You can feel all the advantages of living in a private house only if the utilities work properly. Proper wiring of sewerage in individual housing creates comfortable conditions, and problems in the operation of the wastewater discharge system cause a lot of trouble.
The article tells how to make sewer wiring in a private house or in the country with your own hands without errors.
Components of the sewer
According to the purpose of the liquid waste disposal network, there are:
A detailed project, strict compliance with the requirements of the documents will help to avoid and, if necessary, quickly eliminate malfunctions that lead to unpleasant work with “escaped” feces.
A preliminary scheme is drawn up at the design stage. In the future, this will save you from carrying out labor-intensive operations for punching technological holes in ceilings and walls for laying sewer pipes.
The project defines the equipment and devices, the places of their connection to the sewerage.
A detailed diagram reduces the number of trips to a specialized store for missing parts.
If the work is entrusted to be performed by a third-party organization, then the project will simplify the control over the reliability of the estimates in the sections “materials” and “work performed”.
The product range allows you to create communications of any complexity and configuration — manufacturers produce: pipes of various lengths and diameters, adapters, connections, angles and turns, fittings for connection. All of them are called shaped parts (styling).
For sewerage in an individual residential building, they choose between cast-iron or plastic products available for purchase. Stainless and steel communications in individual construction have not received distribution due to the high cost and features of installation, which cannot be carried out without special welding equipment.
Cast iron sewers are also rarely used in sewerage layouts in private homes:
- components are much more expensive than plastic ones;
- the mass of pipes makes transportation difficult;
- installation is impossible without a team of assistants;
- for sealing joints, packing and cement putties are used, which is not technologically advanced;
- connection, not provided for by the original plumbing project, is difficult without partial destruction of the entire structure.
Cast iron products are suitable for installation in cold rooms, as they can be heated with a blowtorch when frozen.
In individual construction, cast-iron pipes marked ChK (cast-iron sewer) and modern models for socketless installation, called SML, are used. The latter have a much lower mass, and clamps are used for connection. It is allowed to use cast iron products marked VSHCHG and ChNR, but these are specialized products for pressure water supply and underground sewage, their cost is high, and at home they are used only if they were able to purchase “for a song”.
Plastic pipes and accessories:
- do not require sealing joints;
- easy to install by one person
- unaffected by aggressive liquids.
When buying, take into account that “plastic” is of three types:
- Polyethylene products are cheaper than other types, but it is undesirable to use them to install sewers in the premises of the house. Pipes are subject to deformation during temperature changes, while the tightness in the joints is broken. However, the material is UV resistant, so it is suitable for storm sewers.
- The cost of components made of polyisopropylene is high, but they are not subject to deformation when exposed to temperature, they can be cleaned with metal brushes, chemicals do not harm.
- Sewerage made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the best choice in terms of price and consumer properties. The disadvantages include the inability to use metal brushes when cleaning. Boiling water entering the sewer leads to deformations. But, it is difficult to imagine such a case — no one takes a bath at a water temperature above 80aboutC. It is impossible to heat pipes with an open flame in case of freezing, therefore polyvinyl chloride is not used in unheated rooms.
The joints of PVC pipes and standard fittings without threads are reliably sealed with special rubber (silicone) rings. To facilitate assembly, they purchase silicone sealant for plumbing. The composition of the “seal” includes additives that prevent the development of fungi and mold at the joints.
There is, but not widely used, socketless systems, when the connection is made by gluing. The disadvantage is that it will not work to change the assembled structure without mechanical destruction.
The diameter of sewer pipes and fittings depends on the connected equipment. The recommended sizes are collected in the table.
|Minimum inner diameter, mm
|Drain for heating appliances
|Riser in a one-story house
|Riser in a two-story building
“Advice! When choosing a material, try to choose components from the same manufacturer — even small manufacturing tolerances cause installation difficulties due to different, by 1–2 mm, diameters.
When starting work on your own or to control the work of builders, it will not be superfluous to familiarize yourself with the requirements of the Code of Rules (SP) and SNiP (sanitary norms and rules):
- SP 30.13330.2012. “Internal water supply and sewerage of buildings” is the current edition of “SNiP 2.04.01–85”.
- SP 32.13330.2012, “SNiP 2.04.03–85. Sewerage. External networks and structures”.
The codes of practice were approved in 2012, but the requirements of SNiPs of 1985 are almost repeated in them. The documents contain complete information on all stages of work. Extracts important for the construction of a private house are collected in the following sections of our article.
The set of tools for self-wiring sewer pipes in a one-story private house is small, you will need:
- perforator with bits for concrete and a chisel;
- angle grinder (grinder);
- sealant gun and plumbing sealant;
- building level;
Laying external networks
The drain from the house should be 10 — 15 cm lower than the level of freezing of the earth; in cold areas, thermal insulation of the pipeline is provided.
“Important! For draining, pipes intended for laying in the ground are selected. It is better to use ceramic or cast iron pipes. Plastic materials intended for outdoor use are painted light brown or orange.
At the design stage, access roads for sewage trucks are provided; they should not pass over pipelines.
The branch is mounted, observing a slope of 2 — 3 cm / m in length. A 15 cm sand cushion is arranged in advance, which should also be placed on top of the pipe before filling the trench with soil.
A technological hole is provided in the foundation, where a steel sleeve is mounted on the cement mortar, the diameter of which is 15–20 cm larger than the cross section of the outlet pipe. The edges of the sleeve should protrude 150 mm beyond the outer and inner edges of the foundation. After the final installation, the gap is sealed with mounting foam, and the outer side of the foundation is equipped with waterproofing.
“Important! The riser with the outlet is connected by turning 45about. Connection angle 90about often leads to blockages in corners.
Connection to a septic tank
The permitted distance from the septic tank to the foundation is at least 5, and to the outbuildings 3 meters.
The pipe inlet in the storage tank is located in the upper third of the wall of the septic tank (well) — this will exclude water backwater into the house when the storage tank is overfilled or the centralized networks are clogged.
The top cover of the septic tank of the pit is equipped with an exhaust hood to remove gases. Otherwise, unpleasant odors enter the house.
Installation of internal networks is carried out in three stages:
- riser installations;
- installation of an extract (fan pipe);
- wiring of internal networks to plumbing fixtures.
At the initial stage, a rough assembly is carried out for an accurate fit. If all the connection points are in the places provided, the final installation is carried out.
Rules for installing a central riser
Unlike apartments in a private house, depending on the project, several risers can be installed. The exact amount is affected by how far apart the sources of dirty water are in space, the number of bathrooms.
“Important! The distance from the toilet bowl to the riser cannot exceed 1 meter, to other devices 3. If the project of the house does not allow to withstand these distances, then several central risers are made.
Installation starts from the outlet, the sockets of the segments are set upwards, this creates less resistance to the movement of drains.
Immediately after turning, the revision is mounted. This will allow cleaning without dismantling the entire structure — the pipes enter the socket by about 10 cm and the entire riser will have to be raised, and this cannot be done with the system installed.
It is advisable to install a revision on all floors of the building.
“Attention! The riser is mounted strictly vertically. The maximum allowable slope is 1 cm/m of pipe length.
In the ceilings between floors, the riser is fixed with cement mortar. In a wooden house, mounting foam is used.
The vertical sections of the riser are attached to the walls with clamps, which are mounted in advance so that the pipes do not interfere with drilling.
At the connection points of plumbing fixtures, tees with outlets of the required diameter are mounted.
After the final assembly, the riser is wrapped with soundproofing material and hidden (if necessary) with finishing material (drywall, panels).
The hood (correctly — a fan pipe) is equipped to remove an unpleasant odor from the sewer pipes and prevent air jams. In fact, the fan pipe is a continuation of the riser.
The upper end of the hood is made higher than the visor and protected from precipitation by a visor.
Sanitary standards determine the distance from the outlet of the fan pipe to window openings and balconies of at least 4 m.
In a sewer without an exhaust hood, a vacuum is created in the pipes, which “pulls” water from the water seals, and the smell from the septic tank (well) enters the house.
One-story residential buildings are allowed to be built without a hood.
Wiring of internal networks
Proper wiring provides for the fulfillment of the requirements:
- The horizontal level of the toilet bowl drain on each floor is located below any other plumbing fixture — this will prevent water from entering them from the tank when draining.
- It is desirable to exclude turns of 90 from the system.aboutif necessary, it is better to replace from two angles of 45about.
- The toilet bowl is connected with a pipe with an inner diameter of at least 100 mm.
- The diameter of the outlet pipes from any device cannot be thinner than the receiving one.
- Elbows with a length of more than 3 m are made of pipes equal in diameter to the riser. Otherwise, an air vacuum is created that prevents normal draining. It is allowed to install an air valve at the end of the outlet pipe to allow air into the system.
- During installation, a slope of 20 — 30 mm / m in length for pipes up to 50 mm, and more than 2 cm / m for 100 mm products, is observed.
- Pipes of different diameters are connected through adapters.
- When assembling, it is advisable to use a sealant with antifungal and antibacterial additives.
- The eyeliner must be attached to the walls so that they do not hang in the air — otherwise there are bends in the pipes at the joints and the tightness is broken.
- Plumbing drains must be equipped with siphons (water seals) that prevent the penetration of odors. Sinks are recommended to be equipped with “bottle” type siphons, which prevent large particles of food residues from entering the sewerage system.
- Plastic pipes and fittings are isolated from heating devices — high temperatures will melt the material, connections will lose their tightness, and corrosion of the heating system is possible from leaking water.
- The density of the joints must withstand the required pressure of the drains.
The diameter of the drains is chosen based on the maximum amount of precipitation. At the same time, attention is paid to the area of u200bu200bcovering the roof — the larger it is, the larger the diameter of the pipes. Otherwise, fluid may accumulate in the pipe with a simultaneous increase in the load, which threatens to destroy the structures.
The storm drain must be fixed to the wall with clamps
“Important! The drain from the storm sewer is diverted away from the house. Discharge into the public (centralized) sewer is strictly prohibited.”
Strict observance of the requirements for the construction of sewerage in a private house is a prerequisite for its long reliable operation, relieving owners of maintenance headaches for many years.