Slim Solution

Ceram­ic Tiles

Heat­ing mat Mil­li­mat (Nex­ans) in apart­ments is most often installed under ceram­ic tiles. The height of the room is reduced by no more than 10–20mm

Heat­ing mat Ther­mo­mat (Ther­mo)
DEVIDEVI
Steam, often gen­er­at­ed in the bath­room, set­tles on the sur­face of the mir­ror and adverse­ly affects its coat­ing. The Devi­mat heat­ing mat installed behind it on the wall will help pro­tect the mir­ror from fog­ging.
Non-pro­gram­ma­ble ther­mostats PT007M (a) and PT007G (b) (CCT), as well as ECO16FRJ © (Ensto

Archi­tect S.bad
Pho­to Z.Razut­di­no­va
Low pro­file under­floor heat­ing sys­tem with “cold” floor­ing (ceram­ic tiles, porce­lain stoneware andetc.) in the liv­ing room is most wel­come. It can be installed with­out a vis­i­ble height dif­fer­ence in rela­tion to adja­cent (unheat­ed) rooms
The heat­ing core of tra­di­tion­al resis­tive cables is usu­al­ly made of nichrome (a), feed­ing (for two-core mod­els)- from cop­per (b). The cores are pro­tect­ed by XLPE or Teflon insu­la­tion © and a shield­ing braid made of wire (d), on top of which a PVC sheath is installed (e)
In a room heat­ed by con­vec­tors, it is cool in the low­er zone, and over­heat­ed air accu­mu­lates under the ceil­ing and drafts are pos­si­ble (a). When using a low pro­file under­floor heat­ing sys­tem, the room no longer blows, and the tem­per­a­ture regime is close to ide­al (b)

Ther­mo
Tropix kit (CCT) includes a mat based on a two-core cable, a Room­Stat 110 ther­mo­stat, a cor­ru­gat­ed tube, instruc­tions and a CD
San­t’Agosti­no
The under­floor heat­ing sys­tem must be cho­sen strict­ly fol­low­ing the floor­ing man­u­fac­tur­er’s rec­om­men­da­tions. This will help avoid both over­heat­ing and under­heat­ing.

Archi­tect I.Kapran Pho­toTO.Manko
Heat­ing ele­ments of the film Infra­heat (Polarheat)- not graphite stripes, but foil 0.2 thickmm
As a heat-reflect­ing mate­r­i­al, foil poly­eth­yl­ene foam is used (a). It is deliv­ered to the cus­tomer in rolls (b)

Thick­ness of Ther­moSoft mats of the “Econ­o­my” series- 2mm, and “Pre­mi­um”- 3mm. The for­mer are most often laid direct­ly under the lam­i­nate, on a base plate pre­vi­ous­ly cov­ered with a thin lay­er of ther­mal insu­la­tion. In this case, the mat mesh should be on top, and the heat­ing cable- from below: under the weight of the lam­i­nate and fur­ni­ture, it will be pressed into the ther­mal insu­la­tion (a‑c).
Mats “Pre­mi­um” are placed direct­ly on the screed, in places intend­ed for heat­ing. To equal­ize the height of the remain­ing sec­tions of the floor (on which there will be mas­sive fur­ni­ture, house­hold appli­ances andt.e.) use “cold” tracks of addi­tion with a thick­ness of 3mm. You can lay linoleum or lam­i­nate on top (Mrs.)

An inter­est­ing method of lay­ing the “Econ­o­my” heat­ing mat based on a heat-fiber cable direct­ly into the adhe­sive lay­er on which the par­quet board or par­quet is mount­ed. A heat­ing mat is rolled out on a ply­wood base: cable- top, mesh- below (a). Glue is poured direct­ly onto the mat, even­ly dis­trib­uted over the sur­face with a rub­ber spat­u­la (b) and … imme­di­ate­ly pro­ceed to the instal­la­tion of par­quet ©

There are many tech­nolo­gies for arrang­ing under­floor heat­ing, how­ev­er, not all of them are equal­ly good for a typ­i­cal high-rise build­ing. ATIn this arti­cle, we will talk about tech­ni­cal solu­tions that can fit into a city apart­ment dur­ing its over­haul or redec­o­ra­tion.

In a high-rise build­ing, water heat­ed floors, as a rule, are unac­cept­able, and the tra­di­tion­al elec­tri­cal sys­tem, which requires the instal­la­tion of ther­mal insu­la­tion and pour­ing two screeds,- dif­fi­cult: she eats about 10–15cm of the height of the room, increas­es the load on the floors, and the tim­ing of its man­u­fac­ture is large (usu­al­ly more than 1 month). When redec­o­rat­ing an apart­ment, in our opin­ion, it is more prof­itable to give pref­er­ence to under­floor heat­ing sys­tems of small thick­ness (let’s call them low-pro­file).

Complete comfort

It is reli­ably known that peo­ple use warm floors in their homes, as they say, “from Romu­lus to the present day.” This is one of the most suc­cess­ful inven­tions in the field of home improve­ment in the his­to­ry of mankind. ATRecent­ly, under­floor heat­ing sys­tems have become espe­cial­ly pop­u­lar. ATa house with under­floor heat­ing does not need slip­pers. When you come in from the street, espe­cial­ly in the cold win­ter sea­son, you just want to quick­ly take off your shoes and touch your feet to the floor tiles or lam­i­nate that radi­ate soft warmth. Since the tem­per­a­ture of the floor cov­er­ing (about 27–29 C), which is felt by the feet, is phys­i­o­log­i­cal­ly com­fort­able, the mood improves, the forces spent dur­ing the day are quick­ly restored.

A high lev­el of com­fort in an apart­ment or house with under­floor heat­ing is ensured not only by the tan­gi­ble heat of the floor sur­face, but also by the most ratio­nal dis­tri­b­u­tion of heat along the height of the room. The air tem­per­a­ture in the room changes uni­form­ly in height (no more than 1–2 From to 1m height) and does not “roll over” under the ceil­ing, as when using tra­di­tion­al heat­ing devices. The heat­ing part of the sys­tem is hid­den in the floor, which allows you to increase the usable area and improve the design. At the same time, the floor cov­er­ing can be any­thing: tile, mar­ble, lam­i­nate, board, car­pet. In humid rooms, such as bath­rooms, water splash­es and pud­dles dry quick­ly on the sur­face of heat­ed ceram­ic tiles, which pre­vents the spread of fun­gus.

DEVI

Instal­la­tion of the Devi­mat mat (DEVI) under the tile can be done inde­pen­dent­ly.
The mat is rolled out on the cleaned floor sur­face (a), when chang­ing the lay­ing direc­tion, the rein­forc­ing mesh (not the cable!) is cut (b, c).
Tile glue is applied to the laid mat, allowed to dry, cov­ered with a lay­er of glue again and the tile is laid (d, e)

After installing heat­ing sys­tems of small thick­ness, the floor sur­face ris­es to a small height (from 1 to 10–20mm). Instal­la­tion takes from sev­er­al hours to 2–7 days. ATin urban apart­ments, such sys­tems are main­ly used in addi­tion to bat­ter­ies, a heat­ed tow­el rail in the bath­room. So, in a spa­cious kitchen, some­times 1–2 is enoughm2 under­floor heat­ing (at the sink). The spe­cif­ic ther­mal pow­er of the sys­tem, as a rule, is 60–150W/m2. But in coun­try hous­es with a reli­able pow­er sup­ply sys­tem, a thin warm floor is able to pro­vide basic (with­out the help of oth­er types of heaters) heat­ing of all rooms. Its spe­cif­ic pow­er can reach 400W/m2 and this is quite enough to heat the home even in severe frosts when lay­ing on less than 70–80% of the entire floor area.

If you want to orga­nize the main heat­ing on the basis of a heat­ing cable, then there is only one lim­i­ta­tion- pow­er sup­ply lim­it of a coun­try house. The cost of pur­chas­ing and installing a thin under­floor heat­ing is 800‑5000RUB/m2 (as the heat­ed area increas­es, the cost of equip­ment usu­al­ly decreas­es). This is quite com­pa­ra­ble to the cost of buy­ing 1m2 qual­i­ty ceram­ic tiles. If the sys­tem is used for com­fort heat­ing 3–6m2 floor in the bath­room, it con­sumes approx­i­mate­ly 50–150 kWb/m2 in year.

Electric heating mats

In EU, elec­tric heat­ing mats are well known. ATas a low pro­file sys­tem, they are ide­al for rooms where the heat­ed area is small (kitchen, bath­room and toi­let where the floor is fin­ished with ceram­ic tiles or porce­lain stoneware). With the help of mats in the apart­ment, you can equip under­floor heat­ing with min­i­mal loss of room height with­out sig­nif­i­cant costs and con­struc­tion debris. BUTsome­times the floor­ing is not even removed: the heat­ing mat is laid direct­ly on the old ceram­ic tiles, con­crete or wood­en floor, cov­ered with a lay­er of glue and laid on top of a new tile (the so-called “wet” mat instal­la­tion tech­nol­o­gy). The lev­el of the floor with a new floor cov­er­ing will rise by only 10–15mm, so you don’t have to cut the door leafs, raise the thresh­olds. Sys­tems based on elec­tric heat­ing mats can be used imme­di­ate­ly after the tile adhe­sive has hard­ened (after 2–7 days), while refus­ing to install a screed can sig­nif­i­cant­ly save on mate­ri­als (approx­i­mate­ly 200–250RUB/m2). With prop­er instal­la­tion, mats will last you up to 50 years.

The mat is a fiber­glass mesh with a cell of approx­i­mate­ly 10tenmm. Toit has a thin (2–3mm) wire- resis­tive cable laid in a snake, with a con­stant pitch of about 50mm. A sin­gle or two-core cable with a heat­ing core made of nichrome or oth­er high resis­tance mate­r­i­al is used. For bed­rooms and oth­er liv­ing areas, a mat based on a two-core cable is prefer­able- it has a min­i­mum lev­el of elec­tro­mag­net­ic back­ground. ATbath­room or oth­er non-res­i­den­tial premis­es, you can lay a mat based on a sin­gle-core cable. The cur­rent-car­ry­ing con­duc­tors are pro­tect­ed from mois­ture and the aggres­sive effects of the cement mor­tar by poly­mer insu­la­tion, on top of which there is a braid of tinned cop­per or steel, and on top- PVC out­er insu­la­tion. Grid width is usu­al­ly 500mm (less often- 400, 800mm andetc.), length- 0.5–25m, thick­ness- 3–4mm. The area that one mat can heat varies from about 0.5 (such a “rug” is quite enough to heat the floor near the toi­let in a small toi­let) to 15.3m2 (if the room is large and one mat is not enough, sev­er­al mats will be used).

From the depths of centuries

ATIin.n.e. in ancient Rome, one of the world’s first under­floor heat­ing sys­tems was wide­spread- hypocaust. It was used in baths (Roman baths) and for heat­ing res­i­den­tial hous­es of the nobil­i­ty. The stove, locat­ed under the build­ing, heat­ed the air in the base­ment. At first, along with smoke from burnt fire­wood, hot air moved through hor­i­zon­tal chan­nels under the floors, warm­ing their coat­ing to a com­fort­able tem­per­a­ture. Then, from under­ground chan­nels, it flowed into chan­nels inside the walls, which also heat­ed up. Only after that, the prod­ucts of com­bus­tion mixed with air

Mats are usu­al­ly sold in the form of kits packed in beau­ti­ful box­es for arrang­ing a warm floor. In addi­tion to the mat, the kit includes a ther­mo­stat with a floor tem­per­a­ture sen­sor, an insu­lat­ing cor­ru­gat­ed tube for the sen­sor, instal­la­tion and oper­at­ing instruc­tions. The ther­mo­stat, as a rule, is the sim­plest, with man­u­al adjust­ment of floor heat­ing. If you want your ther­mo­stat to have the func­tion of pro­gram­ming by the days of the week (this will allow you to set dai­ly and week­ly pro­grams for main­tain­ing the floor tem­per­a­ture), to con­trol two or more mats alone, or to be mount­ed on a DIN rail in the elec­tri­cal cab­i­net of the apart­ment, then such a device will have to be pur­chased sep­a­rate­ly.

On the Euro­pean mar­ket, you can find mats from man­u­fac­tur­ers such as Ceil­hit (Spain), DEVIHeat­com (both- Den­mark), Fenix ​​(Czech Repub­lic), Ensto (Fin­land), Nex­ans (Nor­way), Siemens (Ger­many), Ther­mo (Swe­den), as well as SST (Spe­cial Sys­tems and Tech­nolo­gies), Teplok­a­bel, Eltek Elec­tron­ics ( all- Europe).

Among the sup­pli­ers of mats based on a two-core cable, one can note, for exam­ple, Ther­mo. ATTher­mo­mat thin under­floor heat­ing set includes heat­ing mat TVK with a capac­i­ty of 130 or 180W/m2 and area 1–8m2 based on a two-core shield­ed cable with a diam­e­ter of 2.8mm. ATretail net­work it can be pur­chased for 2.2–10.30 $. Mil­li­mat (Nex­ans) heat­ing mats with a mesh width of 400 or 800 are dis­tin­guished by excel­lent con­sumer prop­er­ties.mm, pow­er den­si­ty 80 or 130W/m2 and a total capac­i­ty of 150‑1000Tue They come with an OJ Elec­tron­ics ther­mo­stat. The cost of mats- approx­i­mate­ly 4.2–9.70 $. The Eltek Elec­tron­ics com­pa­ny pro­duces sets of under­floor heat­ing based on Spy­heat SHMD heat­ing mats with an area of ​​0.5–3m2 (4.4–6.20 $).

ATSST assort­ment includes mats with an area of ​​1–15.3m2 both on the basis of a sin­gle-core heat­ing cable (“Teplolux-MiNi”), and on the basis of a two-core cable (Tropix). Their price is very rea­son­able: for exam­ple, a set based on a mat with an area of ​​2m2 costs about 3.5–40 $. DEVI sup­plies Devi­mat mats togeth­er with Devireg ther­mostats. Despite the small thick­ness (2.3–4mm depend­ing on cable type), the Devi­mat sys­tem is very effi­cient and can be used as the only source of heat­ing in a room. You will have to pay 2–150 $for it, the mat lay­ing area- 0.5–12m2. Good mats based on one- and two-core cable with an area of ​​0.6–8.1m2 and cost­ing 2.2–12.50 $. man­u­fac­tured by Ceil­hit.

Elec­tric mats are a ready-made struc­ture that does not require lay­ing and fix­ing the heat­ing cable to the floor sur­face, so their instal­la­tion is extreme­ly sim­ple and car­ried out with­out com­pli­cat­ed cal­cu­la­tions. The mat can be eas­i­ly cut into frag­ments (with­out vio­lat­ing the integri­ty of the cable), which allows it to be laid out on any rec­tan­gu­lar sur­face. Andnev­er­the­less, it is nec­es­sary to start the instal­la­tion by read­ing the instruc­tions for lay­ing the under­floor heat­ing. If the heat­ing mat has failed pre­ma­ture­ly and the instal­la­tion rec­om­men­da­tions have not been fol­lowed, the man­u­fac­tur­er has every right to refuse you war­ran­ty ser­vice.

Mat, gentlemen!

Met­al con­duc­tors based on alloys such as nichrome used in resis­tive cables of heat­ing mats have a lim­it­ed plas­tic­i­ty resource. Dur­ing instal­la­tion and pos­si­ble sub­se­quent shrink­age of build­ings (espe­cial­ly new build­ings), micro­c­racks often form in them. ATas a result of the con­stant alter­na­tion of heat­ing and cool­ing of the cable, the cracks grad­u­al­ly expand and the heat­ing core is pre­ma­ture­ly destroyed. Man­u­fac­tur­ers claim that the mats “live” up to 50 years or more, and these terms are main­tained, but only with strict adher­ence to the instal­la­tion tech­nol­o­gy and the absence of move­ment in the build­ing struc­ture. BUTwhen Euro­pean builders and mas­ter fin­ish­ers get down to busi­ness, these con­di­tions are dif­fi­cult to ful­fill in the hous­es they have built. There­fore, none of the domes­tic instal­la­tion com­pa­nies spe­cial­iz­ing in the instal­la­tion of heat­ing mats based on cables with a met­al heat­ing core will give a guar­an­tee for their work for more than two years…

Mats based on Ther­moSoft Inter­na­tion­al Cor­po­ra­tion (USA) ther­mal fiber cables, accord­ing to man­u­fac­tur­ers, are not so demand­ing on the qual­i­ty of instal­la­tion and minor move­ments in the build­ing struc­ture. Ther­mal fiber cables are almost entire­ly made up of poly­mers. Instead of a nichrome core, they use an elas­tic poly­mer thread with a melt­ing point of 160–170 C. A met­al thin-film (5–6 microns) coat­ing with resis­tive prop­er­ties is applied to its sur­face. Pos­sess­ing elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty, the poly­mer thread can with­stand up to 180 thou­sand kink cycles for 180. Ther­mal fiber cable strength with a diam­e­ter of 2mm at a break is 2 times high­er than that of a sim­i­lar cable with a met­al core. The cou­plings con­nect­ing the heat­ing cable and the “cold ends” con­nect­ed to the ther­mo­stat are also dis­tin­guished by increased reli­a­bil­i­ty. Poly­mer yarn encap­su­lat­ed in cross-linked poly­eth­yl­ene (PEX) insu­la­tion and sheathed in PVC or nylon- these lay­ers pro­tect the heater from elec­tri­cal break­downs, mois­ture and aggres­sive mor­tars. This allows the man­u­fac­tur­er to guar­an­tee that the actu­al life of the sys­tem will be at least 20 years.

Ther­moSoft heat­ing mats are pro­duced for dry and damp rooms. All the tech­nolo­gies used in their lay­ing allow you to cre­ate low-pro­file sys­tems.

Ther­mal fiber mats “under the tiles” with a spe­cif­ic pow­er of about 120W/m2width 0.5m and an area of ​​0.75–2m2 cost 2.3–60 $. They are mount­ed accord­ing to the clas­si­cal “wet” tech­nol­o­gy of lay­ing mats in accor­dance with the name. Mats “Econ­o­my” with a capac­i­ty of 70W/m2 can be laid under the par­quet board and par­quet direct­ly into the adhe­sive lay­er on which these floor cov­er­ings are installed. Besides, their instal­la­tion in the “dry” way (with­out glue) direct­ly under a lam­i­nate and a par­quet is pos­si­ble. The cost of mats (roll width- 0.5m) is 3–7.50 $, heat­ed area- 1–2.5m2. Well, “Pre­mi­um” mats with a capac­i­ty of about 70W/m2 they are laid under lam­i­nate, par­quet board, as well as under car­pet, car­pet, linoleum and oth­er coat­ings that sig­nif­i­cant­ly impair heat removal from the heat­ing core. Each of them is a fin­ished sand­wich made of a lay­er of non-woven mate­r­i­al such as felt, on which a shield­ed heat­ing cable based on ther­mal fiber is ser­pen­tine, and on it, in turn,- Armo­fol sheet (foil-based mate­r­i­al), which ensures uni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion of heat over the sur­face of the mat. The num­ber of mats nec­es­sary for heat­ing the room is select­ed so as to cov­er the entire area that will have to be heat­ed. Where fur­ni­ture is sup­posed to be installed, heat­ing mats are not laid. Instead, they use a mate­r­i­al of sim­i­lar thick­ness, pre-ordered accord­ing to indi­vid­ual sizes (the so-called dobor tracks). The stan­dard width of Pre­mi­um mats is 0.3–1m. Heat­ed area- 1.5–3m2. Price- 5.1–100 $

The ther­mal fiber cable, which forms the basis of the heat­ing mats, has a low pow­er input (4.5–9.5W / m), which allows you to heat rooms with­out a ther­mo­stat. When con­nect­ing, it is enough to install an RCD and a volt­age reg­u­la­tor.

Of course, mats based on ther­mal fiber cable have their draw­backs. So, due to the high resis­tance of the poly­mer thread, one mat can­not heat an area of ​​​​more than 3m2 (the largest mats with cables based on a met­al core, as we have already not­ed, are enough for 15.3m2). To heat a large space, you need to use sev­er­al mats. The man­u­fac­tur­er does not offer cable repair kits in case of cable fail­ure.- the burnt core must be con­nect­ed with the help of an impro­vised con­duc­tor, for exam­ple, cop­per wire. Per­haps this is due to the fact that the heat-fiber mats, accord­ing to the man­u­fac­tur­er, are still work­ing flaw­less­ly.

Warm film

The list of low pro­file floor heat­ing sys­tems is not lim­it­ed to heat­ing mats. Fast grow­ing mar­ket seg­ment- film heaters (heat­ing film), which can be mount­ed in a “dry” or “wet” way.

When “dry” lay­ing under the lam­i­nate, the sys­tem based on film heaters prac­ti­cal­ly does not affect the height of the floor. The thick­ness of the heat­ing film installed over the sub­strate, direct­ly under the coat­ing, usu­al­ly does not exceed 0.5–1.5mm. Instal­la­tion of the sys­tem under the lam­i­nate (even if it is already laid in the room and skirt­ing boards are installed) is very fast- a max­i­mum of one day, “with­out noise and dust.” Warm­ing up the lam­i­nate film will be much more effi­cient than the tra­di­tion­al cable sys­tem in a thick screed, which spends ener­gy to over­come the ther­mal bar­ri­er between the screed and the floor­ing cre­at­ed by the sub­strate under the lam­i­nate. In gen­er­al, it is pos­si­ble to lay the film in a “dry” way under almost any coat­ing, for exam­ple, under linoleum, car­pet, wood­en grooved and non-grooved boards andt.e. In the “wet” way, the film is mount­ed under the tiles in the bath­room or kitchen; at the same time, the heat­ed room los­es in height approx­i­mate­ly 10mm. Com­pared to elec­tri­cal wiring in an apart­ment, the film is char­ac­ter­ized by a neg­li­gi­ble lev­el of elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion and increased pow­er den­si­ty (up to 400W/m2).

The heat­ing ele­ments in a film heater are most often strips of car­bon (car­bon) paste sol­dered between lay­ers of poly­ester or lavsan- in fact, it is a crushed lead with var­i­ous addi­tives. They are sup­plied with a mains volt­age of 220 through cop­per or cop­per-sil­ver (more resis­tant to oxi­da­tion) con­duc­tors.B. The strips are con­nect­ed to the con­duc­tors in par­al­lel.

Mod­ern film heaters are com­pact, sim­ple and easy to install and oper­ate, fire­proof. Accord­ing to man­u­fac­tur­ers, they can with­stand sig­nif­i­cant mechan­i­cal stress. Acci­den­tal dam­age to any sec­tion of the car­bon strips does not affect the per­for­mance of the sys­tem. With “dry” instal­la­tion, the sys­tem can be trans­ferred from one room to anoth­er. The tem­per­a­ture on the sur­face of the film heater is a max­i­mum of 60–80C, thanks to which it even­ly radi­ates soft heat. Atfloor tem­per­a­ture can be main­tained at 26–32With the help of a ther­mo­stat or volt­age reg­u­la­tor.

Most of the ther­mal ener­gy is emit­ted from the film sur­face in the wave­length range of 5–20 µm. This prac­ti­cal­ly coin­cides with the wave­length of the biores­o­nant range of ther­mal radi­a­tion of the human body (8–10 microns). ATmed­i­cine, the phe­nom­e­non of biores­o­nance ther­mal radi­a­tion has been stud­ied in detail and its heal­ing effect on the body has been not­ed. An increase in the inten­si­ty of the for­ma­tion of neg­a­tive­ly charged ions in the room where the film floor heat­ing works (that is, the film acts as an air ion­iz­er) has been doc­u­ment­ed. As you know, mod­er­ate (no more than 500$ pieces / cm3) air sat­u­ra­tion with neg­a­tive ions has a ben­e­fi­cial effect on the human body, and also helps to puri­fy the room atmos­phere from unpleas­ant odors (tobac­co, paint andt.d.).

Among the short­com­ings of film heaters (in par­tic­u­lar, those made in Chi­na), one can note the very doubt­ful design of the con­tact between the sup­ply wire and cop­per con­duc­tors in the film from the point of view of reli­a­bil­i­ty. An acci­den­tal punc­ture of the heater with a met­al object in the area of ​​cop­per con­duc­tors (espe­cial­ly the one to which the phase wire is con­nect­ed) can lead to elec­tric shock, includ­ing due to moist­en­ing of the dam­aged area. AndGod for­bid you ham­mer a nail into the cur­rent-car­ry­ing bus … There­fore, it is best to mount the film under the lam­i­nate (and even more so under the car­pet or linoleum) through an RCD with a trip cur­rent of 30 mA (if such a device does not serve the entire elec­tri­cal wiring of the apart­ment). FROMWe were not able to get acquaint­ed with the results of life tests of film heaters, but, accord­ing to the man­u­fac­tur­ers, the film can work for 50 years or more. It is known that the sys­tems installed 5–8 years ago in cot­tages and apart­ments in Korea have ful­ly retained their per­for­mance to date.

Of those pre­sent­ed on the mar­ket, we note first of all the sets of under­floor heat­ing from the com­pa­ny “Kaleo” (Europe) based on the heat­ing film Pow­er­Film (Korea). ATthe kit includes a film pre­pared for instal­la­tion with an area of ​​1–20m2 in a roll 500 widemm, elec­tri­cal wires, insu­la­tion and instal­la­tion instruc­tions. The buy­er selects each set indi­vid­u­al­ly, tak­ing into account the size and floor area, type of room, heat­ing option, type of cov­er­age andt.e. The spe­cif­ic pow­er of a warm floor can be 150, 220 or 400W/m2- this is quite enough to orga­nize both addi­tion­al and main heat­ing of any room. The cost of the kit depends main­ly on the size of the heat­ing film and is 1.2–1.70 $m2 (the small­er the film area, the high­er its price). Sep­a­rate­ly, only a ther­mo­stat with a flat floor tem­per­a­ture sen­sor and heat-reflect­ing mate­r­i­al are pur­chased.

On the mar­ket today you can also find com­po­nents sold sep­a­rate­ly for under­floor heat­ing film from oth­er man­u­fac­tur­ers, such as Flex­el (Great Britain). This com­pa­ny pro­duces “heat­ing foil” Fenix ​​Ecofilm with a pow­er den­si­ty of 60, 80, 150 and 200W/m2. So, Fenix ​​Ecofilm F 608 with a pow­er den­si­ty of 80Tue/m2 rec­om­mend­ed for arrang­ing a warm floor under a lam­i­nate (approx­i­mate­ly 1.20 $ / m2roll width- about 600mm). Sim­i­lar in size to Fenix ​​Ecofilm F 615 with a pow­er den­si­ty of 150W/m2 it is quite pos­si­ble to lay under ceram­ic tiles in the bath­room (1.360 $ / m2). Often there are adver­tise­ments for the sale of Mirae Heater Film (Korea) worth about 10 $ / m2the max­i­mum spe­cif­ic pow­er of which is 240W/m2as well as Sun-Pow­er (Korea) andoth­ers inIn EU, film heaters are pro­duced, for exam­ple, in Pereslavl-Zalessky (“Lit”).

OLet’s talk about film edit­ing in more detail. It is rec­om­mend­ed to lay the heat­ing film only on a free area, that is, not occu­pied by fur­ni­ture and appli­ances (refrig­er­a­tor, stove, kitchen wall, wash­ing machine, wardrobe andt.d.). It is not nec­es­sary to cov­er all 100% of the floor sur­face of the room: even for the main heat­ing, 75–80% of the total footage.

Under elec­tric film heaters on the screed, a sub­strate with a heat-reflect­ing effect, cov­ered with a met­al­lized lavsan or polypropy­lene film, is usu­al­ly placed. When lay­ing under soft floor cov­er­ings (linoleum, car­pet andetc.), you can use a heat-reflect­ing mate­r­i­al with a soft lay­er, for exam­ple, “Infraflex” or “Ener­goflex Super TP”. ATin areas sub­ject to high mechan­i­cal stress, under ceram­ic tiles, porce­lain stoneware, par­quet and par­quet boards, it is rec­om­mend­ed to lay a mate­r­i­al with a sol­id lay­er (say, a rolled cork or Infraflex with a thick­ness of 3mm). The heat-reflect­ing mate­r­i­al is laid on a pre­pared flat floor sur­face, which must be cov­ered with a film. Then the sheets of mate­r­i­al are fas­tened with foil tape. After the sur­face is pre­pared, the film can be laid direct­ly on it. It is advis­able to do this along the length of the room- then there will be more sol­id strips and few­er points for con­nect­ing mount­ing wires (indi­vid­ual pieces of film must be con­nect­ed to each oth­er using wires in order to sup­ply elec­tric­i­ty to each of them). The strips of film must be attached with mask­ing tape to the reflec­tive mate­r­i­al so that they do not move dur­ing fur­ther lay­ing of the floor­ing. Film cut lines in the area of ​​cop­per cur­rent-car­ry­ing con­duc­tors must be insu­lat­ed- for this, the bitu­mi­nous insu­la­tion includ­ed in the kit is used.

The ther­mo­stat is rec­om­mend­ed to be placed near the elec­tri­cal wiring (if the sys­tem pow­er is less than 2kW and no spe­cial wiring is required for its con­nec­tion). It is mount­ed on the wall, in the most con­ve­nient place for the user (next to sock­ets), so that in the future it does not inter­fere with arrang­ing fur­ni­ture and house­hold appli­ances. Most often, the reg­u­la­tor is installed per­ma­nent­ly, as an elec­tri­cal out­let for hid­den or out­door wiring, how­ev­er, it is con­ve­nient to con­nect some mod­els to an exist­ing out­let using a cord. The floor tem­per­a­ture sen­sor is installed under the ther­mal film, clos­er to the ther­mo­stat, and fixed on the black strip of the film (under the car­bon paste) with adhe­sive tape. To lev­el the floor under the fin­ish coat, a groove (recess) is made in the heat-reflect­ing mate­r­i­al.

Slim Solution

Instal­la­tion of the film under­floor heat­ing “Kaleo” begins with the fact that a mate­r­i­al with a heat-reflect­ing effect is laid on a lev­eled base (a). The heat­ing film is cut into strips of the desired size (strict­ly along the lines on the film) and laid on the ther­mal insu­la­tion (b, c). Mount a ther­mo­stat with a flat floor tem­per­a­ture sen­sor (d). FROMusing a spe­cial tool, elec­tri­cal con­tacts are installed on the film (e). The film seg­ments are switched in par­al­lel, the wire con­nec­tion points are insu­lat­ed (e, g). The sys­tem is con­nect­ed to the net­work (h).

As a top­coat, “crown­ing” the floor heat­ing sys­tem based on a heat­ing film, you can use a lam­i­nate, ceram­ic tile or car­pet (i‑l). For reli­able adhe­sion between the pri­ma­ry screed and tile adhe­sive, when lay­ing tiles on top of the heat­ing film, a fiber­glass mesh with 5–20 cells is mount­edmm, point­wise attach­ing it to the pri­ma­ry screed

A qual­i­fied elec­tri­cian must con­nect the ther­mo­stat and pow­er sup­ply, and he, as a rule, uses a spe­cial tool. Con­tact clamps are installed on the ther­mal film using a small press or tongs (these can always be pur­chased from film sup­pli­ers- approx­i­mate­ly 600rub. each item). After con­nect­ing the sup­ply wire, it is nec­es­sary to iso­late the con­tact points with a bitu­men-based mate­r­i­al, which pro­vides elec­tri­cal and water­proof­ing of the con­nec­tion. Before lay­ing the floor cov­er­ing, you should turn on the sys­tem and set a com­fort­able floor tem­per­a­ture, check the con­nec­tion points of the instal­la­tion wires with a probe, as well as the effec­tive­ness of the insu­la­tion along the cut line, heat­ing each strip of ther­mal film. Floor cov­er­ings that do not require addi­tion­al screed are placed direct­ly on the ther­mal film.

In order to ensure adhe­sion between the pri­ma­ry screed and the mor­tar under the tile when lay­ing the tiles on the cement-adhe­sive mor­tar, it is rec­om­mend­ed to use a con­struc­tion mesh made of steel wire with a diam­e­ter of about 2mm or fiber­glass with cells 5–20mm. The mesh, laid over the ther­mal film, is point­wise attached to the pri­ma­ry screed and fix­es the cement-adhe­sive sur­face under the tile.

Mirac­u­lous stair­case

“Rel­a­tive” of film heaters- floor infrared heat­ing sys­tem Uni­mat (3G, Korea). Out­ward­ly, it looks like a rope lad­der. steps- These are graphite-sil­ver heat­ing rods with a length of about 83see, cov­ered with a com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al based on poly­ester. ATthe role of the ropes to which the steps are attached are cop­per mul­ti­core cables with a diam­e­ter of 2.5mm in heat-resis­tant insu­la­tion. Uni­mat is used both for the main and addi­tion­al heat­ing of apart­ments and coun­try hous­es, and in addi­tion, for heat­ing sur­faces adja­cent to the pool bowl, floors of baths and even open spaces (ter­races, bal­conies andetc.). The reduced ther­mal pow­er of the sys­tem in the eco­nom­i­cal ver­sion is 105W/m2in stan­dard- 140W/m2. Being a self-reg­u­lat­ing sys­tem, Uni­mat auto­mat­i­cal­ly changes the amount of heat gen­er­at­ed depend­ing on the ambi­ent tem­per­a­ture and nev­er over­heats. The length of the heater reach­es 30m. It is mount­ed in a cement-sand screed with a thick­ness of 20–30mm. The ser­vice life of the “warm stairs”, accord­ing to man­u­fac­tur­ers, exceeds 50 years. It costs about 1800rub./rm. m.

In addi­tion to car­bon film heaters, there are also mod­els based on woven fab­rics. For exam­ple, the Sin­Plen elec­tric heater (“Sin­ion”, Europe- Italy) is a com­po­si­tion based on- fab­ric with resis­tive heat-gen­er­at­ing threads woven into it, con­nect­ed in par­al­lel to two woven elec­tri­cal­ly sup­ply­ing tires. The fab­ric is secure­ly sealed between two lay­ers of durable lavsan film. The most pow­er­ful Sin­Plen (type C, 350W/m2) is designed to heat a room when installed under a car­pet cov­er­ing 20–25% floor sur­face. With an area equal to the size of the car­pet, it is able to pro­vide even the main heat­ing of the room with good ther­mal insu­la­tion. Retail heaters are con­nect­ed to a wall-mount­ed ther­mo­stat and have a pow­er cord for con­nec­tion to an out­let. The cost of a can­vas with an area of ​​1.5onem2- about 1.30 $. On Sin­Plen, the man­u­fac­tur­er pro­vides a 3‑year war­ran­ty.

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