Mobile air heaters

mobile air heaters

What can I say, we were not very lucky with the cli­mate. For almost six months a year, most Euro­pean ter­ri­to­ries feel the cold breath of the North Pole. There­fore, heat­ing prob­lems remain rel­e­vant always. With res­i­den­tial build­ings and offices, every­thing is more or less clear. But what about base­ments, garages, green­hous­es, util­i­ty rooms, var­i­ous work­shops and premis­es where equip­ment is being repaired and replaced? After all, the need to quick­ly and effi­cient­ly heat and dry them peri­od­i­cal­ly aris­es. This prob­lem can be solved.

To estab­lish a nor­mal ther­mal regime in unheat­ed rooms, air heaters are suc­cess­ful­ly used. Struc­tural­ly, they are made in the form of a monoblock con­tain­ing a heat source, a con­trol sys­tem, and, as a rule, a fan to cre­ate an air flow that is heat­ed and sup­plied from the source to the room (or, for exam­ple, to a wall, ceil­ing, a stack of boards, etc.). Accord­ing to the type of ener­gy car­ri­er used, these heaters can be divid­ed into five groups and into three more groups accord­ing to the method of heat release, and on the basis of mobil­i­ty- mobile and sta­tion­ary.

Air heaters oper­ate on sol­id liq­uid fuels (diesel and kerosene or used motor oil), gas, elec­tric­i­ty and hot water from the heat­ing sys­tem of a build­ing or dis­trict heat­ing plant.

Sol­id fuel air heat­ing sys­tems should include con­vec­tor ovens such as Buler­ian or “Chinel” and the like. They are extreme­ly con­ve­nient, eco­nom­i­cal and cheap. Burn­ing time with one load of fire­wood is from3 tofif­teenh. How­ev­er, their use requires a chim­ney, and they are most often used for heat­ing base­ments, work­shops, green­hous­es and sim­i­lar premis­es, when the heater can already be installed in a cer­tain place for a suf­fi­cient­ly long time, and act only if nec­es­sary.

For pri­vate con­struc­tion, sys­tems that are tru­ly mobile and designed for heat­ing with­out any instal­la­tion work are of greater inter­est. There­fore, we will make a reser­va­tion that fur­ther we will con­sid­er only mobile devices. The tech­ni­cal data of some of them are giv­en in the tables. The full range of heaters avail­able on the mar­ket is exten­sive and can­not be list­ed with­in the scope of the arti­cle.

Let’s start the review with liq­uid fuel heaters. This is per­haps the most numer­ous group of indus­tri­al air heaters, which is pri­mar­i­ly due to the high degree of their “mobi­liza­tion” readi­ness and the avail­abil­i­ty of fuel in any geo­graph­i­cal area. On the Euro­pean mar­ket, they are rep­re­sent­ed not only by import­ed instal­la­tions, but also by domes­tic mod­els that are in no way infe­ri­or to them, for exam­ple, RPK “BICAR”. Accord­ing to the design and method of heat trans­fer, liq­uid fuel air heaters are divid­ed into three large groups: direct and indi­rect heat­ing instal­la­tions and infrared heaters.

Direct heating devices

Direct heat­ing air heaters are used to heat non-res­i­den­tial premis­es. They are the sim­plest and prob­a­bly the most com­mon among liq­uid fuel heaters. Their dis­tin­guish­ing fea­ture is that the com­bus­tion cham­ber of the atom­ized fuel jet is not sep­a­rat­ed from the heat­ed air flow, so the com­bus­tion prod­ucts enter the room. They work as fol­lows. Air is pumped into the noz­zle, sucks in fuel from the tank, sprays it. The fuel-air mix­ture is inject­ed into the com­bus­tion cham­ber where it is ignit­ed by a spark plug. The fan blows air around the com­bus­tion cham­ber and par­tial­ly into it. As it heats up, it exits the device and enters the room. The units use spe­cial burn­ers that car­ry out com­plete com­bus­tion of fuel with­out odor and soot for­ma­tion. ATDe­pend­ing on the mod­el, direct heat­ing liq­uid fuel instal­la­tions can be equipped with man­u­al or auto­mat­ic igni­tion, a pho­to­cell that con­trols the pres­ence of a flame, and a ther­mo­stat to ensure the desired tem­per­a­ture regime. Most of these devices are equipped with wheels for move­ment. The fuel sup­ply sys­tem can be con­nect­ed to a large fuel tank using two pipes (fuel sup­ply and fuel drain). The cost of instal­la­tions depends on the heat out­put and ranges from approximately$590 (MASTER B35CEB) to$2500–3000 (MASTER B350CEB- $2950) with rel­a­tive­ly the same fuel con­sump­tion per 1kW of ther­mal pow­er (about 0.1 l/(hkW).

Fea­tures of the oper­a­tion of these devices dic­tate the rules for their oper­a­tion. First­ly, the fan sup­plies a rel­a­tive­ly small vol­ume of air, oth­er­wise the con­di­tions for the for­ma­tion of a good fuel-air mix­ture are vio­lat­ed. There­fore, it is nec­es­sary to heat the air at the out­let to a high tem­per­a­ture: from180 to350C. The more pow­er­ful the unit, the high­er the tem­per­a­ture and the risk of burns, espe­cial­ly if the heater is equipped with a ther­mo­stat that auto­mat­i­cal­ly turns on the appli­ance, which often comes as a sur­prise to the user. Such instal­la­tions can only be used in places where there is no strong dusti­ness, and com­bustible mate­ri­als can­not be locat­ed clos­er than 2.5m from the side of the air out­let. Sec­ond­ly, for nor­mal com­bus­tion, good ven­ti­la­tion of the room should be ensured at the rate of at least 980cm2 fresh air flow areat­enkW of ther­mal pow­er. At the same time, there are prob­lems with dust and drafts, which have to be solved based on local con­di­tions. These air heaters are not rec­om­mend­ed to be placed in res­i­den­tial premis­es and where peo­ple stay for a long time.

Kerosene and diesel air heaters*

Firm Mod­el Type of heat­ing Ther­mal pow­er, kW Air flow, m3/h Fuel con­sump­tion, l/h Tank vol­ume, l Weight, kg Con­sumed elec­tric pow­er, W Num­ber of mod­els on the mar­ket
ENDRESS, Ger­many EHG B 70 Straight twen­ty 400 1.85 19 17 90 6
EHG BV 70 Indi­rect 68 3000 6.8 105 124 1000
KONFOMA, Hol­land T 16 Straight 18.6 600 1.8 fif­teen 24 220 four­teen
ita 65 Indi­rect 65 2400 7.5 120 135 1150
SIAL, Italy GRYP 20 Straight 23 400 1.9 21 26 Not 22
MAGNUM 100HC Indi­rect 103 7600 8.7 Not 249 1880
MASTERUSA B35 CEB Straight ten 280 1.0 eleven 16 twen­ty 13
B.V.440E Indi­rect 109 8500 10.7 Not 175 1500

* As an exam­ple, the data of only two mod­els are giv­en.

Indirect air heaters

More advanced and com­plex are instal­la­tions with indi­rect air heat­ing, oper­at­ing on liq­uid diesel fuel and kerosene, which are fed into the com­bus­tion cham­ber by a pres­sur­ized fuel pump. Their fun­da­men­tal dif­fer­ence is that the com­bus­tion cham­ber is closed, sep­a­rat­ed by walls from the flow of air flow­ing around it and has a sealed pipe for the release of com­bus­tion prod­ucts. It, in turn, is con­nect­ed by a large-diam­e­ter flex­i­ble hose to the chim­ney or exhaust duct of the ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem of the build­ing. ATIn extreme cas­es, the hose is tak­en out, out­side the room. There­fore, clean hot air comes out of the heater, the tem­per­a­ture of which is much low­er than with direct heat­ing (from80 to110C), and the val­ue of its flow is greater 2–3 times.

 

Car­bon monox­ide poi­son­ing is eas­i­ly mis­tak­en for the flu.- they have sim­i­lar symp­toms: headache, dizzi­ness, nau­sea. If you have them dur­ing work, then you must urgent­ly go out into the fresh air, then ven­ti­late the room and check the oper­a­tion of the heater.

Instal­la­tions with indi­rect air heat­ing, as a rule, are equipped with auto­mat­ic igni­tion, devices for mon­i­tor­ing and adjust­ing the burn­er flame to achieve the max­i­mum com­plete­ness of fuel com­bus­tion, and are equipped with a ther­mo­stat. FROM­for the same pur­pose, many of them are equipped with devices for pre­heat­ing the fuel. One of the advan­tages of such sys­tems- the out­er case of the device almost nev­er heats up. Not sur­pris­ing­ly, they are sig­nif­i­cant­ly more expen­sive than direct heat­ing units. The price, depend­ing on the ther­mal pow­er, ranges from$1800 before$4500–5000. These heaters can be used in rooms where peo­ple work, with the excep­tion of liv­ing rooms.

Close to this group are units that use used motor oils as fuel. They are dis­tin­guished from those work­ing on diesel fuel and kerosene by the evap­o­ra­tive com­bus­tion sys­tem, which is asso­ci­at­ed with the low volatil­i­ty of oils, as well as man­u­al adjust­ment of the oper­at­ing mode and ther­mal pow­er. I would like to note the low price of such fuel and, accord­ing­ly, the reduc­tion in price 1kW of ther­mal ener­gy. The cost of these units- $1500–5000.

With the help of mobile air heaters, you can cre­ate com­fort­able con­di­tions for ani­mals in the cold sea­son. Gen­er­al fea­tures of the pre­sent­ed heaters- a sig­nif­i­cant amount of air that is pumped by fans through the heat­ing devices, and the oxy­gen con­sumed by the burn­ers. Andif it is enough to ven­ti­late the premis­es to com­pen­sate for the burned oxy­gen, by the way, many man­u­fac­tur­ers specif­i­cal­ly pay atten­tion to this, then with large air flows mov­ing through the heat­ed space, the prob­lem is more dif­fi­cult to solve. It is thanks to the con­stant mix­ing of hot and cold air that the room is heat­ed and simul­ta­ne­ous­ly dehu­mid­i­fied. Nat­u­ral­ly, dur­ing the oper­a­tion of the unit, side effects occur: draft and noise from the fan (up to 45–55 dB). It is appro­pri­ate to note here that heaters with cen­trifu­gal fans are low-noise. And­no­ty­ou should for­get about the oper­at­ing rules that pre­scribe the use of fuel of the pro­posed brand, observe stor­age con­di­tions, and clean fuel fil­ters in time.

Almost all oil fired air heaters require a 220V pow­er supply.C. It is nec­es­sary for the oper­a­tion of air blow­ers, fuel pumps or com­pres­sors, auto­mat­ic igni­tion, con­trol sys­tems. ATDe­pend­ing on the heat, the elec­tri­cal pow­er con­sump­tion of the instal­la­tion is gen­er­al­ly not high- from20 to2 kW. Restart­ing the heater after a pow­er fail­ure can be done auto­mat­i­cal­ly (more expen­sive mod­els) and man­u­al­ly. The task of unin­ter­rupt­ed oper­a­tion of any unit is suc­cess­ful­ly solved when it is com­bined with a small-sized gaso­line pow­er plant.

Waste oil indirect air heaters

Firm Mod­el Type of heat­ing Ther­mal pow­er, kW Air flow, m3/h Fuel con­sump­tion, l/h Tank vol­ume, l Weight, kg Con­sumed elec­tric pow­er, W
KONFOMA, Hol­land AT 305 Indi­rect 19–29 1000 2.0–3.0 fifty 74 40
AT 307 Same 19–29 1000 2.0–3.0 fifty 83 40
AT400 24–41 3000 2.5–4.3 42 130 45
AT500 36–59 3000 3.8–6.2 55 175 90

Gas air heaters

Com­pared to liq­uid fuel air heaters, gas-fired air heaters are cheap­er and more eco­nom­i­cal. Most of them are designed for liq­ue­fied propane, although there are mod­els for which burn­ers are designed using nat­ur­al gas. Air heaters using liq­ue­fied gas are char­ac­ter­ized by waste-free com­bus­tion of fuel and high­ly effi­cient con­sump­tion of ther­mal ener­gy. All units have devices that allow you to smooth­ly adjust the tem­per­a­ture, are equipped with over­heat­ing pro­tec­tion and a fuse in case of dam­age to the gas hose. ATDe­pend­ing on the mod­el, they can be equipped with piezo­elec­tric igni­tion, where com­bus­tion is con­trolled by a ther­mo­cou­ple (man­u­al ver­sion), or auto­mat­ic igni­tion with ion­iza­tion flame con­trol. Units with auto­mat­ic igni­tion can be equipped with a ther­mo­stat.

Mobile air heatersAn elec­tric air heater sup­plies clean hot air and can be used to heat res­i­den­tial premis­es. The advan­tages of gas air heaters, in addi­tion to their low price (from$300), and it turns out to be approximately2times low­er than liq­uid fuel, low cost of fuel, a wide range of ther­mal pow­er and the pos­si­bil­i­ty of its adjust­ment, low weight and porta­bil­i­ty, should be attrib­uted to almost com­plete readi­ness for oper­a­tion. Although, like liq­uid fuel, gas instal­la­tions need elec­tric­i­ty, their use of elec­tric­i­ty varies main­ly from50 to500Tue Why do they not find pre­dom­i­nant dis­tri­b­u­tion, despite their so notice­able advan­tages? The rea­sons, accord­ing to prac­ti­tion­ers, are pure­ly orga­ni­za­tion­al in nature. First­ly, liq­ue­fied gas is not avail­able every­where, and sec­ond­ly, there are dif­fi­cul­ties with its deliv­ery and stor­age. BUT­main- this is the need for peri­od­ic safe­ty checks of gas cylin­ders in the Gos­gortekhnad­zor bod­ies and a waste of time dur­ing var­i­ous inspec­tions. Like all direct heat­ing devices, gas heaters are not used in res­i­den­tial areas.

For room vol­ume 30–50 m3 (up to 18 m2 with ceil­ing height 2.75m) enough heater pow­er 3kW, vol­ume 100–140 m3(35–50 m2) already required heater 6kW.
As the vol­ume increas­es, so does the air flow. There­fore, in order for the heat­ing of the room to occur fair­ly even­ly, inten­sive mix­ing of cold and warm air is nec­es­sary. There­fore, the air flow pass­ing per hour through the air heater must be in3.5–4.5times more space.
In addi­tion, the amount of air flow­ing through the unit is designed to effec­tive­ly remove heat from the heat­ing ele­ments to pre­vent them from over­heat­ing.
Thus, when pur­chas­ing a heat gun, liq­uid or gas air heater, be sure to remem­ber that exces­sive heat out­put and, as a result, a large vol­ume of heat­ed air in small rooms can cause intense vor­tex flows that will entrain dust and cre­ate drafts that take away your health and mon­ey.

Gas once-through air heaters*

Firm Mod­el Ther­mal pow­er, kW Air flow, m3/h Fuel con­sump­tion, l/h Weight, kg Con­sumed elec­tric pow­er, W Num­ber of mod­els on the mar­ket
KONFOMA, Hol­land G15 8.5–15.5 600 0.7–1.2 12 300 12
GA110E 54–130 4000 3.9–9.3 55 2200
MASTERUSA BLP14M 8–14 350 0.6–1.09 13 55 9
DLP 300A 44–88 1750 3.15–6.5 19 200
SIAL, Italy KID 10 ten ** 0.78 5 ** 7
ARGOS 100 58–100 ** 4.5–7.9 28 **

* As an exam­ple, the data of only two mod­els are giv­en.
** No data.

Electric air heaters

Mobile air heatersLiq­uid-fuel infrared air heater RPK “BI CAR“These devices do not need a spe­cial pre­sen­ta­tion. The scope of their appli­ca­tion is quite wide. They have a num­ber of advan­tages over the heaters dis­cussed above: they pro­vide dry clean air, do not burn oxy­gen and can work in unven­ti­lat­ed rooms, do not give open flames, do not pol­lute the envi­ron­ment, they can heat res­i­den­tial premis­es. Before we move on to a more detailed descrip­tion of them, it should be point­ed out that two names are used in rela­tion to elec­tric air heaters- fan heater and heat gun. How­ev­er, there is no fun­da­men­tal dif­fer­ence between them. The lat­ter, as a rule, means an indus­tri­al fan heater, which is supe­ri­or to house­hold pow­er in the first place.- from2 tothir­tykW. These devices are pro­fes­sion­al equip­ment. ATun­like domes­tic ones, they have a body made of steel pro­tect­ed from cor­ro­sion. AtThey have a non-red-hot and non-burn­ing oxy­gen heat­ing ele­ment, which is a sealed tube filled with ceram­ic pow­der, inside which a high-tem­per­a­ture spi­ral pass­es. The fan motor of the heat gun is pro­tect­ed from dust, mois­ture, oil vapors and can be oper­at­ed in places of increased fire haz­ard (for exam­ple, in garages). All appli­ances are equipped with a ther­mo­stat that reg­u­lates the tem­per­a­ture in the room. up to 40FROM, which sig­nif­i­cant­ly saves ener­gy due to the inter­mit­tent oper­a­tion of the heat­ing ele­ments.

At tem­per­a­tures below ‑ten­FROM, before start­ing the oil heater, fill 3–5 l kerosene, and after its devel­op­ment- win­ter diesel fuel.
If an indi­rect heat­ing unit has stopped burn­ing, then do not dis­con­nect it from the mains until the fan has cooled the com­bus­tion cham­ber, oth­er­wise the burn­er will dete­ri­o­rate.
Use a ground­ed pow­er cord with a three-prong plug, not a tem­po­rary exten­sion cord.

A huge num­ber of heat guns of for­eign and domes­tic pro­duc­tion are now pre­sent­ed on the Euro­pean mar­ket. When choos­ing such a device, first of all pay atten­tion to its pow­er sup­ply. If you have a three-phase net­work with a volt­age of 380B, this will expand your options when choos­ing air heaters, both in terms of the num­ber of mod­els and in terms of heat out­put. After all, the pow­er of heat guns pow­ered by a sin­gle-phase net­work is 220B usu­al­ly does not exceed 3kW. Of great impor­tance are the tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence between the incom­ing and out­go­ing air and the addi­tion­al ameni­ties imple­ment­ed in each par­tic­u­lar mod­el.

For the vast major­i­ty of heat guns from var­i­ous man­u­fac­tur­ers, the rec­tan­gu­lar shape of the body is most char­ac­ter­is­tic, and the heat­ing ele­ment is made in the form of a grid. There are mod­els with a cylin­dri­cal body in which the heat­ing ele­ment is twist­ed in a spi­ral. This ensures a longer con­tact of the inject­ed air with the heat­ing ele­ment and, as a result, a high­er tem­per­a­ture at the out­let of the device. At the same time, due to this shape of the hous­ing, the flow of heat­ed air does not dis­si­pate, but blows direc­tion­al­ly. Of the import­ed heat guns, the prod­ucts of PYROX (Nor­way) and FRICO (Swe­den) are the most wide­ly rep­re­sent­ed on the Euro­pean mar­ket.

It is worth not­ing domes­tic fan heaters of the TPTs series. They are not only out­ward­ly very sim­i­lar to import­ed Tiger, Fin­wik and Proff devices, but also have almost all the same func­tions: they can oper­ate in full and half heat­ing or fan pow­er modes, the pres­ence of a ther­mo­stat allows you to set the air tem­per­a­ture in the room from0 tofiftyC, dou­ble ther­mal pro­tec­tion sys­tem breaks the elec­tri­cal cir­cuit and elim­i­nates the pos­si­bil­i­ty of over­heat­ing. But besides this, they use a low-noise motor with a guar­an­tee for12years.

The price of import­ed heat guns fluc­tu­ates on aver­age from$250 before$1500–1700, but there are also sur­pris­ing­ly cheap mod­els. For exam­ple, the entire range of indus­tri­al fan heaters from the Swedish com­pa­ny VEAB- from$110 to$370. The cost of most domes­tic heat guns (for­with the excep­tion of prod­ucts “BICAR”, which was cre­at­ed on the basis of import­ed com­po­nents) varies from$150 before$450–500.

Electric air heaters*

Firm Mod­el Ther­mal pow­er, kW Air flow, m3/h volt­age, V/number of phas­es Weight, kg Num­ber of mod­els on the mar­ket
MASTERUSA B2TH 0–1.0–2.0 300 230/1~ 5 9
BS15E 0–7.5–15.0 700 400/3~ 23.5
TS‑3 0–1.5–3.0 IR heater 230/1~ 10.0
STIMTERM, Fin­land Stimterm‑3,2 3.2* 400 230/1~ 6.2 3
Stimterm 9.6 9.6* 800 400/3~ 15.8
PYROX, Nor­way PRO 321 0–3.0 280 230/1~ 6.0 6
PRO 3043 0–30.0 2600 380/3~ 30.3
DEVI, Den­mark Devitemp 303 0–3.0 400/650 230/1~ ** 6
Devitemp 121 0–21.0 800/1400 380/3~ **
HANDY, Swe­den 321 0–3.0 300 230/1~ 6.0 four
1543 0–15.0 1050 400/3~ 16.1
FRICO, Swe­den Tiger P21 0–2.0 280 230/1~ 5.7 13
FinnwikFB15 0–7.5–15.0 1120 400/3~ 17.0
VEAB, Swe­den EN2 0–2.0 190 230/1~ 4.7 four­teen
BX15E 0–7.5–15.0 1000 400/3~ 15.0

* Data from just a few mod­els are giv­en as an exam­ple.
** No data.

Infrared air heaters

The last group of instal­la­tions for heat­ing indi­vid­ual areas of the room- infrared heaters. This is the most mod­ern group of instal­la­tions, designed for effi­cient, direc­tion­al heat­ing of lim­it­ed and open spaces. Instead of a stream of heat­ed air, these units use infrared ener­gy, which is not absorbed by the air. There­fore, all the ener­gy released by the source, with­out loss, reach­es the heat­ed sur­faces in the zone of oper­a­tion of the instal­la­tion. Accord­ing to the type of ener­gy con­vert­ed into infrared radi­a­tion, these heaters can be divid­ed into liq­uid fuel, gas, elec­tric and water heat­ed. The use of heaters of this type avoids air cir­cu­la­tion in the room, that is, drafts, and also pro­vides more uni­form heat­ing. These heaters are used for dry­ing wood, defrost­ing machines, aggre­gates and pipelines. A detailed analy­sis of the new type of heaters requires a sep­a­rate arti­cle.

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