In the hot summer, people begin to understand what they lack in home improvement.
Air conditioning allows:
- get rid of problems such as heat and stuffiness;
- maintain the desired level of temperature in the room, as comfortable as possible for humans and household appliances.
Unlike fans, causing drafts and leading to colds, modern air conditioners maintain a predetermined temperature regime in automatic mode without problematic movements of air flows.
Types of air conditioners
According to their design, household appliances are divided into two main classes:
- multiblock devices.
Monoblock plants consist of one working unit and are divided into the following main types:
- Window. Such devices must be installed in a window opening. Modern systems are produced with a power of 1.5–6 kW, may have an additional air heating system, automatic temperature control and remote control. The price of this air conditioner from 12000 rubles and higher, depending on the configuration.
- Monoblock air conditioner mobile type designed for floor installation and can move around the apartment. He does not require special installation; the only condition is that the air outlet hose must be brought out. The hose has a diameter of up to 15 cm and a length of up to 2 m, which limits movement in the distance to the window.
- rooftop devices, which are rarely used as domestic installations.
Multi-block structures are represented by split systems of various installations with two or more blocks. They have an outdoor unit containing a compressor and are installed outside the room, and one or more indoor units for air distribution.
- Wall split air conditioner. The most common type of split system is the wall-mounted version of the indoor unit. It connects electrically and hydraulically to the outdoor unit and is fixed to the wall anywhere in the room. Such devices are produced with a power of 2–7 kW and are able to cool a room ranging from 12 to 75 square meters. m. The distance between the elements (pipeline length) is selected up to 7 m.
- Multi-split system. Unlike a simple split, which provides for 1 indoor unit, the multi-split system is based on the installation of 2 to 5 indoor devices, which can have a different design and power (within 2–5 kW). Such a system allows you to distribute air conditioning throughout the apartment, without cluttering the outer surface of the wall with additional blocks.
Air conditioner power calculation
The choice of air conditioner power. This important parameter of the device depends on the volume of the room.
the necessary power can be calculated by the formula Q = S x H xq (W), where:
- S — the area of the room;
- H — ceiling height;
- q — the heat transfer coefficient of the walls (for the sunny side q=40, for the shady side — q=30) with the addition of 10% for the heat generated by people and household appliances (except for the kitchen).
For example, for a room with an area of 30 square meters, a height of 2.5 m, facing the sunny side of the house, the power should be 30 x 2.5 x 40 x 1.1 u003d 3300 watts. Standard power range of split systems: 2; 2.6; 3.5; 5.3 and 7 kW. Consequently, you will have to choose an air conditioner with a capacity of 3.5 kW.
How to choose the right air conditioner
With the onset of the summer season, many are wondering: which air conditioner to choose? When selecting, in addition to power, We recommend that you pay attention to the following characteristics:
- electricity consumption, the length of the freon line;
- drainage features, design;
- important — the presence of automatic temperature control, remote control, the presence of fittings for fastening;
- and, of course, the price of the device.
Watch our video on how to choose the right air conditioner:
The principle of operation of the air conditioner
All household split systems have a similar operating principle:
- The air is cooled by coolant (freon) at the moment of transformation into gas in the evaporator chamber takes in a lot of heat.
- Vacuum pump gaseous freon is pumped out of the chamber and enters the condensation chamber, where again turns into a liquid.
- Then a new cycle begins, and so it repeats constantly. It should also be taken into account that in the evaporation chamber when freon evaporates, water condensate is formed, accumulating at the bottom of the chamber and requiring withdrawal (drainage).
A feature of the split system is remote separation of the location of the condensation chamber, compressor and vacuum pump, and the evaporation chamber.
Due to the fact that all elements that emit noise (compressor, pump) are located in the outdoor unit and taken out of the room, it is ensured silent operation.
Freon is distilled through annealed copper tubes through the indoor unit, where the evaporation chamber is located and the air is cooled.
- the minimum length of the freon line;
- good drainage of the evaporation chamber;
- exclusion of heating of the outdoor unit under the influence of direct sunlight.
Energy consumption is reduced when the outdoor unit is lower than the indoor unit, just as when heated, any liquid itself rushes up, which means that it does not have to be promoted artificially.
The tightness of the entire system is important — any microscopic defects can lead to freon volatilization.
Installing an air conditioner and a split system with your own hands
Installing a split air conditioner includes the following main steps:
- Preparatory work.
- Installation of outdoor and indoor units.
- Freon piping.
- Installation of a drainage system.
- Installation of the electrical circuit.
- Filling refrigerant and sealing the system.
- Test and launch.
For mounting do-it-yourself air conditioner, you must prepare the following tool in advance:
- perforator, electric drill and screwdriver;
- rolling set;
- vacuum pump and gauge manifold;
- pipe processing tool — pipe cutter, scraper, reamer, pipe bender;
- Screwdriver Set;
- a set of socket and wrench keys;
- Adjustable wrench;
- level and plumb;
When installing the device with your own hands, you will need the following mounting material and equipment:
- for freon route: copper tube (two sizes); return nuts for tubes (two sizes); material for thermal insulation of the route;
- for electrical installation: cable, circuit breaker at least 25A, connecting (terminal) block, RCD, PVC electrical tape, corrugated pipe for cable;
- for the drainage system: hose for outdoor and indoor units, fittings for connection to the sewer system and connection;
- for fastening: brackets for the outdoor unit, mounting plate for the indoor unit, anchor bolts, dowels and screws, rope (cable) to hold the outdoor unit during installation;
- for filling and sealing: freon bottle, silicone sealant;
- auxiliary elements: plastic boxes for pipes and drainage (60–100 mm) and cable (20–30 mm), clamps, pipeline fasteners, screws, dowels.
The preparatory phase includes a number activities without which you can not start work:
- preparation of the mounting kit;
- studying instructions;
- checking the availability of all details;
- determination of the place of attachment of blocks;
- route marking; clarification of the possibility of the power grid.
Installation work must begin by reading the instructions by use. Without instructionswhere the specified parameters of the device are given, quality installation is not possible. If the instruction is lost, then you should find an air conditioner similar in model (company office, service centers, Internet).
The instructions specify the following parameters:
- operating current;
- permissible length and diameter of the pipeline;
- drainage requirements specific installation requirements;
- type of refrigerant and its working pressure;
- mass of blocks.
When determining the place where it is necessary to install an air conditioner in an apartment, certain rules must be followed.
- The internal one is installed close to the ceiling, but not closer than 15 cm.
- There must be a free gap of at least 10 cm around the block.
- During installation, the unit should be hung obliquely at an angle of up to 5 degrees.
- The location of the element should allow free supply of pipes and cables, and be away from heat sources.
- The distance to the block from the window should not exceed the maximum dimensions set for the length of the freon route.
- The outdoor unit is installed on the outer side of the wall below the indoor unit, but no more than 3 m.
- Its location must be chosen so that the installation is easy to carry out from the window opening.
- The length of the pipes from the block to the entrance to the room should not exceed 1 m.
- During installation, the outer element is moved away from the wall by 10 cm. It is forbidden to install the unit near the gas pipeline.
Planned block installation sites are marked with chalk or a marker with mounting brackets. Then between them piping route is marked for freon and power cable. noted mounting location of electrical distribution box. Drainage systems are being markeds and diverting it into the sewer.
Wiring and laying a freon route
Installation of the system consists in fixing the blocks, laying and fixing the pipeline, electrical wiring and drainage system.
The pipeline and cable along the wall can be laid in three ways:
- plastic box;
- corrugated hose.
Penalties allow you to make a hidden route, but require a lot of time and effort. For laying all highways in concrete, a standard channel size 40 x 60 mm.
Chasing is carried out using a grinder, puncher or wall chaser. The easiest and most high-quality way is to use a wall chaser, which allows you to make a channel in one pass, but the cost of such a power tool is high. More a common method is to cut 2 longitudinal slots with a grinder followed by sampling of concrete between the slots with a perforator.
An easier laying method is a plastic hose or box. They are attached to the wall with dowels, for which holes with a diameter of about 8 mm are drilled in the marked places. To draw a route through a wall, it breaks through hole with a diameter of 5–8 cm using a perforator.
Installation of the drainage system
Proper installation — draining the air conditioner into the sewer, but this is realized only with a close location of sewer pipes. Most often, the drainage hoses are simply brought out (the volume of condensate is small and is released in the form of drops). A feature of laying drainage is the need to ensure the self-flow of water, i.e. the hose should be lowered by 3 cm for every 1 m of gasket length.
The cable for power supply of the units is placed in a corrugated hose or a stubpierced in the wall. It is pulled through the wall into the same hole as the tubes. Along the outer wall and in the wall hole wiring is located in the corrugation. The channel for laying inside the wall has dimensions of at least 10 x 10 mm.
The outlet of the electrical circuit of the air conditioner from the main electrical network is carried out in the nearest junction box, if the section of the supply wires allows. Most often, necessary into an existing channel extend additional cable (wire) of the desired section. A terminal block is installed in the junction box, in which the connection is made.
Introductory RCD is installed on the electrical panel with a circuit breaker for a current of at least 25 A.
The figure shows the electrical connection diagram of the air conditioner:
Split system installation
The outdoor unit is mounted on brackets, the dimensions of which must take into account the weight of the device, as well as weather factors (snow, icing, wind). The brackets are fastened with anchor bolts, and the holes in the wall for them are punched with a perforator. Usually brackets are included. It is recommended to install a canopy over the outdoor unit.
To install the indoor unit pre-on wall fixed with dowels mounting plateincluded with the air conditioner. Holes for dowels are drilled with an electric drill or punched with a puncher. The block itself, according to the installation technology, is installed with an inclination at an angle of 3 to 5 degrees to direct the cool air down.
When laying copper pipes, special attention should be paid to their bending. To avoid deformations, bending should be carried out using a special device — a pipe bender. The permissible bending diameter is 20 cm. The tube must be cut with a pipe cutter, and the cut end must be processed with a scraper.
A heat-insulating hose made of polyurethane foam is put on the pipes (flex). Threaded flanges (back nuts) are installed on the ends of the tubes, and the end is rolled with a reamer. The flanges are installed on the fittings of the blocks and tightened, but so as not to deform the soft copper base of the tube.
Special attention — the thread of the flanges must be directed towards the endand when fastening the cold outlet of one unit must not be connected to the hot outlet of another.
Charging refrigerant and completing the installation
The final stage of installation of the air conditioner includes filling the system with refrigerant, sealing and testing.
After the installation is completed, the power supply is connected and the system is charged with freon.
- air is pumped out using a vacuum pump;
- then the system is filled with freon from a cylinder, where it is under pressure.
The tightness of the structure is controlled by a manometric manifold.
If the collector shows no pressure increase within 60 minutes, then the tightness is considered normal; otherwise, the sealing of the joints should be checked. The easiest way to check is soap suds. The broken joints are sealed by applying silicone sealant.
Testing is carried out when turned on in different modes. Switching on is done using an automatic switch, and the test mode is set on the air conditioner.
To learn how to install the air conditioner yourself, see the video:
Rules for the use of air conditioners
When using the air conditioner in everyday life you should follow some rules:
- it is impossible to direct a strong stream directly at a person, so as not to cause a cold;
- it is not recommended to allow a temperature difference between adjacent rooms of more than 10 degrees;
- the optimum temperature is recommended — 20–22 degrees;
- you should periodically turn off the device and ventilate the room to restore the ozone content;
- it is recommended to use a humidifier;
- it is necessary to carry out preventive measures — replacing filters, adding freon, cleaning the system.
It is forbidden to turn on a faulty air conditioner: sparking in places of electrical contact, clicking inside, cable heating, refrigerant leakage.
air conditioner installation cost
Installing an air conditioner with your own hands requires certain costs — the purchase of fasteners, refrigerant, auxiliary materials. In general, all costs should not exceed 10 dollars.
Installing an air conditioner by a specialist can be produced without spending your own time and effort, but will require at the lowest prices from 60 dollars. By time installation of a split system will take no more than 8 hours with the right tools and materials.