Heating mat Millimat (Nexans) in apartments is most often installed under ceramic tiles. The height of the room is reduced by no more than 10–20mm
Heating mat Thermomat (Thermo)
Steam, often generated in the bathroom, settles on the surface of the mirror and adversely affects its coating. The Devimat heating mat installed behind it on the wall will help protect the mirror from fogging.
Non-programmable thermostats PT007M (a) and PT007G (b) (CCT), as well as ECO16FRJ © (Ensto
Low profile underfloor heating system with “cold” flooring (ceramic tiles, porcelain stoneware andetc.) in the living room is most welcome. It can be installed without a visible height difference in relation to adjacent (unheated) rooms
The heating core of traditional resistive cables is usually made of nichrome (a), feeding (for two-core models)- from copper (b). The cores are protected by XLPE or Teflon insulation © and a shielding braid made of wire (d), on top of which a PVC sheath is installed (e)
In a room heated by convectors, it is cool in the lower zone, and overheated air accumulates under the ceiling and drafts are possible (a). When using a low profile underfloor heating system, the room no longer blows, and the temperature regime is close to ideal (b)
Tropix kit (CCT) includes a mat based on a two-core cable, a RoomStat 110 thermostat, a corrugated tube, instructions and a CD
The underfloor heating system must be chosen strictly following the flooring manufacturer’s recommendations. This will help avoid both overheating and underheating.
Architect I.Kapran PhotoTO.Manko
Heating elements of the film Infraheat (Polarheat)- not graphite stripes, but foil 0.2 thickmm
As a heat-reflecting material, foil polyethylene foam is used (a). It is delivered to the customer in rolls (b)
Thickness of ThermoSoft mats of the “Economy” series- 2mm, and “Premium”- 3mm. The former are most often laid directly under the laminate, on a base plate previously covered with a thin layer of thermal insulation. In this case, the mat mesh should be on top, and the heating cable- from below: under the weight of the laminate and furniture, it will be pressed into the thermal insulation
Mats “Premium” are placed directly on the screed, in places intended for heating. To equalize the height of the remaining sections of the floor (on which there will be massive furniture, household appliances andt.e.) use “cold” tracks of addition with a thickness of 3mm. You can lay linoleum or laminate on top
An interesting method of laying the “Economy” heating mat based on a heat-fiber cable directly into the adhesive layer on which the parquet board or parquet is mounted. A heating mat is rolled out on a plywood base: cable- top, mesh- below (a). Glue is poured directly onto the mat, evenly distributed over the surface with a rubber spatula (b) and … immediately proceed to the installation of parquet ©
There are many technologies for arranging underfloor heating, however, not all of them are equally good for a typical high-rise building. ATIn this article, we will talk about technical solutions that can fit into a city apartment during its overhaul or redecoration.
In a high-rise building, water heated floors, as a rule, are unacceptable, and the traditional electrical system, which requires the installation of thermal insulation and pouring two screeds,- difficult: she eats about 10–15cm of the height of the room, increases the load on the floors, and the timing of its manufacture is large (usually more than 1 month). When redecorating an apartment, in our opinion, it is more profitable to give preference to underfloor heating systems of small thickness (let’s call them low-profile).
It is reliably known that people use warm floors in their homes, as they say, “from Romulus to the present day.” This is one of the most successful inventions in the field of home improvement in the history of mankind. ATRecently, underfloor heating systems have become especially popular. ATa house with underfloor heating does not need slippers. When you come in from the street, especially in the cold winter season, you just want to quickly take off your shoes and touch your feet to the floor tiles or laminate that radiate soft warmth. Since the temperature of the floor covering (about 27–29
A high level of comfort in an apartment or house with underfloor heating is ensured not only by the tangible heat of the floor surface, but also by the most rational distribution of heat along the height of the room. The air temperature in the room changes uniformly in height (no more than 1–2
Installation of the Devimat mat (
The mat is rolled out on the cleaned floor surface (a), when changing the laying direction, the reinforcing mesh (not the cable!) is cut (b, c).
Tile glue is applied to the laid mat, allowed to dry, covered with a layer of glue again and the tile is laid (d, e)
After installing heating systems of small thickness, the floor surface rises to a small height (from 1 to 10–20mm). Installation takes from several hours to 2–7 days. ATin urban apartments, such systems are mainly used in addition to batteries, a heated towel rail in the bathroom. So, in a spacious kitchen, sometimes 1–2 is enoughm2 underfloor heating (at the sink). The specific thermal power of the system, as a rule, is 60–150W/m2. But in country houses with a reliable power supply system, a thin warm floor is able to provide basic (without the help of other types of heaters) heating of all rooms. Its specific power can reach 400W/m2 and this is quite enough to heat the home even in severe frosts when laying on less than 70–80% of the entire floor area.
If you want to organize the main heating on the basis of a heating cable, then there is only one limitation- power supply limit of a country house. The cost of purchasing and installing a thin underfloor heating is 800‑5000RUB/m2 (as the heated area increases, the cost of equipment usually decreases). This is quite comparable to the cost of buying 1m2 quality ceramic tiles. If the system is used for comfort heating 3–6m2 floor in the bathroom, it consumes approximately 50–150 kW
Electric heating mats
In EU, electric heating mats are well known. ATas a low profile system, they are ideal for rooms where the heated area is small (kitchen, bathroom and toilet where the floor is finished with ceramic tiles or porcelain stoneware). With the help of mats in the apartment, you can equip underfloor heating with minimal loss of room height without significant costs and construction debris. BUTsometimes the flooring is not even removed: the heating mat is laid directly on the old ceramic tiles, concrete or wooden floor, covered with a layer of glue and laid on top of a new tile (the so-called “wet” mat installation technology). The level of the floor with a new floor covering will rise by only 10–15mm, so you don’t have to cut the door leafs, raise the thresholds. Systems based on electric heating mats can be used immediately after the tile adhesive has hardened (after 2–7 days), while refusing to install a screed can significantly save on materials (approximately 200–250RUB/m2). With proper installation, mats will last you up to 50 years.
The mat is a fiberglass mesh with a cell of approximately 10
From the depths of centuries
ATIin.n.e. in ancient Rome, one of the world’s first underfloor heating systems was widespread- hypocaust. It was used in baths (Roman baths) and for heating residential houses of the nobility. The stove, located under the building, heated the air in the basement. At first, along with smoke from burnt firewood, hot air moved through horizontal channels under the floors, warming their coating to a comfortable temperature. Then, from underground channels, it flowed into channels inside the walls, which also heated up. Only after that, the products of combustion mixed with air
Mats are usually sold in the form of kits packed in beautiful boxes for arranging a warm floor. In addition to the mat, the kit includes a thermostat with a floor temperature sensor, an insulating corrugated tube for the sensor, installation and operating instructions. The thermostat, as a rule, is the simplest, with manual adjustment of floor heating. If you want your thermostat to have the function of programming by the days of the week (this will allow you to set daily and weekly programs for maintaining the floor temperature), to control two or more mats alone, or to be mounted on a DIN rail in the electrical cabinet of the apartment, then such a device will have to be purchased separately.
On the European market, you can find mats from manufacturers such as Ceilhit (Spain),
Among the suppliers of mats based on a two-core cable, one can note, for example, Thermo. ATThermomat thin underfloor heating set includes heating mat TVK with a capacity of 130 or 180W/m2 and area 1–8m2 based on a two-core shielded cable with a diameter of 2.8mm. ATretail network it can be purchased for 2.2–10.30 $. Millimat (Nexans) heating mats with a mesh width of 400 or 800 are distinguished by excellent consumer properties.mm, power density 80 or 130W/m2 and a total capacity of 150‑1000Tue They come with an OJ Electronics thermostat. The cost of mats- approximately 4.2–9.70 $. The Eltek Electronics company produces sets of underfloor heating based on Spyheat SHMD heating mats with an area of 0.5–3m2 (4.4–6.20 $).
ATSST assortment includes mats with an area of 1–15.3m2 both on the basis of a single-core heating cable (“Teplolux-MiNi”), and on the basis of a two-core cable (Tropix). Their price is very reasonable: for example, a set based on a mat with an area of 2m2 costs about 3.5–40 $.
Electric mats are a ready-made structure that does not require laying and fixing the heating cable to the floor surface, so their installation is extremely simple and carried out without complicated calculations. The mat can be easily cut into fragments (without violating the integrity of the cable), which allows it to be laid out on any rectangular surface. Andnevertheless, it is necessary to start the installation by reading the instructions for laying the underfloor heating. If the heating mat has failed prematurely and the installation recommendations have not been followed, the manufacturer has every right to refuse you warranty service.
Metal conductors based on alloys such as nichrome used in resistive cables of heating mats have a limited plasticity resource. During installation and possible subsequent shrinkage of buildings (especially new buildings), microcracks often form in them. ATas a result of the constant alternation of heating and cooling of the cable, the cracks gradually expand and the heating core is prematurely destroyed. Manufacturers claim that the mats “live” up to 50 years or more, and these terms are maintained, but only with strict adherence to the installation technology and the absence of movement in the building structure. BUTwhen European builders and master finishers get down to business, these conditions are difficult to fulfill in the houses they have built. Therefore, none of the domestic installation companies specializing in the installation of heating mats based on cables with a metal heating core will give a guarantee for their work for more than two years…
Mats based on ThermoSoft International Corporation (USA) thermal fiber cables, according to manufacturers, are not so demanding on the quality of installation and minor movements in the building structure. Thermal fiber cables are almost entirely made up of polymers. Instead of a nichrome core, they use an elastic polymer thread with a melting point of 160–170
ThermoSoft heating mats are produced for dry and damp rooms. All the technologies used in their laying allow you to create low-profile systems.
Thermal fiber mats “under the tiles” with a specific power of about 120W/m2width 0.5m and an area of 0.75–2m2 cost 2.3–60 $. They are mounted according to the classical “wet” technology of laying mats in accordance with the name. Mats “Economy” with a capacity of 70W/m2 can be laid under the parquet board and parquet directly into the adhesive layer on which these floor coverings are installed. Besides, their installation in the “dry” way (without glue) directly under a laminate and a parquet is possible. The cost of mats (roll width- 0.5m) is 3–7.50 $, heated area- 1–2.5m2. Well, “Premium” mats with a capacity of about 70W/m2 they are laid under laminate, parquet board, as well as under carpet, carpet, linoleum and other coatings that significantly impair heat removal from the heating core. Each of them is a finished sandwich made of a layer of non-woven material such as felt, on which a shielded heating cable based on thermal fiber is serpentine, and on it, in turn,- Armofol sheet (foil-based material), which ensures uniform distribution of heat over the surface of the mat. The number of mats necessary for heating the room is selected so as to cover the entire area that will have to be heated. Where furniture is supposed to be installed, heating mats are not laid. Instead, they use a material of similar thickness, pre-ordered according to individual sizes (the so-called dobor tracks). The standard width of Premium mats is 0.3–1m. Heated area- 1.5–3m2. Price-
The thermal fiber cable, which forms the basis of the heating mats, has a low power input (4.5–9.5W / m), which allows you to heat rooms without a thermostat. When connecting, it is enough to install an RCD and a voltage regulator.
Of course, mats based on thermal fiber cable have their drawbacks. So, due to the high resistance of the polymer thread, one mat cannot heat an area of more than 3m2 (the largest mats with cables based on a metal core, as we have already noted, are enough for 15.3m2). To heat a large space, you need to use several mats. The manufacturer does not offer cable repair kits in case of cable failure.- the burnt core must be connected with the help of an improvised conductor, for example, copper wire. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the heat-fiber mats, according to the manufacturer, are still working flawlessly.
The list of low profile floor heating systems is not limited to heating mats. Fast growing market segment- film heaters (heating film), which can be mounted in a “dry” or “wet” way.
When “dry” laying under the laminate, the system based on film heaters practically does not affect the height of the floor. The thickness of the heating film installed over the substrate, directly under the coating, usually does not exceed 0.5–1.5mm. Installation of the system under the laminate (even if it is already laid in the room and skirting boards are installed) is very fast- a maximum of one day, “without noise and dust.” Warming up the laminate film will be much more efficient than the traditional cable system in a thick screed, which spends energy to overcome the thermal barrier between the screed and the flooring created by the substrate under the laminate. In general, it is possible to lay the film in a “dry” way under almost any coating, for example, under linoleum, carpet, wooden grooved and non-grooved boards andt.e. In the “wet” way, the film is mounted under the tiles in the bathroom or kitchen; at the same time, the heated room loses in height approximately 10mm. Compared to electrical wiring in an apartment, the film is characterized by a negligible level of electromagnetic radiation and increased power density (up to 400W/m2).
The heating elements in a film heater are most often strips of carbon (carbon) paste soldered between layers of polyester or lavsan- in fact, it is a crushed lead with various additives. They are supplied with a mains voltage of 220 through copper or copper-silver (more resistant to oxidation) conductors.B. The strips are connected to the conductors in parallel.
Modern film heaters are compact, simple and easy to install and operate, fireproof. According to manufacturers, they can withstand significant mechanical stress. Accidental damage to any section of the carbon strips does not affect the performance of the system. With “dry” installation, the system can be transferred from one room to another. The temperature on the surface of the film heater is a maximum of 60–80
Most of the thermal energy is emitted from the film surface in the wavelength range of 5–20 µm. This practically coincides with the wavelength of the bioresonant range of thermal radiation of the human body (8–10 microns). ATmedicine, the phenomenon of bioresonance thermal radiation has been studied in detail and its healing effect on the body has been noted. An increase in the intensity of the formation of negatively charged ions in the room where the film floor heating works (that is, the film acts as an air ionizer) has been documented. As you know, moderate (no more than 500$ pieces / cm3) air saturation with negative ions has a beneficial effect on the human body, and also helps to purify the room atmosphere from unpleasant odors (tobacco, paint andt.d.).
Among the shortcomings of film heaters (in particular, those made in China), one can note the very doubtful design of the contact between the supply wire and copper conductors in the film from the point of view of reliability. An accidental puncture of the heater with a metal object in the area of copper conductors (especially the one to which the phase wire is connected) can lead to electric shock, including due to moistening of the damaged area. AndGod forbid you hammer a nail into the current-carrying bus … Therefore, it is best to mount the film under the laminate (and even more so under the carpet or linoleum) through an RCD with a trip current of 30 mA (if such a device does not serve the entire electrical wiring of the apartment). FROMWe were not able to get acquainted with the results of life tests of film heaters, but, according to the manufacturers, the film can work for 50 years or more. It is known that the systems installed 5–8 years ago in cottages and apartments in Korea have fully retained their performance to date.
Of those presented on the market, we note first of all the sets of underfloor heating from the company “Kaleo” (Europe) based on the heating film PowerFilm (Korea). ATthe kit includes a film prepared for installation with an area of 1–20m2 in a roll 500 widemm, electrical wires, insulation and installation instructions. The buyer selects each set individually, taking into account the size and floor area, type of room, heating option, type of coverage andt.e. The specific power of a warm floor can be 150, 220 or 400W/m2- this is quite enough to organize both additional and main heating of any room. The cost of the kit depends mainly on the size of the heating film and is 1.2–1.70 $m2 (the smaller the film area, the higher its price). Separately, only a thermostat with a flat floor temperature sensor and heat-reflecting material are purchased.
On the market today you can also find components sold separately for underfloor heating film from other manufacturers, such as Flexel (Great Britain). This company produces “heating foil” Fenix Ecofilm with a power density of 60, 80, 150 and 200W/m2. So, Fenix Ecofilm F 608 with a power density of 80Tue/m2 recommended for arranging a warm floor under a laminate (approximately 1.20 $ / m2roll width- about 600mm). Similar in size to Fenix Ecofilm F 615 with a power density of 150W/m2 it is quite possible to lay under ceramic tiles in the bathroom (1.360 $ / m2). Often there are advertisements for the sale of Mirae Heater Film (Korea) worth about 10 $ / m2the maximum specific power of which is 240W/m2as well as Sun-Power (Korea) andothers inIn EU, film heaters are produced, for example, in Pereslavl-Zalessky (“Lit”).
OLet’s talk about film editing in more detail. It is recommended to lay the heating film only on a free area, that is, not occupied by furniture and appliances (refrigerator, stove, kitchen wall, washing machine, wardrobe andt.d.). It is not necessary to cover all 100% of the floor surface of the room: even for the main heating, 75–80% of the total footage.
Under electric film heaters on the screed, a substrate with a heat-reflecting effect, covered with a metallized lavsan or polypropylene film, is usually placed. When laying under soft floor coverings (linoleum, carpet andetc.), you can use a heat-reflecting material with a soft layer, for example, “Infraflex” or “Energoflex Super TP”. ATin areas subject to high mechanical stress, under ceramic tiles, porcelain stoneware, parquet and parquet boards, it is recommended to lay a material with a solid layer (say, a rolled cork or Infraflex with a thickness of 3mm). The heat-reflecting material is laid on a prepared flat floor surface, which must be covered with a film. Then the sheets of material are fastened with foil tape. After the surface is prepared, the film can be laid directly on it. It is advisable to do this along the length of the room- then there will be more solid strips and fewer points for connecting mounting wires (individual pieces of film must be connected to each other using wires in order to supply electricity to each of them). The strips of film must be attached with masking tape to the reflective material so that they do not move during further laying of the flooring. Film cut lines in the area of copper current-carrying conductors must be insulated- for this, the bituminous insulation included in the kit is used.
The thermostat is recommended to be placed near the electrical wiring (if the system power is less than 2kW and no special wiring is required for its connection). It is mounted on the wall, in the most convenient place for the user (next to sockets), so that in the future it does not interfere with arranging furniture and household appliances. Most often, the regulator is installed permanently, as an electrical outlet for hidden or outdoor wiring, however, it is convenient to connect some models to an existing outlet using a cord. The floor temperature sensor is installed under the thermal film, closer to the thermostat, and fixed on the black strip of the film (under the carbon paste) with adhesive tape. To level the floor under the finish coat, a groove (recess) is made in the heat-reflecting material.
Installation of the film underfloor heating “Kaleo” begins with the fact that a material with a heat-reflecting effect is laid on a leveled base (a). The heating film is cut into strips of the desired size (strictly along the lines on the film) and laid on the thermal insulation
As a topcoat, “crowning” the floor heating system based on a heating film, you can use a laminate, ceramic tile or carpet (i‑l). For reliable adhesion between the primary screed and tile adhesive, when laying tiles on top of the heating film, a fiberglass mesh with 5–20 cells is mountedmm, pointwise attaching it to the primary screed
A qualified electrician must connect the thermostat and power supply, and he, as a rule, uses a special tool. Contact clamps are installed on the thermal film using a small press or tongs (these can always be purchased from film suppliers- approximately 600rub. each item). After connecting the supply wire, it is necessary to isolate the contact points with a bitumen-based material, which provides electrical and waterproofing of the connection. Before laying the floor covering, you should turn on the system and set a comfortable floor temperature, check the connection points of the installation wires with a probe, as well as the effectiveness of the insulation along the cut line, heating each strip of thermal film. Floor coverings that do not require additional screed are placed directly on the thermal film.
In order to ensure adhesion between the primary screed and the mortar under the tile when laying the tiles on the cement-adhesive mortar, it is recommended to use a construction mesh made of steel wire with a diameter of about 2mm or fiberglass with cells 5–20mm. The mesh, laid over the thermal film, is pointwise attached to the primary screed and fixes the cement-adhesive surface under the tile.
“Relative” of film heaters- floor infrared heating system Unimat (3G, Korea). Outwardly, it looks like a rope ladder. steps- These are graphite-silver heating rods with a length of about 83see, covered with a composite material based on polyester. ATthe role of the ropes to which the steps are attached are copper multicore cables with a diameter of 2.5mm in heat-resistant insulation. Unimat is used both for the main and additional heating of apartments and country houses, and in addition, for heating surfaces adjacent to the pool bowl, floors of baths and even open spaces (terraces, balconies andetc.). The reduced thermal power of the system in the economical version is 105W/m2in standard- 140W/m2. Being a self-regulating system, Unimat automatically changes the amount of heat generated depending on the ambient temperature and never overheats. The length of the heater reaches 30m. It is mounted in a cement-sand screed with a thickness of 20–30mm. The service life of the “warm stairs”, according to manufacturers, exceeds 50 years. It costs about 1800rub./rm. m.
In addition to carbon film heaters, there are also models based on woven fabrics. For example, the SinPlen electric heater (“Sinion”, Europe- Italy) is a composition based on- fabric with resistive heat-generating threads woven into it, connected in parallel to two woven electrically supplying tires. The fabric is securely sealed between two layers of durable lavsan film. The most powerful SinPlen (type C, 350W/m2) is designed to heat a room when installed under a carpet covering 20–25% floor surface. With an area equal to the size of the carpet, it is able to provide even the main heating of the room with good thermal insulation. Retail heaters are connected to a wall-mounted thermostat and have a power cord for connection to an outlet. The cost of a canvas with an area of 1.5