The sewer network is an important component of everyday life, which creates comfortable living conditions. Through pipelines, wastewater is transported to external pipelines to special equipment that processes and purifies wastewater. The domestic sewage system is divided into internal and external, which are located respectively inside the house and in the open area.
Features of laying sewer pipes indoors
Sewerage laying at a separate facility (apartment, private house) begins with the design of an internal sewerage network with reference to the premises. The calculation and determination of the material of pipes, their number and type of equipment is carried out.
In the apartment
Laying a network of sewer pipes in an apartment building practically does not differ from a similar system in a private house, however, it has its own characteristics. Before wiring and installing plumbing, a preliminary layout of the sewage system is made, which includes the location of plumbing fixtures, the angle of inclination of the system, pipe sizes, etc.
The installation of a sewer pipeline inside the premises begins with plumbing fixtures and is laid through ceilings or walls to the point of exit from the building.
When installing, there should be a minimum number of bends and turns so as not to provoke blockages. Proper installation has a small number of connections and maintains the required angle of inclination, which ensures self-cleaning of the line. When connecting, the pipes must be inserted until they are completely abutted, the sockets are placed along the flow of the drains. Upon completion of installation, the tightness of the system is checked in the areas of wiring and docking with risers.
In a private house
Laying a sewerage system in a private house begins with drawing up a plan for a private house. It is designed strictly individually, taking into account the features and location of all rooms. The location of the riser or header pipe must be precisely determined, after which other parts of the system can be designed. Riser
mounted directly inside the house in an open or closed way. Wiring is connected to the plumbing equipment (bath, sinks, showers, etc.) from the vertical structure, siphons and revisions are installed in the appropriate places.
The internal sewerage device provides for the placement of a fan pipe, which is installed on the riser and brought to the roof of the house. At the junction, a revision is mounted, after which they are led out to the attic at an angle. It should be located away from windows and doors (at least 4 m), at different levels with a chimney and general ventilation. Through the internal sewerage system, waste water is discharged through the basement or the space under the floor to the outside into the septic tank.
In the country
Within the suburban area, as a rule, an autonomous sewer system is organized that does not have access to a centralized highway. Installation of internal systems in the room is similar for both an apartment and a country house. The external sewer network consists of a pipeline that discharges wastewater to a storage or treatment facility. Seasonal residence does not require the installation of complex and expensive equipment, so the function of collecting wastewater is performed by a septic tank or cesspool.
One of the options for waste disposal are biological treatment plants, which are the most modern and efficient equipment.
Features of laying a pipeline in the ground
When arranging sewerage in the ground, first of all, environmental characteristics and the type of terrain are determined, which affect the design of engineering communications. The main factors for system development are:
- Soil feature. It is necessary to establish the characteristics and composition of the soil to determine the method of laying sewers, as well as to calculate the number of rises and slopes of the main.
- Climatic conditions determine the ways and methods of organizing thermal insulation.
- Ground water level. The location and amount of groundwater are of decisive importance for the design of the sewage system and the location of underground utilities.
- The volume of wastewater is calculated based on the number of people who will operate the sewer, as well as the number of organizations and enterprises connected to the system.
An important factor is also the determination of the distance from engineering networks to any buildings, treatment facilities and pumping stations.
What pipes can be used
The material and profile is selected in accordance with the existing project of the waste system.
Cast iron products do not lose their relevance due to their low price and durability.
They are resistant to loads and temperature extremes, but are subject to corrosion. Modern technologies create anti-corrosion coatings that increase the life of the product. Cast iron pipes are heavy, so the trenchless laying of the sewerage system will require special equipment and support personnel to create an engineering structure. When performing external sewerage, cast iron products must be provided with thermal insulation.
In recent decades, sanitary products made of PVP and PVC have appeared, which are not inferior in their properties to metal ones. They are much lighter, so installation with such products is easier. When installing an internal system in a bathroom or bathroom, it is better to use PVC pipes. Polyethylene and polypropylene pipes are more suitable for outdoor systems. The advantage of plastic is that they practically do not accumulate deposits.
Asbestos pipes are resistant to aggressive environments. In the aquatic environment, asbestos only gets stronger over time. In addition, under the influence of the flow of water on the inner surface of the pipes there is no overgrowth. Installation of the asbestos system is not difficult, but it is sensitive to mechanical stress. You need to be careful when transporting and installing them. Protection must be provided to prevent subsidence and fractures. Asbestos products are not recommended for use in sandy soil, as they have low resistance to sand.
Rules for laying sewerage according to SNIP. Laying technology
Engineering communications are installed in compliance with established norms and standards (SNIP 2.04.03–85), which ensures proper waste disposal and an increase in the service life of all elements included in this system.
One of the main parameters when laying pipes is determining the depth of the trench. This takes into account the level of soil freezing in winter, which, in accordance with the standards, should be 30–50 cm higher than the depth of soil freezing, from the ground surface to the top of the pipe -
not less than 70 cm. On soils with a high load, under the roadway, the depth of the sewerage is increased to 0.9–1 meter.
The width of the trench should be 40 cm larger than the diameter of the pipe to be installed. At the exit of the pipeline from the internal system and the approach to the septic tank, the trench is slightly expanded for the convenience of installation work.
In the process of laying the sewerage system under the foundation, the optimal slope of the main line is observed, which is 1–2 cm per linear meter. In the absence of a slope, blockages appear in the system, since wastewater will not move.
Laying a sewer system under the foundation is used when it is not possible to bring out the sewer pipe in the base.
You can do the work yourself. To do this, you will need the following tools:
- Perforator. They punch holes directly. A set of nozzles with long nozzles should also fit with it.
- Drill manual with replaceable drills.
- A hammer.
- Welding machine or soldering iron for soldering pipes.
After the preparatory work, the scheme of work will be as follows:
- The angle of inclination of the drilling site is calculated.
- An inclined well is being drilled.
- A case for the pipeline is placed in the resulting hole.
- The last step is to mount the engineering structure as a whole.
The placement of manholes is provided every 25–35 m of the pipeline at bends and other problem areas where there is a high probability of blockage. Such a device allows timely repair work and replacement of equipment.
Laying a storm sewer trench requires serious soil compaction. Thus, washout of communications during rains is prevented. The bottom of the trench is covered and compacted tightly with a layer of sand 15 cm high. The pipes are also covered with a layer of sand from above.
Sewerage is installed under the foundation if the foundation does not go very deep into the soil. Pipes are laid below the freezing level of the soil, the distance to the foundation must be at least 5 meters. The pipeline is brought directly into the sewer trench and connected to the external system in the “bell” way or using fittings. Pipes must be metal, since significant mechanical stress due to subsidence of the foundation should be taken into account.
Installation of sewerage under the pile-screw foundation is carried out in untouched soil. To avoid subsidence of the soil, sand is additionally poured into the trench and it is compacted tightly. The joints are slightly undermined to maintain the straightness of the pipes.
In addition, it is necessary to observe the optimal distance from the sewer pipe to the screw pile so that the soil around the pile does not become loose. If the laying is made shallow (up to 70 cm), then in order to avoid damage, the pipeline should be insulated.
The main stages of laying
Work on the creation of a waste system is carried out according to the following scheme:
- In accordance with the project, a trench is dug using construction equipment or manually with a shovel. The trench starts from the foundation of the house or the outlet of the pipeline, on which it is put on a socket.
- The bottom of the trench is leveled, rammed and a sand cushion is made. Why a layer of sand of 15 cm is moistened with water and compacted tightly.
- The pipeline is being laid, with the sockets pointing down to facilitate the connection.
- The pipeline is assembled by lubricating the pipe edges with a special agent (sealant, etc.) for better sliding of the parts. On the product, you can make marks that will control the correct connection. Before installation, rubber sealing cuffs are inserted into the socket.
- When laying the pipeline, you should try to use less bends and turns, for which bends with angles of 15–45 degrees are used. Inspection hatches are installed at the joints and areas of potential clogging.
- After the assembly is completed, the correct slope is checked. If the depth of laying the pipe passes above the level of soil freezing, then work is carried out to insulate the object. For this purpose, mineral wool, cylindrical basalt insulation or a heating cable is used, which is laid simultaneously with the pipe.
- Start filling up the trench. The pipes are gradually covered with sand, carefully compacted, and then covered with a layer of soil extracted earlier. Each layer of earth 10–15 cm thick is compacted, soil can be compacted only on the sides of the pipeline. This should not be done over pipes in order to avoid damage or deformation of the product.
For proper laying of sewage with their own hands, experts recommend:
- It is unacceptable to use a lubricant that is not intended for the sewer system. Internal surfaces should not be lubricated.
- When installing an internal sewage system in a room without heating, pipe insulation is used.
- The throughput of a pipe depends on its diameter.
- It is not recommended to shorten sockets and fittings.
- To ensure the correct slope, the pipes must be fixed.
- The lifetime of the system is determined by its tightness.
Thus, the choice of installation method for the sewer system depends on the place and region of residence, landscape design features, the presence of groundwater and the material from which the pipes are made.