Modernization of heating systems of a residential building: the essence of energy-efficient measures

The cost of tar­iffs for heat and hot water sup­ply is “unaf­ford­able” for most of our com­pa­tri­ots. And it’s not just the desire of pub­lic util­i­ties to get as much prof­it as pos­si­ble. The rea­sons for this phe­nom­e­non are banal: the rise in the cost of hydro­car­bons and the hous­ing stock, most of which was built in the mid­dle of the last cen­tu­ry, when ener­gy effi­cien­cy was not paid much atten­tion to dur­ing con­struc­tion. This pub­li­ca­tion will con­sid­er mea­sures to mod­ern­ize res­i­den­tial heat­ing sys­tems, which have been used for a long time in a num­ber of Euro­pean coun­tries.


What does thermal modernization of a building mean?

Experts define this con­cept as a set of mea­sures to bring an apart­ment build­ing in line with mod­ern ener­gy effi­cien­cy stan­dards. This includes mea­sures relat­ed to reduc­ing the heat loss of a build­ing through walls, ceil­ings, roofs, base­ments, etc. Large heat loss­es occur due to low ther­mal per­for­mance and poor tight­ness of old win­dows and doors. In addi­tion, ther­mal mod­ern­iza­tion affects the re-equip­ment of engi­neer­ing sys­tems (ven­ti­la­tion, heat­ing, hot water sup­ply), the tran­si­tion to com­bined (geot­her­mal solar) heat sup­ply sources.

Impor­tant! Insu­la­tion of exter­nal fences, with­out re-equip­ment of heat­ing and ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems at home, is not effec­tive and does not give a pos­i­tive result (which often hap­pens), and most often leads to an increase in ener­gy costs by the con­sumer of util­i­ty resources.

A set of mea­sures aimed at reduc­ing heat con­sump­tion and improv­ing the ener­gy effi­cien­cy of build­ings will be con­sid­ered.

Insulation of enclosing structures

This activ­i­ty can be divid­ed into sev­er­al impor­tant types of work.

  1. Insu­la­tion of exter­nal walls from the out­side of the house.

    Ther­mal insu­la­tion of enclos­ing struc­tures is the appli­ca­tion of an addi­tion­al lay­er of mate­r­i­al with a low coef­fi­cient of ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty to the walls. These mea­sures make it pos­si­ble to elim­i­nate “cold bridges”, increase the ther­mal insu­la­tion prop­er­ties of walls, and effec­tive­ly solve the prob­lem of “mate­r­i­al poros­i­ty”. The fol­low­ing wall insu­la­tion tech­nolo­gies can be applied: seam­less insu­la­tion sys­tem; cre­ation of an insu­lat­ing wall; arrange­ment of a ven­ti­lat­ed facade.Seamless insulation method

  2. Insu­la­tion of the roof, attic floors.

    If the attic of the house is not heat­ed, then work is car­ried out to insu­late the floor under the attic with the pro­tec­tion of the insu­lat­ing lay­er from mechan­i­cal dam­age.

  3. Ther­mal insu­la­tion of floors above the base­ment.

This type of work is car­ried out from the base­ment side by glu­ing heat-insu­lat­ing plates to the ceil­ing.

Advice! If it is impos­si­ble to car­ry out mea­sures for ther­mal insu­la­tion of walls from the out­side (an archi­tec­tur­al mon­u­ment, a com­plex relief of the facade, etc.), then it is nec­es­sary to insu­late the out­er walls from the inside of the build­ing by lay­ing poly­styrene foam boards under plas­ter or dry­wall.

Reducing heat loss through windows

Accord­ing to experts, up to 30% of the heat from heat­ed rooms “leaves” through the win­dows. A rad­i­cal way to solve this prob­lem is to replace old wood­en win­dows with ener­gy-sav­ing ones. It is enough to reduce their size, espe­cial­ly if the ques­tion con­cerns win­dows on stair­wells. In most lay­outs of apart­ment build­ings, there is an excess area of ​​win­dow open­ings for illu­mi­nat­ing stairs, which is the cause of large heat loss­es.Heat loss through windows

Modernization of the ventilation system

As you know, the most com­mon way to orga­nize air cir­cu­la­tion in the premis­es of apart­ment build­ings is nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion. Air is removed through exhaust ducts locat­ed in kitchens and bath­rooms. The influx of fresh air from the street is orga­nized through nat­ur­al leaks in win­dows and doors.The movement of air masses with proper ventilation of the room

When replac­ing old win­dows with ener­gy-effi­cient and air­tight ones, the prob­lem of heat loss is solved, but a new one appears: a sharp decrease in the intake of fresh air. This prob­lem is solved by mod­ern­iz­ing the ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem, name­ly, by arrang­ing ven­ti­la­tion with con­trolled air flow. In prac­tice, this is solved by installing sup­ply valves, win­dows with built-in hygro-depen­dent fans, or instal­la­tions for forced sup­ply of fresh air to the premis­es.

Reconstruction of the heating system

Experts pay spe­cial atten­tion to high heat con­sump­tion, which occurs due to the low effi­cien­cy of moral­ly and tech­ni­cal­ly obso­lete home heat­ing sys­tems, which were not orig­i­nal­ly designed with exces­sive heat con­sump­tion. The main prob­lems of old heat­ing sys­tems (CO) can be for­mu­lat­ed as fol­lows:

  • Poor or incor­rect hydraulic bal­anc­ing. This prob­lem is often asso­ci­at­ed with unau­tho­rized inter­ven­tion of res­i­dents in the design of the heat­ing sys­tem (instal­la­tion of addi­tion­al sec­tions on radi­a­tors, replace­ment of bat­ter­ies, pipelines, etc.)
  • Poor ther­mal insu­la­tion of heat sup­ply pipes or its com­plete absence.
  • Struc­tural­ly obso­lete heat and dis­tri­b­u­tion points.

The fol­low­ing is a brief descrip­tion of the work car­ried out as part of the mod­ern­iza­tion of the heat­ing sys­tem of apart­ment build­ings.

Re-equipment of thermal units

Thermal node of the heating systemMod­ern­iza­tion of these facil­i­ties is a rather com­pli­cat­ed and expen­sive process. Which includes the fol­low­ing changes:

  1. Replace­ment of the ele­va­tor unit of the heat­ing sys­tem with an auto­mat­ed one. In the case of con­nect­ing the house to the heat main accord­ing to an inde­pen­dent scheme, an auto­mat­ed indi­vid­ual heat point is installed; when using depen­dent, a scheme with a pump­ing admix­ture is used. Depend­ing on the scheme used, all equip­ment must be weath­er-depen­dent and auto­mat­i­cal­ly sta­bi­lize the pres­sure in CO by reg­u­lat­ing the sup­ply of coolant.

Impor­tant! Replac­ing an out­dat­ed ele­va­tor assem­bly with an econ­o­miz­er will not allow the use of ther­mostats for heat­ing radi­a­tors and bal­anc­ing valves. The ele­va­tor sim­ply “will not pull” addi­tion­al hydraulic resis­tance, which will inevitably increase when using these devices.

  1. Replace­ment of old heat exchang­ers with ener­gy effi­cient ones.
  2. Elim­i­na­tion of leaks in CO and replace­ment of valves.

Heating system balancing

For­tu­nate­ly, the effec­tive­ness of this event is no longer in doubt. The instal­la­tion of bal­anc­ing valves for a heat­ing sys­tem on return ris­ers with a lim­i­ta­tion of the coolant tem­per­a­ture is a pre­req­ui­site for a com­pe­tent mod­ern­iza­tion of CO, espe­cial­ly in hous­es with a large per­cent­age of autonomous heat­ing by gas boil­ers.

Installation of individual control devices

The instal­la­tion of ther­mostats with an air tem­per­a­ture sen­sor on each bat­tery, in addi­tion to addi­tion­al com­fort for the res­i­dents of this build­ing, will sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the con­sump­tion of ther­mal ener­gy. The air tem­per­a­ture increased through the win­dow open­ings (the sun warmed up), the ther­mo­stat reduced the amount of coolant for a spe­cif­ic heater.thermostat

Among the manda­to­ry mea­sures for the recon­struc­tion of the heat­ing sys­tem, car­ried out as part of the ther­mal mod­ern­iza­tion of the whole house, one can sin­gle out the instal­la­tion of a com­mon house heat sup­ply meter­ing unit and the tran­si­tion to apart­ment heat meter­ing. It is these mea­sures that most stim­u­late res­i­dents to save.

Ther­mal mod­ern­iza­tion of an apart­ment build­ing requires large finan­cial costs. But in order to achieve sig­nif­i­cant sav­ings by the end con­sumer (which means a return of mon­ey and prof­it for ener­gy ser­vice investors), it is nec­es­sary to car­ry out com­pre­hen­sive mea­sures to reduce the amount of con­sumed ther­mal ener­gy or ther­mal mod­ern­iza­tion.


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