One of the important communication systems is the design of water disposal, on the reliable functioning of which the quality and comfort of living in the house depends. Thanks to a wide selection of materials and fittings for connecting various sewer pipes, you can assemble the system yourself.
Sewerage is needed to remove dirty water and human waste products from the home. Without such a system, the operation of a residential building is impossible.
The assembly of the drainage structure begins with the choice of material. At the moment, most pipelines are assembled from plastic elements, which have a number of advantages:
- Light weight. Thanks to this, the material is conveniently delivered to the assembly site.
- Variety of sizes and diameters of prefabricated elements.
- A lot of connecting parts and fittings, which, if necessary, can be found in any store and replace a damaged part.
- Resistance to corrosive processes.
- Due to the lower friction force inside, compared to cast iron, the likelihood of blockages is reduced.
Despite the popularity of plastic structures, metal ones also remain in use. Types of metal sewer pipes and their connections can be divided:
- Steel. Products made from this material are distinguished by strength and durability, low cost and ease of processing.
- Cast iron. Compared to steel, it is not so afraid of corrosion, although this option will cost more. They have high rates of strength and reliability, the longest service life is up to 80 years.
There are a number of pipe materials that are used to create drainage:
Each of them has its own positive characteristics, but are used much less often than metal or plastic ones.
All plumbing methods of connecting sewer pipes are divided into detachable and one-piece.
Detachable connection methods
They are flanged and coupling. I use them to connect all types of plastic sewer pipes. During assembly by the flange method, cast-iron fasteners with a rubber gasket are used. The action plan will be as follows:
- In the place where the docking will be carried out, a perfectly even cut is made.
- A flange is mounted on the cut.
- The gasket is installed at a distance of 10 cm from the ledge.
- The flange is mounted on top of the gasket using bolts with mating flanges.
- Bolts connect easily.
To collect a water pipe that does not provide for high pressure or to repair it, use the coupling assembly method. Coupling assembly is carried out in the following order:
- Prepare the ends of the connected elements. They are stripped and cut at an angle of 180 degrees.
- A coupling is laid at the junction so that its central part lies exactly at the junction.
- Marks are left on the surface with the location of the coupling.
- In the indicated place, the walls are treated with lubricant for a better connection of the coupling.
- The end of the pipe is inserted into the coupling until it stops.
- On the other hand, a pipe of the same size is installed so that the longitudinal axis becomes one.
All work is carried out manually. If work is carried out at sub-zero temperatures, silicone grease should be used.
This connection method is performed in several ways: by soldering, welding, pressing, gluing using cement mortar.
The socket method of connection is carried out by gluing or welding. This is one of the popular ways to create permanent connections. They connect metal and plastic products. Welding is carried out by the method of melting or pressure. Fusion welding is carried out using special soldering equipment, which is selected depending on the pipe material: metal, metal-plastic, plastic.
There are two ways to carry out welding work: butt and socket. When using socket welding, one end is melted on the inside, the other on the outside. Then they quickly connect with each other.
Butt welding is carried out using a soldering machine for plastic pipes. The ends of the two connecting parts are melted and immediately connected with the pressure applied to them.
Welding metal structures requires special skills and equipment. It’s worth understanding. That it is impossible to weld a galvanized pipe with a metal one. This may damage the galvanized layer. The copper structure is welded using a gas burner with a special silver-bronze solder.
For the adhesive method, a connecting material is required — epoxy or BF‑2 glue. This method is only suitable for plastic structures.
The gluing method is carried out according to the following instructions:
- Two ends of the pipe are connected, on one side of which there is a socket with a rubber end, and the other is smooth. The gasket must have a correctly positioned and smooth surface without defects.
- The ends to be joined are lubricated with putty or silicone glue, and immediately connected, since dust settling on the mounting part is not recommended.
- The position of the ends of the joining elements must have one axis.
- The depth of advancement of one end into the socket is regulated by a mark on the surface. It is not worth going beyond it.
If all work is carried out correctly, it is possible to operate the sewer system in a few hours, while the service life will be long.
How to connect pipes from different materials
To connect elements of different composition and diameters, use:
- Fittings are fixing parts with a threaded transition. With their help, they connect different parts of the parts, rotate the structure, install a meter or a crane.
- Adapters — parts that allow you to vary the direction of the system, equalize the diameter of the sewer system.
- Sealing elements. Used to seal system joints.
In old houses, where cast-iron sewers were widely used, the outdated drainage system is being replaced with modern materials. At the same time, it is necessary to apply methods of joining two materials of different composition: metal and plastic. You can connect them in several ways:
- Use of rubber gasket.
- With a plastic adapter.
- With a press fitting.
- Linen winding insulation.
- Silicone sealing.
- Flange application.
The use of a rubber gasket is justified if the socket of the cast-iron pipe is in satisfactory condition. The procedure for connecting two elements will be as follows:
- The socket is cleaned of dust, dirt and rust, dried, and the surface is degreased. A layer of sealant is applied on the inside.
- The adapter is also treated with a sealed compound and inserted into the pipe.
- Then the free end is inserted into the plastic drain until it stops.
- From above, the joints are once again processed with a sealed composition.
The connection is considered reliable, and in case of repair it is easily disassembled.
The use of a plastic adapter with a rubber seal is effective when the system is left without a bell. In this case, when connecting, the edge of the cutting pipe should be as even as possible. A rubber gasket with a surface pre-treated with a sealant is put on the cast-iron element. A rubber cuff with an adapter is put on top. A plastic element of the appropriate diameter is mounted to it.
The use of a press fitting is due to the special reliability of the connection for the sewer system, equipped indoors. The press fitting is equipped with a thread on both sides for connection with a socket of a cast-iron and plastic construction. Connection reliability is high, but difficult to assemble.
Linen winding was used by master plumbers long before the advent of sealants. For many years it served as a reliable insulating material in the creation of sewers and is still in demand. I use it this way:
- At the junction, linen thread is wound in several layers.
- Insert the sewer pipe into the sewer until it stops.
- Using a flat screwdriver, the winding is minted into the gaps between the edges of the junction of the elements.
- Next, a mixture is applied to the junction, which includes PVA glue, cement mortar and water.
- After complete solidification, usually it takes at least 24 hours, the sewer system can be used.
Connecting pipes with sealant is similar to the previous technique, only silicone sealant is used here. Try to put it as deep as possible into the slot. Use a construction gun for this.
Flange connection is used to connect cast iron and plastic pipes of large diameter. This is a technically complex method that requires skill and special fastening materials — flanges. The sequence of actions taken is as follows:
- The end of the cast iron element is cut off and cleaned of dirt and foreign particles.
- A flange is mounted to it by welding.
- A crimp sleeve is applied on top of the assembled structure.
- A sealant is placed between the connecting parts, and fixed with bolts.
Now you have a complete understanding of how to connect pipes from different materials.
Connection of plastic pipes of different diameters
The collection of the sewer system includes the installation of sanitary equipment: toilet bowl, bathtub, sink.
The way the toilet is connected to the sewer pipe will depend on the location of the pipe and the diameter. You can use several options:
- Socket connection. The toilet is connected to the sewer system through a corrugated pipe. If the distance from the drain to the connecting node on the toilet is less than 1 meter, you can use an eccentric to connect. It is put on the toilet pipe from one end, and on the other side to the distribution part of the sewer.
- By welding. To connect a plastic system to plumbing in this way, you will need a soldering iron with a disk heater. The seams in the end part are heated and soldered together. You can connect PVC pipes using cold welding. This is the easiest and most effective way to glue structural elements from pipes of different diameters to organize drains from plumbing fixtures.
When installing a bathtub and sink, an overflow device is required. To connect the siphon to the sewer, you will need a corrugated pipe made of hard plastic, suitable in size. It is important to consider the height of the drain hole and the distance from it to the sewer inlet.
Requirements for the joints of sewer pipes and the angle of the connection
When creating a sewer system on your own, you should remember the rules for laying the pipeline. It is placed under a slight slope. This is necessary so that water does not stagnate in the system. The slope must be at least 2 cm per meter laid. The correctness of the laying of pipes is checked by level.
The weak point when laying the sewer system are the joints. Therefore, their sealing is of particular importance. After the assembly of the structure is completed, the system is checked for leaks. To do this, the drain is completely filled with water. During testing, temporary plugs are placed in the revision. There shouldn’t be any leakage.
In order to qualitatively assemble the drainage system in the house, it is necessary to choose a method for connecting pipes, based on the materials of their manufacture. All work on connecting and sealing joints should be carried out according to the instructions in order to avoid problems during the further operation of the system.