no pres­sure increase with­in 60 min­utes, then the tight­ness is con­sid­ered nor­mal; oth­er­wise, the seal­ing of the joints should be checked. The eas­i­est way to check is soap suds. The bro­ken joints are sealed by apply­ing sil­i­cone sealant.

Test­ing is car­ried out when turned on in dif­fer­ent modes. Switch­ing on is done using an auto­mat­ic switch, and the test mode is set on the air con­di­tion­er.

To learn how to install the air con­di­tion­er your­self, see the video:‑zbGm4gOiM

Rules for the use of air conditioners

When using the air con­di­tion­er in every­day life you should fol­low some rules:

  • it is impos­si­ble to direct a strong stream direct­ly at a per­son, so as not to cause a cold;
  • it is not rec­om­mend­ed to allow a tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence between adja­cent rooms of more than 10 degrees;
  • the opti­mum tem­per­a­ture is rec­om­mend­ed — 20–22 degrees;
  • you should peri­od­i­cal­ly turn off the device and ven­ti­late the room to restore the ozone con­tent;
  • it is rec­om­mend­ed to use a humid­i­fi­er;
  • it is nec­es­sary to car­ry out pre­ven­tive mea­sures — replac­ing fil­ters, adding fre­on, clean­ing the sys­tem.

It is for­bid­den to turn on a faulty air con­di­tion­er: spark­ing in places of elec­tri­cal con­tact, click­ing inside, cable heat­ing, refrig­er­ant leak­age.

air conditioner installation cost

Installing an air con­di­tion­er with your own hands requires cer­tain costs — the pur­chase of fas­ten­ers, refrig­er­ant, aux­il­iary mate­ri­als. In gen­er­al, all costs should not exceed 10 dol­lars.

Installing an air con­di­tion­er by a spe­cial­ist can be pro­duced with­out spend­ing your own time and effort, but will require at the low­est prices from 60 dol­lars. By time instal­la­tion of a split sys­tem will take no more than 8 hours with the right tools and mate­ri­als.

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