The subtleties of installing a solid fuel boiler in a private house

Installing a sol­id fuel boil­er (TT) can sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the cost of heat­ing a home. With the right approach, you can save not only dur­ing oper­a­tion, but also at the stage of instal­la­tion work, by doing it your­self.

The basic require­ments and sub­tleties of installing boil­er equip­ment will be dis­cussed in this pub­li­ca­tion.

Boiler room: convenience or necessity?

in a pri­vate house does not require spe­cial per­mits and can be car­ried out with your own hands, but you should be pre­pared to arrange a fur­nace room: a sep­a­rate, well-ven­ti­lat­ed, made in com­pli­ance with all fire safe­ty rules. Now about every­thing in more detail.

Installation of a solid fuel boiler in a private house

Impor­tant! Based on SNiP 42–01-2002. the pres­ence of a sep­a­rate boil­er room is required for heat­ing equip­ment with a pow­er of more than 60 kW. With less pow­er, the equip­ment can be installed in the kitchen at home. In this case, the vol­ume of the room must be at least 15 m3and the ceil­ing height is 2.5 m.

Despite some finan­cial invest­ment, most home­own­ers It’s all about the pos­si­ble release of car­bon monox­ide and dirt from the use of sol­id fuels.

Impor­tant! If you plan to use a sol­id fuel boil­er plant with a pow­er of 60 to 150 kW, then instal­la­tion can be car­ried out in any sep­a­rate room of the house (and on any floor), with a vol­ume of at least 15 m3. If the pow­er of the boil­er unit exceeds 150 kW, then the instal­la­tion must be car­ried out in an annex or a sep­a­rate room on the first (or base­ment) floor. The vol­ume of the boil­er room is not less than 15 m3.

There are a few gen­er­al require­ments that you should pay atten­tion to. The fur­nace room must:

  • have a win­dow for ven­ti­la­tion. Glaz­ing area is stan­dard­ized: 0.03 m2/ 1m3 room vol­ume.
  • be equipped with a smoke exhaust sys­tem;
  • be equipped with a ven­ti­la­tion, sew­er­age and water sup­ply sys­tem;

Foundation

Do not place the boiler on a wooden baseIt is nec­es­sary to say a few words about the base on which the TT equip­ment is installed.

  • For boil­er units up to 50 kW, a screed can be used as a base.
  • For equip­ment with a pow­er of more than 50 kW, a sep­a­rate con­crete foun­da­tion is required, which is not con­nect­ed with the base of the house.
  • The foun­da­tion must pro­trude at least 250 mm beyond the boil­er plant.

in a wood­en house does not dif­fer in any spe­cial require­ments, with the excep­tion of the use of floor mate­ri­als. Do not install the TT boil­er on a wood­en base.

Tip: If a sep­a­rate foun­da­tion for a boil­er instal­la­tion is not pro­vid­ed in a wood­en house, then it can be made of refrac­to­ry bricks, on which a sheet of asbestos and met­al is laid. The base must be at least 150 mm larg­er than the CT of the boil­er. from each side. In front of the load­ing door, the met­al must extend beyond the heat­ing sys­tem by at least 200 mm.

The prob­lem is relat­ed to the large weight of pow­er­ful heat­ing instal­la­tions and the vibra­tion loads that boil­ers equipped with a screw con­vey­or for fuel sup­ply exert on the HP sup­port.

Impor­tant! To ensure the nec­es­sary fire resis­tance (45 min.), fur­naces must be made of non-com­bustible mate­ri­als.

Ventilation

Boiler room ventilationThe key to prop­er com­bus­tion of fuel in TT equip­ment is high-qual­i­ty and reli­able nat­ur­al fuel, which is cal­cu­lat­ed based on the pow­er of the boil­er plant and the dimen­sions of the fur­nace room. In most cas­es, for boil­er equip­ment with a pow­er of up to 35 kW, it is enough to orga­nize:

  • sup­ply open­ing with grat­ing, sec­tion 300/300 mm in the low­er part of the wall oppo­site the boil­er)
  • exhaust open­ing with a grate, sec­tion 400/400 mm at a height not more than 30 cm from the ceil­ing.

Impor­tant! The sup­ply and exhaust ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem in the boil­er room is nec­es­sary: ​​in the process of fuel com­bus­tion, a vac­u­um is cre­at­ed, which is com­pen­sat­ed by the sup­ply air. The hood is need­ed to remove com­bus­tion prod­ucts that have entered the fur­nace room.

Let’s digress a lit­tle, because we want to inform you that we have com­piled a rat­ing of sol­id fuel boil­ers by mode. You can learn more from the fol­low­ing mate­ri­als:

Chimney

Any boil­er equip­ment in which ther­mal ener­gy is pro­duced by burn­ing fuel must be equipped with a chim­ney. As a rule, a smoke shaft is laid at the design stage of a build­ing. If a sta­tion­ary chim­ney is not pro­vid­ed in the fur­nace, then it should be mount­ed inde­pen­dent­ly. Most often, stain­less steel sand­wich mod­ules are used for this, which are dou­ble-walled, insu­lat­ed sec­tions of the chim­ney, which are eas­i­ly assem­bled into a sin­gle struc­ture.

The fig­ure shows three options for arrang­ing a chim­ney for a TT boil­er plant.

Chimney arrangement optionsBasic require­ments for a chim­ney:

  • The cross sec­tion of the flue pipe must be con­stant through­out. For house­hold mod­els, this is 150 — 200 mm2.
  • Bends and slopes of the chim­ney are not allowed. In case of emer­gency, a dis­place­ment of no more than 1 m is allowed with a site slope of no more than 30 °.
  • Joints of sec­tions (sand­wich mod­ules) should not pass inside the ceil­ing.
  • The height of the chim­ney must pro­vide a vac­u­um in the boil­er of at least 10 Pa.

Impor­tant: Mod­ern roof­ing mate­ri­als pro­vide a high fire resis­tance. To pre­vent fires, it is rec­om­mend­ed to equip chim­neys with a spark arrester.

Stages of installation work

Above, the issues relat­ed to the boil­er room were con­sid­ered: orga­ni­za­tion of the instal­la­tion site for the TT boil­er, ven­ti­la­tion and smoke exhaust sys­tems. So, how to install a sol­id fuel boil­er in the house?

  1. Remove the fac­to­ry pack­ag­ing and assem­ble the equip­ment accord­ing to the doc­u­men­ta­tion.

    Tip: Do not install or con­nect automa­tion and attach­ments until the boil­er unit is ful­ly installed on the foun­da­tion.

  2. Place the boil­er on the pre­pared base so that the flue gas out­let is oppo­site the flue duct.
  3. Secure the unit to the foun­da­tion using a lev­el.
  4. Con­nect the TT heat gen­er­a­tor to the smoke extrac­tion sys­tem.
  5. Install the fan, automa­tion on the boil­er.

This is fol­lowed by the stage of con­nect­ing the device to com­mu­ni­ca­tions, the heat­ing sys­tem and the pip­ing, accord­ing to the select­ed scheme. This should be con­sid­ered in more detail.

Wiring diagrams

There are sev­er­al schemes for pip­ing a boil­er instal­la­tion, which are imple­ment­ed depend­ing on the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the home heat­ing sys­tem.

Solid fuel boiler connection diagram

The scheme for con­nect­ing a sol­id fuel boil­er to a grav­i­ty-type heat­ing sys­tem is as fol­lows: “sup­ply” and “return” are con­nect­ed direct­ly to the boil­er unit. At the “sup­ply” a safe­ty group is installed, con­sist­ing of a pres­sure gauge, a blast valve and an air vent. The expan­sion tank is mount­ed at the high­est point of the heat­ing sys­tem. The main advan­tage of this scheme is ener­gy inde­pen­dence.

Con­nect­ing a sol­id fuel boil­er to a closed heat­ing sys­tem with forced cir­cu­la­tion requires a three-way valve that will pre­vent low tem­per­a­ture coolant from enter­ing the boil­er instal­la­tion.

One of the options for this scheme may include an indi­rect heat­ing boil­er to cre­ate a cot­tage hot water sys­tem. A pop­u­lar solu­tion in a TT boil­er cir­cuit is the use of a heat accu­mu­la­tor. This scheme can be imple­ment­ed in con­junc­tion with an indi­rect heat­ing boil­er and a “warm floor” cir­cuit.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1z6OOs3WdH4&feature

As a con­clu­sion: Based on SNiP, after con­nect­ing to com­mu­ni­ca­tions and pip­ing the boil­er unit, it is nec­es­sary to car­ry out hydraulic tests under a pres­sure of 1.3 kg / cm2. Only after inspect­ing the sys­tem for leaks and inspect­ing the boil­er can a test run of the equip­ment and adjust­ment of the ther­mo­stat be car­ried out.

Installing a sol­id fuel boil­er in a pri­vate house does not require spe­cial knowl­edge and spe­cif­ic work, but we strong­ly rec­om­mend entrust­ing this work to pro­fes­sion­als. The dura­bil­i­ty of the equip­ment and the micro­cli­mate in your home depend on com­pe­tent instal­la­tion.

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